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  • 1.
    Aronsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Cederblad, MarianneDahl, GudrunOlsson, LarsSandin, BengtLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Barn i tid och rum1984Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En antologi med 10 artiklar av författare från olika discipliner. Utifrån teoretiker som Ariès, Bourdieu, Berger och Luckmann, Freud, Mead, Piaget m.fl. belyser författarna barns villkor förr och nu och där arbete och fritid flyter samman.

  • 2.
    Aronsson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The sun match boy and plant metaphors. A Swedish image of a 20th-century childhood.1996Ingår i: Images of childhood / [ed] C. Philip Hwang, Michael E. Lamb, Irving E. Sigel, Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates , 1996, s. 185-202Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    de Conink-Smith, Ning
    et al.
    Department of Education. Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schrumpf, Ellen
    Högskolan i Telemark, Norway.
    Industrious Children: Work and Childhood in the Nordic Countries 1850-19901997Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's work is a controversial subject both in the sciences of sociology and history. It does not accord well with the modern idea of a good childhood - that children actually work. Children ought to spend their time playing and attending school. The historians' interest has focused on industrial child labour - its emergence and its disappearance. But relatively few children worked in industry. Far more children were employed in agriculture and retail trade, if they did not help at home or at the neighbour's. Sometimes they received pay - other times not - and they often worked on the edge of the law.The articles in this book examine children's work from the mid-1800's and until the 1990's, because children's work is not a closed chapter in history. But, the character and social function of the children's work have been changed over time. This anthology is the result of an inter-Nordic research project about children's work in the Nordic countries involving all the five Nordic countries

  • 4.
    Hallberg, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Pictured Political Projects: Sunshine Over a Welfare State in the Shadow of War2021Ingår i: Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, ISSN 1939-6724, E-ISSN 1941-3599, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 85-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Children had a prominent position in welfare discourse in Sweden during the 1930s and 1940s. In this article, the visual display of children in a pamphlet published by the Swedish wartime coalition government is scrutinized. It was a negotiated position, marked by important political compromises, but at the same time on terms identifiable as postwar social-democratic welfare visions, in which government, professionals, and institutional support is of major importance. The images and text tell a narrative of the state, as the direct supporter of children without mediation through the family.

  • 5.
    Holzscheiter, Anna
    et al.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Child rights governance: An introduction2019Ingår i: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 271-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this special issue, we explore child rights governance as the intersection between the study of governance and the study of children, childhood, and childrens rights. Our introduction puts forward a set of theoretical points of departure for the study of child rights governance, engaging with scholarship on human rights, international relations, history, and governance. It links the individual contributions to this special issue with four central dimensions of child rights governance, namely: temporality, spatiality, subjectivity, and normativity.

  • 6.
    Holzscheiter, Anna
    et al.
    Technical University Dresden, Germany.
    Josefsson, JonathanLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.Sandin, BengtLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Childhood: Special issue, Child rights governance2019Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Inledning: Barn, unga och demokrati2022Ingår i: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 124, nr 2, s. 333-348Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige uppmärksammar vi nu 100-årsjubiléet av införandet av allmän och lika rösträtt 1918–1921. Sedan reformerna i början av 1900-talet har rösträtten och valbarheten utvidgats och fler grupper har getts möjlighet till demokratiskt deltagande. Samtidigt som denna expansion av medborgarskap har inkluderat fler grupper än tidigare kvarstår begränsningar i demokratiskt deltagande för andra. Inte minst gäller detta i relation till de ca 20 % av Sveriges befolkning under 18 år som inte har rösträtt och inte är valbara till politiska församlingar eller som partiföreträdare. Barns och ungas demokratiska och politiska representation har i stället tagit andra vägar. Inrättandet av Barnombudsmannen, Elevombudsmannen och Myndigheten för ungdoms och civilsamhällesfrågor, liksom implementeringen av barnkonventionen i sektorer som skola, vård, socialt arbete och kommunalt organiserade ungdomsråd har tydligt markerat att man från statsmaktens sida sett ett behov av att formalisera representationen av den unga grupp i samhället som inte har rösträtt eller är valbar till politiska församlingar. Vi har i det här temanumret samlat ett antal empiriska och teoretiska undersökningar om barn och ungas egna demokratiska deltagande och hur de representeras av andra i en samtida demokrati som Sverige. På detta sätt vill vi bygga vidare på de pågående kritiska diskussionerna inom statsvetenskapen om demokrati och representation och en växande mängd studier om barn, unga och politik. Vi vill därmed också peka på några av de möjligheter som ett särskilt fokus på barn och unga som politiska subjekt kan erbjuda för vår grundläggande förståelse av demokrati och politisk representation. 

