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  • 1.
    Baldvinsdottir, Tinna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Improved clinical management but not patient outcome in women with postpartum haemorrhage-An observational study of practical obstetric team training2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 9, article id e0203806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the most common obstetric emergency. A well-established postpartum haemorrhage protocol in the labour ward is crucial for effective treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate if practical obstetric team training improves the patient outcome and clinical management of PPH. Setting The practical obstetric team training (PROBE) at Linkoping University Hospital, Sweden, with approximate 3000 deliveries annually, was studied between the years of 2004-2011. Each team consisted of one or two midwives, one obstetrician or one junior doctor and one nurse assistant. Emergency obstetrics cases were trained in a simulation setting. PROBE was scheduled during work hours at an interval of 1.5 years. Population Pre-PROBE women (N = 419 were defined as all women with vaginal birth between the years of 2004-2007 with an estimated blood loss of amp;gt;= 1000 ml within the first 24 hours of delivery. Post-PROBE women (N = 483) were defined as all women with vaginal birth between the years of 2008-2011 with an estimated blood loss of amp;gt;= 1000 ml within the first 24 hours of delivery. The two groups were compared regarding blood loss parameters and management variables using retrospective data from medical records. Results No difference was observed in estimated blood loss, haemoglobin level, blood transfusions or the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage between the two groups. Post-PROBE women had more often secured venous access (pamp;lt;0.001), monitoring of vital signs (pamp;lt;0.001) and received fluid resuscitation (pamp;lt;0.001) compared to pre-PROBE women. The use of uterine massage was also more common among the post-PROBE women compared with the pre-PROBE women (pamp;lt;0.001). Conclusion PROBE improved clinical management but not patient outcome in women with postpartum haemorrhage in the labour ward. These new findings may have clinical implications since they confirm that training was effective concerning the management of postpartum haemorrhage. However, there is still no clear evidence that simulation training improve patient outcome in women with PPH.

  • 2.
    Josefsson, Ann
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Larsson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Psychiatry.
    Temperament and character in women with postpartum depression2007In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate whether women with postpartum depression differ in personality traits from healthy postpartum women, healthy controls from the normal Swedish population and non-postpartum women with major depression. Methods: Forty-five women with postpartum depression were compared with 62 healthy postpartum women, 62 age-matched, healthy, non-postpartum women from a normal sample and 74 non-postpartum women with major depression from a clinical sample. The edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used in order to screen for postpartum depression. A clinical diagnostic interview was done including a rating with the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale. Personality i.e. temperament and character was measured by the temperament and character inventory. Results: Harm avoidance (HA) was higher (p < 0.001) and self-directedness (SD) scored lower (p < 0.001) in women with postpartum depression compared to healthy postpartum women. These differences were the most important differences between these two groups. Women with postpartum depression scored lower (p = 0.001) in cooperativeness (CO) and higher (p = 0.019) in self-transcendence (ST) compared to healthy postpartum women. Women with postpartum depression scored overall similar to women with major depression. Conclusion: High HA and low SD can be seen as vulnerability factors for developing a depression and especially in a stressful situation as childbirth. © 2006 Springer-Verlag.

  • 3.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology.
    Blood-and Injection Phobia in Pregnancy: Epidemiological, Biological and Treatment aspects2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Blood- and injection phobia is an anxiety disorder with a prevalence of approximately 3-5% in the general population. The etiology is often a combination of genetic factors and a conditioning experience. The symptoms of blood- and injection phobia are dizziness, confusion, nausea, epigastria discomfort, anxiety and sometimes panic attacks when receiving injections, seeing blood or having a blood sample taken. Unique for this specific phobia is the high probability of fainting when the phobic situation is encountered if there is no possibility to escape or to avoid the stimuli.

    During pregnancy and labor, women with blood- and injection phobia are exposed to most of their fears and they therefore find themselves in anxiety-ridden situations. Stress and anxiety during pregnancy is known to be risk factors for adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Studies have shown an altered hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis in women with stress or/and anxiety during pregnancy and increased cortisol concentrations can imply negative consequences for the unborn child. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is known to be effective in treating specific phobias such as blood- and injection phobia.

    Aim: The prevalence, obstetric and neonatal consequences, impact on the hypothalamic adrenal-pituitary axis and treatment aspects of blood- and injection phobia in a pregnant population have not been investigated before. The aims of this thesis were to study each of these phenomena.

