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  • 1.
    Rogoz, Vladyslav
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Sumy State Univ, Ukraine.
    Pshyk, Oleksandr V.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Wicher, Bartosz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    High-mass metal ion irradiation enables growth of high-entropy sublattice nitride thin films from elemental targets2023Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 41, nr 6, artikel-id 063108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of high-entropy sublattice nitride (HESN) coatings by magnetron sputtering is typically done using custom-made alloyed targets with specific elemental compositions. This approach is expensive, requires long delivery times, and offers very limited flexibility to adjust the film composition. Here, we demonstrate a new method to grow HESN films, which relies on elemental targets arranged in the multicathode configuration with substrates rotating during deposition. TiVNbMoWN films are grown at a temperature of similar to 520(degrees)C using Ti, V, Nb, and Mo targets operating in the direct current magnetron sputtering mode, while the W target, operated by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), provides a source of heavy ions. The energy of the metal ions EW+ is controlled in the range from 80 to 620 eV by varying the amplitude of the substrate bias pulses V-s, synchronized with the metal-ion-rich phase of HiPIMS pulses. We demonstrate that W(+ )irradiation provides dynamic recoil mixing of the film-forming components in the near-surface atomic layers. For EW+ >= 320 eV the multilayer formation phenomena, inherent for this deposition geometry, are suppressed and, hence, compositionally uniform HESN films are obtained, as confirmed by the microstructural and elemental analysis.(c) 2023 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

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  • 2.
    Sroba, Viktor
    et al.
    Comenius Univ, Slovakia.
    Viskupova, Katarina
    Comenius Univ, Slovakia.
    Wicher, Bartosz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Rogoz, Vladyslav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Xiao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mikula, Marian
    Comenius Univ, Slovakia; Slovak Acad Sci, Slovakia.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cross-ionization of the sputtered flux during hybrid high power impulse/direct-current magnetron co-sputtering2024Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 42, nr 2, artikel-id 023410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved ion mass spectrometry is used to analyze the type and the energy of metal-ion fluxes during hybrid high-power impulse/direct-current magnetron co-sputtering (HiPIMS/DCMS) in Ar. The study focuses on the effect of HiPIMS plasma plumes on the cross-ionization of the material flux sputtered from the DCMS source. Al, Si, Ti, and Hf elemental targets are used to investigate the effect of the metal's first ionization potential IPMe1 and mass on the extent of cross-ionization. It is demonstrated that the interaction with HiPIMS plasma results in the significant ionization of the material flux sputtered from the DCMS source. Experiments conducted with elements of similar mass but having different IPMe1 values, Si and Al (Si-HiPIMS/Al-DCMS and Al-HiPIMS/Si-DCMS) reveal that the ionization of the DCMS flux is favored if the sputtered element has lower ionization potential than the one operating in the HiPIMS mode. If elements having similar IPMe1 are used on both sources, the metal mass becomes a decisive parameter as evidenced by experiments involving Ti and Hf (Ti-HiPIMS/Hf-DCMS and Hf-HiPIMS/Ti-DCMS). In such a case, Ti+ fluxes during Hf-HiPIMS/Ti-DCMS may even exceed Hf+ fluxes from the HiPIMS cathode and are much stronger than Hf+ fluxes during Ti-HiPIMS/Hf-DCMS. The latter effect can be explained by the fact that heavier Hf+ ions require longer transit time from the ionization zone to the substrate, which effectively increases the probability of interaction between the Hf-HiPIMS plasma plume and the Ti-DCMS flux, thereby leading to higher Ti ionization. Thus, the common notion of low ionization levels associated with DCMS has to be revised if DCMS is used together with highly ionized plasmas such as HiPIMS operating at higher peak target currents. These results are particularly important for the film growth in the hybrid configuration with substrate bias pulses synchronized to specific ion types.

  • 3.
    Strzelecki, G. W.
    et al.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, Poland.
    Nowakowska-Langier, K.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, Poland.
    Mulewska, K.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, Poland; Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Poland.
    Zielinski, M.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Poland.
    Kosiska, A.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Poland.
    Okrasa, S.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, Poland.
    Wilczopolska, M.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, Poland; Natl Ctr Nucl Res, Poland.
    Chodun, R.
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Wicher, Bartosz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Mirowski, R.
    Natl Ctr Nucl Res NCBJ, Poland.
    Zdunek, K.
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Multi-component low and high entropy metallic coatings synthesized by pulsed magnetron sputtering2022Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 446, artikel-id 128802Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the findings of the synthesis of multicomponent (Al, W, Ni, Ti, Nb) alloy coatings from mosaic targets. For the study, a pulsed magnetron sputtering method was employed under different plasma generation conditions: modulation frequency (10 Hz and 1000 Hz), and power (600 W and 1000 W). The processes achieved two types of alloy coatings, high entropy and classical alloys. After the deposition processes, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques were employed to find the morphology, thickness, and chemical and phase compositions of the coatings. Nanohardness and its related parameters, namely H-3/E-r(2), H/E, and 1/(ErH)-H-2 ratios, were measured. An annealing treatment was performed to estimate the stability range for the selected coatings. The results indicated the formation of as-deposited coatings exhibiting an amorphous structure as a single-phase solid solution. The process parameters had an influence on the resulting morphology & mdash;a dense and homogenous as well as a columnar morphology, was obtained. The study compared the properties of high-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings and classical alloy coatings concerning their structure and chemical and phase composition. It was found that the change of frequency modulation and the post-annealing process contributed to the increase in the hardness of the material in the case of HEA coatings.