  • 8.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandin, BengtLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tema: Barn, Unga och demokrati2022Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ungas röst som hot eller möjlighet?: Rösträtts- och valbarhetsålder i Sverige under 1900-talet2019Ingår i: Arbetarhistoria : Meddelande från Arbetarrörelsens Arkiv och Bibliotek, ISSN 0281-7446, ISSN 0281-7446, Vol. 2-3, nr 170-171, s. 17-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med det tidiga 1900-talets rösträttsreformer blev ålder en central måttstock på politiskt medborgarskap. I början av 1900-talet höjdes rösträtts och valbarhetsåldrarna för att sedan steg för steg sänkas till 18 år 1974. Förändringarna speglade en förändrad syn dels på ungdomars mognad och ansvar, dels på ungdomens bidrag till samhället.

  • 10.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ålder som måttstock för politiskt medborgarskap: rösträtts- och valbarhetsålder i Sverige under 1900-talet2021Ingår i: Allmän rösträtt?: rösträttens begränsningar i Sverige efter 1921 / [ed] Annika Berg, Martin Ericsson, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2021, s. 157-189Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hundra år efter införandet av så kallad allmän och lika rösträtt betraktas rösträtten fortfarande som en nyckel för demokratins genombrott och utveckling. Under den allmänna och lika rösträttens hundraåriga historia har olika begränsningar av rösträtten steg för steg avskaffats för att möjliggörapolitiskt deltagande för fler grupper. För svenska medborgare finns emellertid en betydandebegränsning av rösträtten kvar, nämligen ålder. Den grupp av unga människor och barn under 18 årsom idag utgör cirka 20 procent av Sveriges befolkning saknar rösträttoch är inte valbar till kommuner, landsting eller riksdag. Rösträtts- och valbarhetsåldern, som varit oförändrad sedan 1970-talet, kan idag förefalla självklar. Men som denna historiska tillbakablick kommer att visa så har höjningar och sänkningar av rösträtts- och valbarhetsålder varit ett återkommande inslag i den demokratiska utvecklingen och i högsta grad varit föremål för en livlig politisk debatt. Med detta kapitel vill vi dels ge en översikt över de förändringar av rösträtts-och valbarhetsåldern som har ägt rum under 1900-talet, och dels närmare analysera de sammanhang under vilka förändringarna ägde rum. Vilka argument framfördes i samband med förändringarna av åldersgränser? Vilka aktörer var drivande? Vilken syn på barn och ungas roll i samhället aktualiserades? På detta sätt vill vi uppmärksamma hur åldersgränser under 1900-talet kom att bli en avgörande måttstock för politiskt medborgarskap och ett uttryck för hur demokratiseringsprocesser inte bara inneburit en utveckling mot att inkludera nya grupper avmedborgare, utan också kommit att exkludera grupper av medborgare, i detta fall på grundval av ålder.

  • 11.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hanson, Karl
    University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Balagopalan, Sarada
    Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA.
    Representing Children2023Ingår i: The Politics of Children’s Rights and Representation / [ed] Sandin Bengt, Josefsson Jonathan, Hanson Karl, Balagopalan Sarada, Palgrave Macmillan , 2023, 1, s. 1-28Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Lindenmeyer, Kriste
    et al.
    University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    National Citizenship and Early Policies Shaping 'the Century of the Child' in Sweden and the United States2008Ingår i: Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth, ISSN 1939-6724, E-ISSN 1941-3599, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 50-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Kriste Lindenmeyer and Bengt Sandin have employed fruitfully a comparative approach to examine Progressive era American and Swedish ideals for children. They found that while both began with similar enthusiasm for protecting childhood and providing all children with education and health care, the actual policies of neither country wound up delivering on the promise of "the century of the child." As they write, in both countries "adult priorities overwhelmed public policies." Like the recent UNICEF report on the conditions of global childhood, this essay reminds us that while the virtues of western-style childhood have been assumed and, indeed, have been the model against which historians traditionally have measured other childhoods, these assumptions need rethinking, both as to the relative value of other cultural constructions of childhood as well as to the belief that western childhood has actually delivered on its promises.

  • 13.
    Littmarck, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lind, Judith
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Negotiating Parenting Support: Welfare Politics in Sweden between the 1960s and the 2000s2018Ingår i: Social Policy and Society, ISSN 1474-7464, E-ISSN 1475-3073, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 491-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Parent education surfaced as a political question in Sweden in the 1960s and support for parents has since remained on the political agenda. Despite different views on the ideal relationship between the welfare state, the family and children, support for parents has been advocated by parties from all over the political spectrum. By tracing the political debate, this article addresses the question of how the notion of support for parents was adapted to different political ideas, ideologies and ways of defining the relationship between state, family and children from the 1960s until the 2000s in Sweden. We analyse the arguments that different political parties offered and the varying meanings attributed to terms like ‘parent education’ (föräldrautbildning) and ‘parenting support’ (föräldrastöd) during three different phases in the transformation of the Swedish welfare state: the final period of its expansion in the 1960s and 1970s; the economic crisis and retrenchments of welfare services in the 1990s; and the era of individual responsibility in the 2000s. Support for parents has been actualised as a solution to different social and political problems and the notions of parent education and parenting support have proven the capacity to accommodate different political ideas, ideologies and visions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Qvarsell, Roger
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Den tvärvetenskapliga erfarenheten2000Ingår i: Den mångfaldiga historien: Tio historiker om forskningen inför framtiden / [ed] Roger Qvarsell & Bengt Sandin, Lund: Historiska media , 2000, s. 57-78Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om den historiska forskningen under 1970-talet var starkt inriktad på socialhistoria så upplevde politisk historia och kulturhistoria en renässans under 1980-talet. Idag är gränserna mellan forskningsområdena mer flytande och akademiker samarbetar ofta över ämnesgränserna.  I Den mångfaldiga historien diskuterar framträdande svenska historiker vad som egentligen kännetecknar ämnet av idag. Finns det fortfarande en kärna inom forskningen som alla historiker bör ha en viss förtrogenhet med? Och vart är ämnet på väg?Det är högaktuella och tänkvärda bidrag som belyser mångfalden i dagens historiska forskning. Här skriver bland annat Eva Österberg om historikern och vår kulturella mångfald och Arne Jarrick tittar närmare på historieforskningen inför framtiden. Ann-Sofie Ohlander studerar psykoanalysens förhållande till historia, medan Birgitta Odén ställer historia och framtid mot varandra. Sverker Sörlin diskuterar miljöhistoriens repertoar och Kim Salomon analyserar symboler och ritualer i politisk samtidshistoria.