    Material and methods: During 2005 a total of 1606 pregnant women were approached at their first visit in an antenatal care clinic in the southeast region in Sweden. They were asked to complete the “Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety” questionnaire. All women who scored ≥ 20 on the “Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety” questionnaire (N=347), were interviewed and either diagnosed for blood- and injection phobia or dismissed. In total, 110 women were diagnosed as having blood- and injection phobia. Among the women who scored <20 on the “Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety” questionnaire, 220 women were randomly stratified for age and parity as a control group. The women in the study population answered questionnaires in gestational week 25, 36 and postpartum concerning symptoms of blood- and injection phobia, depression and anxiety. Samples of cortisol in the saliva were collected in the morning and evening in gestational week 25 and 36 in both groups of pregnant women. The medical records from the antenatal care visits, the delivery and postpartum check-up was used to collect data of importance. A treatment study was conducted using a two session cognitive behavioral therapy in a group of pregnant woman with blood- and injection phobia.

    Results: The prevalence of blood- and injection phobia is 7 % in a pregnant population. Pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia stated more often a fear of childbirth (p<0.001) and were more frequently delivered by elective cesarean section (p=0.032). The incidence of having a baby diagnosed with a complication (p=0.001) was also higher among these women. The women with blood- and injection phobia had increased cortisol concentrations in the saliva compared to the healthy controls (p=0.014). A two-session CBT in group for pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia reduced phobic (p<0.001) anxiety (p<0.001) and depressive (p<0.001) symptoms during pregnancy.

    Conclusions: Blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy is rather common. Pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia are more likely to be delivered by elective cesarean section and having a baby born with a complication compared to women not suffering from this specific phobia. Untreated blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy increases salivary cortisol concentrations indicating an altered hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis during these weeks of pregnancy. To enhance psychological well being in pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia a two-session program providing CBT for groups of pregnant women is valuable and produces stable results for at least 3 months after delivery.

    List of papers
    1. Prevalence of blood and injection phobia among pregnant women
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of blood and injection phobia among pregnant women
    2008 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 87, no 12, p. 1276-1279Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of blood and injection phobia in an unselected pregnant population, in order to estimate the need for curative intervention programmes.

    Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting. Antenatal care clinics in the southeast region of Sweden.

    Sample: In total, 1,606 consecutively registered pregnant women attending their first visit with a midwife.

    Methods: The women were asked to complete the Injection Phobia-Anxiety scale, measuring phobic symptoms. Women who scored 20 on the questionnaire were telephone-interviewed and then diagnosed or dismissed according to the DSM-IV criteria for blood and injection phobia. Main outcome measures. Prevalence of blood and injection phobia according to the DSM-IV.

    Results: Of 1,529 women who chose to participate (92.5%), 110 women or 7.2% fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for blood and injection phobia. The mean age of the women was 29.1 years.

    Conclusions: Blood and injection phobia is hitherto unreported in the literature, but seems to be relatively common and needs to be recognized during pregnancy as it causes a great deal of discomfort and fear among pregnant women. The Injection Phobia-Anxiety scale is suitable as a screening tool in an antenatal care clinic setting.

    Keywords
    Blood-injection, phobia, pregnancy, prevalence
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16232 (URN)10.1080/00016340802468324 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-01-12 Created: 2009-01-09 Last updated: 2019-06-28
    2. An open trial with cognitive behavioral therapy for blood- and injection phobia in pregnant women-a group intervention program
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An open trial with cognitive behavioral therapy for blood- and injection phobia in pregnant women-a group intervention program
    2010 (English)In: ARCHIVES OF WOMENS MENTAL HEALTH, ISSN 1434-1816, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Around 7% of pregnant women suffer from blood- and injection phobia. The aim was to investigate if cognitive behavior group therapy (CBT) is effective in treating pregnant womens blood- and injection phobia. Thirty pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia according to DSM-IV took part in an open treatment intervention. A two-session cognitive behavior group therapy was conducted. As controls, 46 pregnant women with untreated blood- and injection phobia and 70 healthy pregnant women were used. Repeated measures ANOVA were performed. The scores for the CBT treatment group on the "Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety" were reduced both after each treatment session and postpartum (p andlt; 0.001). Anxiety and depressive symptoms were also reduced (p andlt; 0.001). Cognitive-behavior group therapy for pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia is effective and stable up to at least 3 months postpartum. It seems also to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Science Business Media, 2010
    Keywords
    Anxiety, Blood- and injection phobia, Cognitive behavior group therapy, Depression, Pregnancy
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56809 (URN)10.1007/s00737-009-0126-x (DOI)000277935600010 ()
    Note
    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Caroline Lilliecreutz, Ann Josefsson and Gunilla Sydsjö, An open trial with cognitive behavioral therapy for blood- and injection phobia in pregnant women-a group intervention program, 2010, ARCHIVES OF WOMENS MENTAL HEALTH, (13), 3, 259-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-009-0126-x Copyright: Springer Science Business Media http://www.springerlink.com/ Available from: 2010-06-04 Created: 2010-06-04 Last updated: 2019-06-28
    3. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes among women with blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Obstetric and perinatal outcomes among women with blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 129, no 1-3, p. 289-295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Backgroun: Little is known about how anxiety disorders affect pregnancy outcomes. Therefore we investigated the impact of one anxiety disorder, blood- and injection phobia, on obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