  • 4.
    Wicher, Bartosz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Chodun, Rafal
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lachowski, Artur
    Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Trzcinski, Marek
    Bydgoszcz Univ Sci & Technol, Poland.
    Pshyk, Oleksandr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krol, Krystian
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Kulikowski, Krzysztof
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Skowronski, Lukasz
    Bydgoszcz Univ Sci & Technol, Poland.
    Zdunek, Krzysztof
    Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Carbon ion self-sputtering attained by sublimation of hot graphite target and controlled by pulse injection of a neon-helium gas mixture2023Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 620, artikel-id 156708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The operation of graphite targets with an increased temperature (HT - hot target) is studied for the case of gas injection magnetron sputtering (GIMS) of: 1) diamond-like carbon (DLC), and 2) carbon-silicon carbide (C-SiC) films. A purposely-thinned graphite target with a reduced thermal conductivity is applied for DLC deposition, extending its high temperature sputtering range up to 1636 degrees C. For the purpose of C-SiC synthesis four sockets with a silicon carbide powder are designed within graphite target. In this approach, the C-SiC target surface can be heated up to 1443 degrees C due to a greater energy input from impulse plasma, in the range 322-932 J. The HT sputtering is energy-controlled by a pulsed injection of a neon-helium gas mixture. High-energy Ne+ and He+ ions extend the length of pulsed GIMS discharge due to the self-sputtering effect observed during the deposition of DLC and C-SiC films. These conditions result in an almost 5-fold increase in the film growth rate (up to 185 nm/min) with respect to the operation with a cold target, which is due to the assisting vapour sublimation from custom-designed graphite-based targets. The temperature boosted HT GIMS discharge, proves to be an efficient tool for reaching relatively high (similar to 35 %) sp(3)-hybridized C content in both carbon-based materials. It also allows for tailoring the energy bandgap of DLC-based optical structure, in the range from 1.7 to 2.75 eV, due to the formation of the (C-C) and (C-O) bonds. Higher content of silicon oxide (SiO2-x) and silicon carbide (SiC) phases (15 - 23 %) in the case of C-SiC films results in hardness increase from 21.8 to 30.1 GPa.

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  • 5.
    Wicher, Bartosz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Pshyk, Oleksandr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Empa Swiss Fed Labs Mat Sci & Technol, Switzerland.
    Li, Xiao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bakhit, Babak
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rogoz, Vladyslav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Superhard oxidation-resistant Ti1-xAlxBy thin films grown by hybrid HiPIMS/DCMS co-sputtering diboride targets without external substrate heating2024Ingår i: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 238, artikel-id 112727Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti1-xAlxBy films (0.40 <= x <= 0.76, and 1.81 <= y <= 2.03) combining good mechanical properties and high-temperature oxidation resistance are demonstrated. Layers are grown using a hybrid high-power impulse and dc magnetron co-sputtering employing two target configurations (AlB2-HiPIMS/TiB2-DCMS and TiB2-HiPIMS/AlB2-DCMS) and no external substrate heating. Near-stoichiometric B content are achieved by co-sputtering two diboride targets. Time-resolved ion mass spectrometry analyses reveal that the ionization of the DCMS flux (Al) is much higher during TiB2-HiPIMS/AlB2-DCMS. The effect is caused by the difference in the first ionization potentials and the ionization probabilities of sputtered metals and results in lower B/metal ratios in films grown in this configuration. The B/metal ratio in the single-phase Ti1-xAlxBy decreases with increasing Al content, which is explained by the change between angular distribution of Ti and Al atoms. Alloying with Al improves the high-temperature oxidation resistance: the thickness of the oxide-scale forming after 1 h anneal at 800 degrees C decreases more than 15 times upon increasing x from 0.36 to 0.74. Ti1-xAlxBy films with 0.58 <= x <= 0.67 offer the best compromise between high-temperature oxidation resistance and mechanical properties with an average oxide scale thickness 90-180 nm and the hardness of 34-38 GPa.

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