  • 15.
    Runcis, Maija
    et al.
    Historiska institutionen, Stockholms univeristet, Sweden.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Fågel, fisk eller mittemellan?: Utbildningsprogram som kulturellt och politiskt problem2006 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbildning i radio och tv har spelat en central roll i moderniseringen av samhället, och olika intressen har fått chansen att nå ut till en stor publik med sina budskap. Skolradion krympte kunskapsklyftorna, etablerade nya pedagogiska ramar och formade nya ämnesområden, och förändringens vågor nådde även den obligatoriska skolan.I den här boken ser författarna utbildningsprogrammen i radio och tv som en politisk förhandlingsarena och frågar sig bland annat om det var möjligt att inom samma programverksamhet inrymma både granskande journalistik och utbildning. De skriver om förhandlingen mellan staten och marknaden om utbildning i public service  en förhandling som har pågått sedan 1960-talet. Var fanns friheten  inom statens hägn eller utanför? Studien kastar nytt ljus över diskussionen om public service och mediemarknadens omgestaltning.

    I den här boken ser författarna utbildningsprogrammen i radio och tv som en politisk förhandlingsarena och frågar sig bland annat om det var möjligt att inom samma programverksamhet inrymma både granskande journalistik och utbildning. De skriver om förhandlingen mellan staten och marknaden om utbildning i public service en förhandling som har pågått sedan 1960-talet. Var fanns friheten inom statens hägn eller utanför? Studien kastar nytt ljus över diskussionen om public service och mediemarknadens omgestaltning.

  • 16.
    Runcis, Maija
    et al.
    University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Neither Fish nor Fowl: Educational Broadcasting in Sweden 1930-20002011Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    'The history of Swedish broadcast media' is a mulddisciplinary researchproject that began as a joint effort by the public broadcasting enterprises in Sweden and is still active under the administration of Stiftdsen Etermediernas Hisloria. It was initially divided into Threeprojects: 'Radio, TV, and authority'; 'Society, news, and audience'; and'Best room, playroom'. A separate research programme on educationalbroadcast media, financed by Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, UlbildningsRadion (UR), Stiftdsen Etermediernas Historia, and University of Linköping, ran between 1997 and 2006 and involved some twenty scholars. Professor Bengt Sandin at the University ofUnkiiping led the research programme and was responsible for its overall planning and design. The project resulted in seventeen anthologies and monographs, and a large number of articles. Sten-Åke Pettersson from UR served as the administrative head of the project, and brought valuable insight into the intricacies of media potitio; and its complicated history. The project also benefited immensely from an advisory committee with representatives from both academe and the educational media. The authors owe a debt of thanks to Lars Ag, Börje Dahlqvist, Sten-åke Pettersson, Gunilla Sterner-Kumm, and Jarl Torbacke for sharing their experiences and understanding of the processes studied. Together with the scholars who participated and wrote separate studies, we all formcd a vibrant and challenging multidisciplinary community, and the seminars and workshops were intellectually demanding and fun in equal measure. Thanks also to Charlotte Merton, who tnmslated the Swedish edition into elegant English, and Mark Davies, for the proofreading. We hope that this last book will convey some of the challenges. complications, and joys of coming to grips with the history and politics of educational media.