    Method: From a population-based prospectively collected cohort we compared an index group of 110 women with blood- and injection phobia with a control group of 220 women. Standardized medical records were used to collect data. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes e.g. elective cesarean, prematurity, and small for gestational age were used as the main outcome measures.

    Result: Women with blood- and injection phobia stated more often a fear of childbirth (p < 0.001) and were more frequently delivered by elective cesarean section (p = 0.032). The incidence of premature delivery (p = 0.028), neonatal morbidity (p = 0.001) and the risk of having a baby born small for gestational age (p = 0.009) was higher among women with blood- and injection phobia.

    Limitation: The medical records, from which all information is drawn, despite standardization, sometimes may lack some information. However, this dilemma exists in both groups.

    Conclusions: Women with an anxiety disorder such as blood- and injection phobia are at increased risk for adverse obstetric outcomes, premature delivery and for having a baby born with higher neonatal morbidity. It therefore seems important to identify and treat women with anxiety disorders without delay early during pregnancy in an effort to minimize risks of complications for the woman herself and the child.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Anxiety, blood-and injection phobia, premature, small for gestational age, cesarean
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59743 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2010.08.013 (DOI)000288293400038 ()20825998 (PubMedID)
    Note
    Original Publication: Caroline Lilliecreutz, Gunilla Sydsjö and Ann Josefsson, Obstetric and perinatal outcomes among women with blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy, 2011, Journal of Affective Disorders, (129), 1-3, 289-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.08.013 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2010-09-24 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
    4. Salivary cortisol in pregnant women suffering from blood-and injection phobia
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salivary cortisol in pregnant women suffering from blood-and injection phobia
    2011 (English)In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 405-411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Stress and/or anxiety during pregnancy affect maternal and fetal wellbeing and can cause premature delivery and postnatal pathology in the child. Women suffering from phobias related to blood and injections are prone to high levels of stress including anxiety and sometimes panic attacks during pregnancy. Cortisol is amongst the mediators through which the neurohormonal expressions of maternal psychological factors may be transduced to the fetus. The aim was to investigate if pregnant women suffering from blood- and injection phobia have raised cortisol levels or are characterized by unusual diurnal salivary cortisol profiles compared to healthy controls.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 110 pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia and 110 pregnant healthy controls. Both groups provided morning and evening saliva samples in week 25 and 36 for the assay of cortisol. In gestational week 25 when blood was drawn for the mandatory blood testing extra blood was taken to analyze corticotrophin releasing  factor (CRF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in serum.

    Results: The expected diurnal decline in salivary cortisol was observed as well as increased cortisol levels during pregnancy. Pregnant women suffering from blood- and injection phobia had higher output of cortisol compared to women without the phobia (F=6.25 df=1 p=0.014) but no marked difference in the diurnal cortisol rhythm was found between the groups.