    Ladda ner (jpg)
    presentationsbild
  • 17.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Barn i välfärdslandet.  Politiska visioner och gränsen mellan familj och samhälle2021Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Barnuppfostran, föräldraskap och barns rättigheter: en studie av diskussionen kring agalagen 19791918Ingår i: Mellan Malmö och Minneapolis: Kulturhistoriska undersökningar tillägnade Lars Edgren / [ed] Victor Lundgren & Cecilia Riving, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 1918Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Book Review; Early Access: Mueller, Adeline. Mozart and the Mediation of Childhood in AUSTRIAN HISTORY YEARBOOK2023Ingår i: Austrian History Yearbook, ISSN 0067-2378, E-ISSN 1558-5255Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Arbetarrorelsens Arkiv Bibliotek, Sweden.
    Book Review: Tvakammarriksdagen 1867-1970: 100 in HISTORISK TIDSKRIFT, vol 143, issue 4, pp 686-6892023Ingår i: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, Vol. 143, nr 4, s. 686-689Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Children and the Swedish Welfare State: From Different to Similiar2012Ingår i: Reinventing Childhood After World War II / [ed] Paula Fass & Michael Grossberg, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press , 2012, s. 110-138Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Western world, the modern view of childhood as a space protected from broader adult society first became a dominant social vision during the nineteenth century. Many of the West's sharpest portrayals of children in literature and the arts emerged at that time in both Europe and the United States and continue to organize our perceptions and sensibilities to this day. But that childhood is now being recreated.  Many social and political developments since the end of the World War II have fundamentally altered the lives children lead and are now beginning to transform conceptions of childhood. Reinventing Childhood After World War II brings together seven prominent historians of modern childhood to identify precisely what has changed in children's lives and why. Topics range from youth culture to children's rights; from changing definitions of age to nontraditional families; from parenting styles to how American experiences compare with those of the rest of the Western world.Taken together, the essays argue that children's experiences have changed in such dramatic and important ways since 1945 that parents, other adults, and girls and boys themselves have had to reinvent almost every aspect of childhood.  Reinventing Childhood After World War II presents a striking interpretation of the nature and status of childhood that will be essential to students and scholars of childhood, as well as policy makers, educators, parents, and all those concerned with the lives of children in the world today.

  • 22.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Children, Health and The Body: Papers from a conference held at the Department of Child Studies 26 April 19961996Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This set of four papers, presented at the Conference: Children, Health and the Body, presents a range of considerations of issues in the study  of childhood. The day began with Alan Prout's paper; he discussed recent theoretical developments in the sociology of the body, and their usefulness for considering the case of children. The following three papers considered intersections of theory and empirical data; they focus sed on studies of children in relation to health, progressing through three ages of childhood. Sonja Olin Lauritzen considered mothers' accounts of health in their babies, in relation to theories of health and health care. Gill Bendelow took as her starting point the sociology of the emotions and discussed related issues in the embodied experiences of primary school age children. Shirley Prendergast took the case of girls and boys in secondary school to discuss the impact of social structures and group dynamics on young people's daily experience at school, with particular emphasis on the construction of gendered identities.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Children, Health and The Body: Papers from a conference held at the Department of Child Studies 26 April 1996
  • 23.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Coming to terms with Child Labor-History of Child Welfare Policy2009Ingår i: Child Labor World Atlas: a Reference Encyclopedia / [ed] Hugh Hindman, NY: M.E.Sharpe , 2009, 1, s. 53-56Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This definitive resource details both the current and historical state of child labor in each region of the world, focusing on its causes, consequences, and cures. Including contributions by an international team of child labor scholars, researchers, policy-makers, and activists, as well as a wealth of current statistical data, it is the most comprehensive reference available on the subject.

    The World of Child Laborprovides a current global snapshot with overview essays on the dimensions of the problem and on institutions and organizations combating child labor. Then it offers in-depth regional analyses covering developed, developing, and less developed areas of the world. The reference documents the contemporary and historical state of child labor within each major region (Africa, Latin and South America, North America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Oceania) including country-level accounts for nearly half of the world's nations.

    All country-level essays address specific facets of child labor, such as industries and occupations in which children commonly work, the national child welfare policy, occupational safety regulations, educational system, and laws. Most country-level essays include current data on such vital statistics as ratifications of UN and ILO conventions, the Human Development Index, human capital indicators, economic indicators, and national child labor surveys conducted by the Statistical Information and Monitoring Program on Child Labor.

  • 24.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    "Educating poor, rich, and dangerous children": the birth of a segregated school system in nineteenth-century Sweden2018Ingår i: Nordic childhoods 1700-1960: from folk beliefs to Pippi Longstocking / [ed] Reidar Aasgaard, Marcia Bunge, Merethe Roos, New York: Routledge, 2018, s. 131-146Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyzes the story and the historic roots of the parallel school system in Sweden in the early nineteenth century. It illustrates how educational changes and the conflicts over the organization of schools also shaped the changing understanding of the meaning of childhood. The chapter explores how the poor-relief authorities claimed access to the schools to solve their problems with the poor at the same time as educational reforms aimed to improve education for the middle classes. The education system outlined in the poor-relief plan for Stockholm meant not just economic sacrifices for the prosperous classes who financed it; it was also an attempt to limit the voluntary nature of the school and to create a compulsory institution. The school system and the poor-relief institutions were to be supported by rules about the policing of the poor relief.