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that untreated blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy increases cortisol concentrations. Blood- and injection phobia is treatable and cognitive behavioral therapy can be used.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011
    Keywords
    Cortisol, anxiety, stress, pregnancy, blood- and injection phobia
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59744 (URN)10.1007/s00737-011-0234-2 (DOI)000297847800005 ()
    Available from: 2010-09-24 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2019-06-28
  • 4.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Cedergren, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Dags att implementera nya rön om graviditetsdiabetes2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 5.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    An open trial with cognitive behavioral therapy for blood- and injection phobia in pregnant women-a group intervention program2010In: ARCHIVES OF WOMENS MENTAL HEALTH, ISSN 1434-1816, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 7% of pregnant women suffer from blood- and injection phobia. The aim was to investigate if cognitive behavior group therapy (CBT) is effective in treating pregnant womens blood- and injection phobia. Thirty pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia according to DSM-IV took part in an open treatment intervention. A two-session cognitive behavior group therapy was conducted. As controls, 46 pregnant women with untreated blood- and injection phobia and 70 healthy pregnant women were used. Repeated measures ANOVA were performed. The scores for the CBT treatment group on the "Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety" were reduced both after each treatment session and postpartum (p andlt; 0.001). Anxiety and depressive symptoms were also reduced (p andlt; 0.001). Cognitive-behavior group therapy for pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia is effective and stable up to at least 3 months postpartum. It seems also to reduce anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  • 6.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Laren, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on the risk for preterm birth2016In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 16, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Preterm birth defined as birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation is caused by different risk factors and implies an increased risk for disease and early death for the child. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth. Methods: A case-control study that included 340 women; 168 women who gave birth preterm and 172 women who gave birth at term. Data were manually extracted from standardized medical records. If the medical record contained a psychiatric diagnosis or a self-reported stressor e.g., depression or anxiety the woman was considered to have been exposed to stress during pregnancy. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to calculate the attributable risk (AR) of maternal stress during pregnancy on preterm birth, both for the women exposed to stress during pregnancy (AR1 = (AOR-1)/AOR) and for the whole study population (AR2 = AR1*case fraction). Results: Maternal stress during pregnancy was more common among women who gave birth preterm compared to women who gave birth at term (p &lt;0.000, AOR 2.15 (CI = 1.18-3.92)). Among the women who experienced stress during pregnancy 54 % gave birth preterm with stress as an attributable risk factor. Among all of the women the percentage was 23 %. Conclusions: Stress seems to increase the risk of preterm birth. It is of great importance to identify and possibly alleviate the exposure to stress during pregnancy and by doing so try to decrease the preterm birth rate.

  • 7.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Obstetric and perinatal outcomes among women with blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy2011In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 129, no 1-3, p. 289-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Backgroun: Little is known about how anxiety disorders affect pregnancy outcomes. Therefore we investigated the impact of one anxiety disorder, blood- and injection phobia, on obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

    Method: From a population-based prospectively collected cohort we compared an index group of 110 women with blood- and injection phobia with a control group of 220 women. Standardized medical records were used to collect data. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes e.g. elective cesarean, prematurity, and small for gestational age were used as the main outcome measures.

    Result: Women with blood- and injection phobia stated more often a fear of childbirth (p < 0.001) and were more frequently delivered by elective cesarean section (p = 0.032). The incidence of premature delivery (p = 0.028), neonatal morbidity (p = 0.001) and the risk of having a baby born small for gestational age (p = 0.009) was higher among women with blood- and injection phobia.

    Limitation: The medical records, from which all information is drawn, despite standardization, sometimes may lack some information. However, this dilemma exists in both groups.

    Conclusions: Women with an anxiety disorder such as blood- and injection phobia are at increased risk for adverse obstetric outcomes, premature delivery and for having a baby born with higher neonatal morbidity. It therefore seems important to identify and treat women with anxiety disorders without delay early during pregnancy in an effort to minimize risks of complications for the woman herself and the child.

  • 8.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Theodorsson, Elvar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Salivary cortisol in pregnant women suffering from blood-and injection phobia2011In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 405-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Stress and/or anxiety during pregnancy affect maternal and fetal wellbeing and can cause premature delivery and postnatal pathology in the child. Women suffering from phobias related to blood and injections are prone to high levels of stress including anxiety and sometimes panic attacks during pregnancy. Cortisol is amongst the mediators through which the neurohormonal expressions of maternal psychological factors may be transduced to the fetus. The aim was to investigate if pregnant women suffering from blood- and injection phobia have raised cortisol levels or are characterized by unusual diurnal salivary cortisol profiles compared to healthy controls.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 110 pregnant women with blood- and injection phobia and 110 pregnant healthy controls. Both groups provided morning and evening saliva samples in week 25 and 36 for the assay of cortisol. In gestational week 25 when blood was drawn for the mandatory blood testing extra blood was taken to analyze corticotrophin releasing  factor (CRF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in serum.

    Results: The expected diurnal decline in salivary cortisol was observed as well as increased cortisol levels during pregnancy. Pregnant women suffering from blood- and injection phobia had higher output of cortisol compared to women without the phobia (F=6.25 df=1 p=0.014) but no marked difference in the diurnal cortisol rhythm was found between the groups.

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that untreated blood- and injection phobia during pregnancy increases cortisol concentrations. Blood- and injection phobia is treatable and cognitive behavioral therapy can be used.