  • 25.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Education2010Ingår i: A Cultural History of Childhood and Family: A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Age of Empire / [ed] Colin Haywood, Berg Publisher , 2010, Vol. Chapter 5: Education, nr The Age of Empire, 1800-1900Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A Cultural History of Childhood and Family presents an authoritative survey from ancient times to the present. This set of six volumes covers 2800 years of history, charting the cultural, social, economic, religious, medical and political changes in domestic life. 1. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in Antiquity Edited by Mary Harlow and Ray Laurence, both University of Birmingham 2. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Middle Ages Edited by Louise J. Wilkinson, Canterbury Christ Church University 3. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Early Modern Age Edited by Sandra Cavallo, Royal Holloway, University of London, and Silvia Evangelisti, University of East Anglia 4. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Age of Enlightenment Edited by Elizabeth Foyster, University of Cambridge, and James Marten, Marquette University, Milwaukee 5. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Age of Empire Edited by Colin Heywood, University of Nottingham 6. A Cultural History of Childhood and Family in the Modern Age Edited by Joseph M. Hawes, University of Memphis, and N.Ray Hiner, University of Kansas Each volume discusses the same themes in its chapters: 1. Family Relationships; 2; Community; 3. Economy; 4. Geography and the Environment; 5. Education; 6. Life Cycle; 7. The State; 8. Faith and Religion; 9. Health and Science; 10. World Contexts. This means readers can either have a broad overview of a period by reading a volume or follow a theme through history by reading the relevant chapter in each volume. Well illustrated, the full six volume set combines to present the most authoritative and comprehensive survey available on family and childhood through history.

  • 26.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Education, popular culture and the surveillance of the population in Stockholm between 1600 and the 1840s1988Ingår i: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 357-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    En skola för alla2024Ingår i: Nordbor: liv och rörelse under 500 år / [ed] Anna Arfvidsson Womack, Fredrik Svanberg, Ulrika Torell, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 2024, Vol. Sidorna 414-419, s. 414-419Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolans utveckling har varit en central del av den moderna samhällsomvandlingen. Den har förändrat barndomens och ungdomens innebörder men också relationen mellan generationerna. En allt längre utbildningsgång har bidragit till att skilja både barn och ungdomar från en traditionell vuxenvärld uppbyggd kring arbete.

  • 28.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Foetal identity redefined: notes on he changing identity of the foetus in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries2009Ingår i: Barn, barndom och föräldraskap / [ed] A-M Markström et al., Stockholm: Carlssons förlag , 2009, 1, s. 32-53Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Föräldraskap – ett konstant samhällsproblem2011Ingår i: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, nr 2, s. 58-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Great Power, Death, Childhood, and Culture: The relationship between the state-building, children and cultural change in Sweden in the latter half of the seventeenth century1995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Great Power, Death, Childhood, and Culture: The relationship between the state-building, children and cultural change in Sweden in the latter half of the seventeenth century
  • 31.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    History of Children and Childhood—Being and Becoming, Dependent and Independent2020Ingår i: American Historical Review, ISSN 0002-8762, E-ISSN 1937-5239, Vol. 125, nr 4, s. 1306-1316Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    History of Children’s Well-Being2013Ingår i: Handbook of Child Well-Being: theory, indicators, measures and policies / [ed] Asher Ben-Arieh, Ferran Casas, Ivar Frønes, Jill E. Korbin, Springer Netherlands, 2013, s. 31-86Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

       The well-being of children represents a challenge not yet fully confronted and The Handbook of Child Well-being supplies its readers with a thorough overview of the complexities and implications regarding the scientific and practical pursuit of children's well-being. The handbook addresses the concept of well-being through an in-depth analysis of the perspectives and vocabularies of various disciplines such as, philosophy, theology, psychology and sociology. It covers important issues in child well-being and the problems of the general politics of well-being as well as the implementation of interventional programs and measures. In addition the handbook deals with the methods of measuring well-being for a scientifically grounded understanding and also for policy-making. The interdisciplinary set up of the handbook makes it a unique work that offers readers from a vast scope of child-related disciplines and professions a profound overview of the complexities and implications of the scientific and practical pursuit of childrens well-being

  • 33.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Idealet var ett barn som skulle växa i frihet2012Ingår i: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 34.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Infanticide, abortion, children, and childhood in Sweden 1000-19802012Ingår i: The Routledge History of Childhood in the Western World / [ed] Paula S. Fass, London and New York: Routledge, 2012, s. 360-379Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The life course of women and men in most soc1et1es simply does not allow for childbirth and rearing during the entire period women are able to reproduce. Choices ha ve always been made not to ha ve children. Child bearing and the choices it involves have also been a source of social, cultural, and political conflict as the historiography of women, family, and fertility makes very clear. Yet it is also evident that revealing a society's attitudes towards infanticide and abortion, the subjects dealt with here, exposes the parameters of what is sanctioned or accepted as ways to limit reproduction in any particular society at any particular moment in time. Determining these restrictions has been central to policies on the regulation of populations practiced by the church, the state, government agencies, and civil society organizations such as medical societies and philanthropic organizations. Boundaries were also set by the norms developed in families and kinship networks. The negotiations related to these !imitations reflect not only the position of women and concepts of family, but they are also integrated into the understanding of children and childhood during different periods of time.

    Critical issues such as these have been addressed through legal changes, the development and use of church registers, the establishment of midwives, the refinement of statistical surveys, the spread of education, and the conscious development of family and population policy. In a wider context, the understanding of populationchange and analyses of sexual behavior also had a bearing on and interacted with the techniques and technology of governance as early as the introduction of Chnstianity, during the debates on the high rates of infanticide of the seventeenth century, during the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century discussions about the predicament of unwed mothers, and in the discussions on the rise of the welfare system <luring the early to mid-twentieth century. The alternatives that emerged over the course of the centuries - criminalization, moral sanctions, more lenient legislation, the use of welfare schemes, and information campaigns - all had relevance, but the development of new surveillance techniques and knowledge systems also formed and transformed the understandings of the identity of the fetus and the newly born. The conflicts during the introduction of the Christian church form the backdrop for this article, begmnmg with the early modern era. It continues through the pivotal legislative action of the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, and then discusses the political and sc1enufic premises on which the Swedish welfare system was created in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  • 35.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Kulturpolitik - mellan Moskva och New York1993Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 36.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Mechanism of Inclusion or Exclusion?2005Ingår i: 20th International Congress of Historical Sciences,2005, Sydney: CISH , 2005, s. ST26-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Medier och Modernisering - en antologi om utbildningsprogram1999Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 38.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    More children of better quality: Pricing the child in the welfare state2012Ingår i: Situating Child Consumption: Rethinking values and notions of children, chidlhood and consumption / [ed] Anna Sparrman, Bengt Sandin & Johanna Sjöberg, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2012, s. 61-70Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Om tilltal, bildspråk och samhällssyn i utbildningsprogrammen.2001Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    De båda studierna i den här boken visar hur estetik och tilltal är nära sammankopplade med bilden av välfärdssamhällets utveckling och förändring. I den första studien, "Samhällsbyggarnas tv-undervisning. Estetik och ideologi i utbildningsprogram för televisionen", ställer Ann-Kristin Wallengren frågan hur ett programs form och estetik hänger ihop med samtidens samhällsbild och ideologier. Genom analyser av ett antal samhällskunskapsprogram för skolbarn visar hon hur samhällsprogrammen har gått från en ganska auktoritär estetik över mjukisprogram till fiktiva och berättande former där människor själva får komma till tals. I den andra studien, "Hos främlingar och grannar i öster. Om tilltal och samhällsbilder i några utbildningsprogram", granskar Cecilia Wadensjö program i samhällsvetenskap och historia om grannländerna i öst och visar hur tilltalet förändras, bort från barnet som passiv mottagare av kunskap till den aktivt väljande och medskapande lyssnaren.

  • 40.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ordning, makt och samvete. C E Hagdahl och fängelsereformen under det tidiga 1800-talet2009Ingår i: Hagdahls smak, Stockholm: Carlssons förlag , 2009, s. 42-70Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 41.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Politik, påverkan och vägledning: Om barn, jämställdhet, mag och olycksfall i utbildningsprogrammen2003Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antologin är skriven inom ramen för forskningsprogrammet Välfärdsstat, medier och modernisering. Programmet syftar till att teckna sambanden mellan utbildningsprogrammen och förändringarna i välfärds- och utbildningspolitiken.

    Under sent 1960- och tidigt 1970-tal riktade politiken ett nyväckt intresse mot barn och barns villkor. En rad utredningar behandlade barns livsmiljö, hälsa och uppfostran. TRU:s förskolesektor var en del av denna verksamhet och hade i uppdrag att göra program för barn och vuxna.

    Anne-Li Lindgren behandlar hur förskolesektorn var delaktig i att formulera och föra ut välfärdsstatens nya bild av hur framtidens barndom skulle utformas och hur den skulle förändra såväl barns som föräldrars liv. Hon visar även hur en rad experter och professionella drogs in i denna process.

    Kopplingen mellan program och politik är tydlig också i Ulla B Abrahamssons studie av jämställdhetsprogrammen. Abrahamsson skriver om hur program om jämställdhet blev en del av Utbildningsradions satsningar, sambanden med de politiska aktörerna inom den offentliga jämställdhetsdebatten, och sambanden med den interna kulturen inom Utbildningsradion.

    Eva Gullbergs text visar att utbildningsprogram om mat och hushållning från 1940-talet kunde användas av lobbygrupper med kopplingar till den sociala sektorn för att lansera politiska projekt som anknöt till statsmaktens sociala ambitioner.

    Thomas Dahl skriver om hur utbildningsprogram om barns risker påverkades av en frivilligorganisation som hade bildats av ett antal läkare som såg utbildningsprogrammen som en lämplig kanal för sitt budskap. Utbildningsmedierna kan vara en öppning för aktörer utanför statsmakten att påverka samhällsutvecklingen och utbildningsutbudet.