  • 9.
    Möller, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Andolf, Ellika
    Danderyd Hospital, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Mental health after first childbirth in women requesting a caesarean section; a retrospective register-based study2017In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 17, article id 326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychiatric illness before delivery increases the risk of giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request (CSMR) but little is known about these womens mental health after childbirth. In this study we aimed to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders five years before and after delivery in primiparae giving birth by CS on maternal request to all other primiparae giving birth, indifferent on their mode of delivery. Methods: The study population comprised all women born in Sweden 1973-1983 giving birth for the first time in 2002-2004. Psychiatric diagnoses, in- and outpatient care were retrieved from the National Patient Register in Sweden. The risk of psychiatric care after childbirth was estimated using CSMR, previous mental health and sociodemographic variables as covariates. Results: Psychiatric disorders after childbirth were more common in women giving birth by CSMR compared to the other women (11.2% vs 5.5%, p amp;lt; 0.001). CSMR increased the risk of psychiatric disorders after childbirth (aOR 1. 5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders had increased after compared to before childbirth (mean difference 0.02 +/- 0.25, 95% CI 0.018-0.022, p amp;lt; 0.001). Women giving birth by CSMR tended to be diagnosed in the inpatient care more often (54.9% vs. 45.8%, p = 0.056) and were more likely to have been diagnosed before childbirth as well (39.8% vs. 24.2%, p amp;lt; 0.001). Conclusions: Women giving birth by CSMR more often suffer from psychiatric disorders both before and after delivery. This indicates that these women are a vulnerable group requiring special attention from obstetric-and general health-care providers. This vulnerability should be taken into account when deciding on mode of delivery.

  • 10.
    Möller, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Reproduction and mode of delivery in women with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia: a Swedish register-based study2015In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To compare sociodemographics, parity and mode of delivery between women diagnosed with vaginismus or localised provoked vestibulodynia (LPV) to women without a diagnosis before first pregnancy. Design Retrospective, population-based register study. Setting Sweden. Sample All women born in Sweden 1973-83 who gave birth for the first time or remained nulliparous during the years 2001-09. Methods Nationally linked registries were used to identify the study population. Women diagnosed with vaginismus or LPV were compared to all other women. Odds ratios for parity and mode of delivery were calculated using multinominal regression analysis and logistic regression. Main outcome measures Parity and mode of delivery. Results Women with vaginismus/LPV were more likely to be unmarried (P = 0.001), unemployed (P = 0.012), have a higher educational level (P less than 0.001), a lower body mass index (P less than 0.001) and use nicotine during pregnancy (P = 0.008). They were less likely to give birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.56-0.67). Women with vaginismus/LPV more often delivered by caesarean section (P less than 0.001) especially for maternal request (adjusted OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.45-4.39). In women having vaginal delivery, those with vaginismus/LPV were more likely to suffer a perineal laceration (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.56-2.25). Conclusions Women with vaginismus/LPV are less likely to give birth and those that do are more likely to deliver by caesarean section and have a caesarean section based upon maternal request. Those women delivering vaginally are more likely to suffer perineal laceration. These findings point to the importance of not only addressing sexual function in women with vaginismus/LPV but reproductive function as well.

  • 11.
    Möller, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Gunnervik, Christina
    Värnamo Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Reproduction, fear of childbirth and obstetric outcomes in women treated for fear of childbirth in their first pregnancy: A historical cohort2019In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction About 8% of the pregnant women in Sweden receive counseling for fear of childbirth (FOC) during pregnancy. Little is known about the long-term reproductive and obstetric outcomes after counseling for FOC: Therefore, the objective of this historical cohort study was to compare the long-term reproductive and obstetric outcomes in women treated for FOC in their first pregnancy to women without FOC. Material and methods All nulliparas consecutively referred for treatment of severe FOC between 2001 and 2007 (n = 608) were compared with all other nulliparas giving birth on the same day (n = 431). Women who were not fluent in Swedish, missing a postal address, had moved out of the area, given birth at another hospital or had a late spontaneous abortion were excluded (n = 555). A total of 235 women agreed to participate in the study, 63 (39%) women in the index group and 172 (53%) in the reference group. The women were contacted by letter in 2015, ie 7-14 years after first childbirth, and asked to permit access to their medical charts from pregnancies and childbirths and to fill out a study specific questionnaire. Based on data from the medical charts and questionnaire, the mode of delivery, birth experience, obstetric complications, FOC, counseling for FOC and number of childbirths were compared in the two groups. Results Women in the index group less often gave birth more than twice compared with the reference group (8.2% vs 22.0%, P = 0.012). We found no significant differences in complications during subsequent pregnancies and deliveries. Women in the index group more often gave birth by CS in their first (P = 0.002) and second childbirth (P = 0.001), more often had a less positive birth experience (index group NRS: median 6.0, interquartile range 6 vs reference group NRS: 7.0, interquartile range 5, P = 0.004) in their first delivery and more often received counseling for FOC (58.7% vs 12.5%, P amp;lt; 0.001) in subsequent pregnancies. Women in the index group more often experienced FOC (18% vs 5.3%, P = 0.001) 7-14 years after first childbirth. Conclusions FOC is not easily treated. Despite treatment and exposure to childbirth many women received treatment in their next pregnancy and still suffered from FOC 7-14 years after the first childbirth.