  • 42.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Politikens åldersgränser: Rösträtt och valbarhet i Sverige från 1840-tal till 1920-tal2024 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Projektbeskrivningar vid Tema Barn1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Department of Child Studies was founded in 1988 to provide a research and learning environment geared toward the theoretical and empirical study of both children and the social and cultural discourses that define what children are and endow them with specific capacities, problems, and subjectivities. A specific target of research is the processes through which understandings of 'nonnal' children and a 'nonnal' childhood are constituted, and the roles that children and others play in reinforcing or contesting those understandings. The various research projects carried out at the department focus on understanding the ways in which children interpret their lives, how they communicate with others, and how they produce and/or understand literature, language, mass media and art. Research also documents and analyses the historical processes and patterns of socialization that structure the ways in which childhood and children can be conceived and enacted in various times, places and contexts.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Projektbeskrivningar vid Tema Barn
  • 44.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn.
    Scandinavian1991Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 45.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Schooling and state formation in early modern Sweden2020 (uppl. 1)Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book the emergence of schools in urban Sweden between the seventeenth and the nineteenth century provides the framework for a history of children and of childhood. It is a study through the lens of the changes in early modern education, spatial aspect of the life of children and systems of governance in the early modern Swedish state. Educational systems defined the spatial aspects of childhood--where children were supposed to grow up, in the home, the school, the streets and alleys, or the place of work--over a period of about two hundred years. Schools and education represent both a mental and a physical space; an abstract place for children as well as a local and concrete place for them, which stood out against the alternative spatial aspects of the life of children. It is also a study of how different cultural systems influence the definitions of childhood and schools, in the context of church and home instruction, poor relief, policing, surveillance, and the question of why children went to schools. It examines the role of the school as childcare and as a provider of food, shelter and welfare, and as governance.

  • 46.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Skapandet av det normala barnet1995Ingår i: Korsvägar: En antologi om möten mellan unga och institutioner förr och nu / [ed] Kerstin Bergqvist, Kenneth Petersson, Maria Sundkvist, Stockholm: Symposion Brutus Östlings bokförlag, 1995, s. 55-64Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Split Visions, Changing Childhoods and the Welfare state in Sweden: Reflections on the Century of the Child1995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first year of the twentieth century, Ellen Key wrote her book Barnets arhundrade (1900). It was a sharp attack on the way children were looked after, among both the upper classes and the working class. The book contained a vision of a better society, expressing the hope that the twentieth century would be, as the title put it, the century of the child. Other people shared her vision. The first decades of the twentieth century saw a great mobilization of private interests and municipal and state forces to rescue children from unsuitable environments and to improve their conditions. Much of the discussion bore the stamp of a conflict between different ideals of childhood, between the romantic useless childhood and the working child. Childhood has indeed taken on new meanings. Today childhood is a long period in a person's life in Sweden - youth unemployment are defined up to 26 years of age. Childhood is filled with schooling and organized leisure activities. Many children - a majority - spend their early years in some form of pre-school care from around one year of age. School though is not started until 6 or 7 years of age. There has been a dramatic change in the view of how to bring up the sort of children who would have been regarded as delinquent in the first decades of this century. There has also been a great change in the care and definitions of physically and mentally handicapped children. We have very little historical knowledge about these processes of change and perhaps not much about what new images of childhood are created as a consequence of these processes of change. It is obvious that new ideas about where and how children should spend their growing years were formulated by the new professional and political groups that emerged during the twentieth century. It is also clear that new ideals have been formulated by the commercial interests for whom children and parents are an important market. New and old media also create new images of children. State initiatives to safeguard the health and well-being of children, such as road safety information, also influence the picture of the child, as do the children we meet in literature intended for children. But these notions is not to be taken at face value. It is images that stand in conflict to each other and notions containing inner contradictions. Many questions can be asked. What indeed has the development during the twentieth century meant for the children? What were the unintended consequences of the welfare programmes that were launched? How were new reality and new visions shaped? How does this childhood look like and by whom was this new childhood created? How, for instance, does the picture of children in literature relate to the picture of children created in the writings of psychologists and medical doctors? How does the commercial exposition of children differ from the construction of the child in school and leisure organizations? How does school's picture of the child relate to the family's perception of childhood and to the practice that is developed within the " framework of the social welfare service? It is important to stress that childhoods is never unambiguous or homogeneously constructed. Most childhoods are built up with internal contradictions and conflicting messages. The romantic childhood, that of an innocent, free growing child was combined in reality with the requirement to spend many years in school - hardly a very free and unregulated perio d. There are naturally also differences in the perception of girls' and boys' childhoods. With this overall ambition I will present a synteses of changes of childhood during the 20th century as it is constructed by social, economic, and political processes. The debate about the conditions of children and young people often arises in our own day. It is often in terms which we recognize from Sweden at the turn of the century: the crisis of the family, the inadequacy of the home, the deficiencies of school, young people's behaviour in public places, and a supposed increase in criminality. Then as now, there were calls for more institutions for the growing generation, support and advice for families, and the need for school  reforms. It is therefore important to reflect about why children were or are singled out --in fact discovered -- as a political and social problem. For it is not just a matter of children who had real problems or who were a real problem. It is at least as much a matter of the emergence of new professional groups and about changed relations between adults and children, men and women, between different social classes, and about children's chances of obtaining work, or about children as an object of commercial interests. These are precisely why new ideals of childhood are created.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Split Visions, Changing Childhoods and the Welfare state in Sweden: Reflections on the Century of the Child
  • 48.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Swedish Childhoods from the Era of Great Power to the Welfare State2014Ingår i: Swedish Wooden Toys / [ed] Amy F. Ogata, Susan Weber, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2014, 1, , s. 26s. 9-35Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    "The Swedish toy industry has long produced vast quantities of colorful, quality wooden items that reflect Scandinavian design and craft traditions. This superbly illustrated book, including specially commissioned photography, looks at over 200 years of Swedish toys, from historic dollhouses to the latest designs for children. Featuring rattles, full-size rocking horses, dollhouses, and building blocks to skis, sleds, and tabletop games with intricate moving parts, Swedish Wooden Toys also addresses images of Swedish childhood, the role of the beloved red Dala horse in the creation of national identity, the vibrant tradition of educational toys, and the challenges of maintaining craft manufacturing in an era of global mass-production. " 

  • 49.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Century of the Child: On the Changed Meaning of Childhood in the Twentieth Century1995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first year of the twentieth century, Ellen Key wrote her book Barnets lirhulldrade. It contained a vision of a better society, expressing the hope that the twentieth century would be, as the title put it, the century of the child. Childhood was indeed to take on new meanings in the twentieth century. The overall aim of the present research project, "The Century of the Child", is to analyse how childhood has changed in the twentieth century. The project can be described as a' critical evaluation of the vision of the twentieth century as the century of the child. How was the new reality formed, and by what forces? We can outline a number of fields ofresearch where answers to these questions can be sought.

    To begin with, it is necessary to elucidate on a general level the fundamental social and economic conditions and the way they have changed in the twentieth century. There is also reason to examine the new professional groups involved in looking after children; what were the consequences of their action, both in their professional organizations and in state and local administration. It also goes without saying that children's relationship to institutions of various kinds is a central issue, as is the relation between spare time and organized leisure. To understand how the concept of childhood is constructed, it is also important not only to study how the professions act but also how childhood is presented in children's literature and the media, especially in film. The commercial picture of the child is also highly important; this picture sometimes agrees with and sometimes contradicts the picture obtained from the behaviour of other political agents. It is also worth while looking at the breakthrough of new scientific views of children's development in relation both to changes outside science and to the internal development within the sciences. The research programme, however, will not concentrate on charting children's conditions in a traditional sense, but will rather focus on a number oflimited problem areas of a multidisciplinary nature.

    The project will involve researchers from different disciplines, but it will have its base in the research carried on at Tema Barn in Linkbping. Tema Barn has an interdisciplinary orientation and a wide network of contacts with other research into children in Sweden. The project will run for six years. The first reports will start to appear in 1998. The final report on the entire project will come in 2000.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    The Century of the Child: On the Changed Meaning of Childhood in the Twentieth Century
  • 50.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The Creation of the Modern Child: Educational, Social Change, and the Discovery of Normality in Urban Sweden 1850-19101995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    What then is the answer to the question with which we began? Why did such a great debate arise about children's conditions? The reason can be found in the development within the framework of school which preceded the legislation on child labor and the development toward a comprehensive school. To begin with, the debate about child labor, and the social problems in the towns, meant that the school authorities were forced to define the ages between which children were supposed to go to school. This definition was not only established in the local statutes of the towns but was also raised to the national level. Many years were to elapse before the rural schools found it worth the bother of even trying to come close to the ages stated in the statutes. The decision meant not only that ages for school attendance were clearly stated but also that there was now a norm against which it was possible to measure deviations. The 1882 statute also made it possible to establish a more highly developed system for control of school attendance. The only problem was that, for a long time, there were so many deviations from the norm. Many children avoided school or absconded. Until there was a more fully developed system of national registration, it was not really possible to supervise the children who should have been attending school. Children were no longer allowed to be useful. They were no longer allowed to help out with practical tasks in the home or on the streets. They were regarded as idle if they did not go to school. Childhood took on a new meaning for these  children.

    At the same time, the middle class began to send their children to the public schools -- to schools for the people. For these groups, education was an important but burdensome way to reproduce . the family . These groups had already created a new childhood, and they wanted an education for their children. Private tuition was far too expensive. Yet they could hardly accept a school which was characterized by bad social conditions -- big classes, poor hygiene, and study of the catechism. In the struggle for a new content in school, their forces could be combined with those of the elementary school teachers, who had the ambition of establishing themselves as a profession. Towards the turn of the century, most children therefore attended the comprehensive schools at some stage of life. The different childhoods met in school and were made even more obvious. This drew attention to the different conditions of children, and teachers and philantropist, and later doctors, began to work together on projects to normalize the childhood of the working class, according to the model that had been established among the upper classes.

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    The Creation of the Modern Child: Educational, Social Change, and the Discovery of Normality in Urban Sweden 1850-1910
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