  • 12.
    Möller, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Gunnervik, Christina
    Värnamo Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Reproduction, fear of childbirth and obstetric outcomes in women treated for fear of childbirth in their first pregnancy: A historical cohort2019In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction About 8% of the pregnant women in Sweden receive counseling for fear of childbirth (FOC) during pregnancy. Little is known about the long-term reproductive and obstetric outcomes after counseling for FOC: Therefore, the objective of this historical cohort study was to compare the long-term reproductive and obstetric outcomes in women treated for FOC in their first pregnancy to women without FOC. Material and methods All nulliparas consecutively referred for treatment of severe FOC between 2001 and 2007 (n = 608) were compared with all other nulliparas giving birth on the same day (n = 431). Women who were not fluent in Swedish, missing a postal address, had moved out of the area, given birth at another hospital or had a late spontaneous abortion were excluded (n = 555). A total of 235 women agreed to participate in the study, 63 (39%) women in the index group and 172 (53%) in the reference group. The women were contacted by letter in 2015, ie 7-14 years after first childbirth, and asked to permit access to their medical charts from pregnancies and childbirths and to fill out a study specific questionnaire. Based on data from the medical charts and questionnaire, the mode of delivery, birth experience, obstetric complications, FOC, counseling for FOC and number of childbirths were compared in the two groups. Results Women in the index group less often gave birth more than twice compared with the reference group (8.2% vs 22.0%, P = 0.012). We found no significant differences in complications during subsequent pregnancies and deliveries. Women in the index group more often gave birth by CS in their first (P = 0.002) and second childbirth (P = 0.001), more often had a less positive birth experience (index group NRS: median 6.0, interquartile range 6 vs reference group NRS: 7.0, interquartile range 5, P = 0.004) in their first delivery and more often received counseling for FOC (58.7% vs 12.5%, P amp;lt; 0.001) in subsequent pregnancies. Women in the index group more often experienced FOC (18% vs 5.3%, P = 0.001) 7-14 years after first childbirth. Conclusions FOC is not easily treated. Despite treatment and exposure to childbirth many women received treatment in their next pregnancy and still suffered from FOC 7-14 years after the first childbirth.

  • 13.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics UHL.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Persson, Anna-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vyoni, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Obstetric outcomes for nulliparous women who received routine individualized treatment for severe fear of childbirth - a retrospective case control study2014In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 14, no 126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To study pregnancy and delivery outcomes in nulliparous women with severe FOC (fear of childbirth), all of whom had received routine treatment for their FOC and to make comparisons with a healthy reference group of nulliparous women. To study the possible relationship between the number of FOC-treatment sessions and the delivery method. Methods: All nulliparous women with a diagnose FOC who received routine treatment for FOC (n = 181) and a reference group of nulliparous women without FOC (n = 431) at a university and a county hospital in the south east region of Sweden were analysed. Data from antenatal and delivery medical records were used to study outcome. Results: The majority of women with severe FOC had a vaginal delivery. The incidence of elective CS was greater in the index group than in the reference group (p less than 0.001). The total number of women with a planned CS in the index group was 35 (19.4%) and in the control group 14 (3.2%). Thus, on average five women per year received an elective CS during the study years due to severe FOC. The women in the index group who wished to have a CS were similar to the other women in the index group with reference to age, BMI, chronic disease but had been in in-patient care more often during their pregnancy than those who did not ask for CS (p = 0.009). Conclusion: In this study of women treated for severe FOC, the majority gave birth vaginally and no relationship was found between number of treatment sessions and mode of childbirth.

  • 14.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Treatment of Injection Phobia in Pregnant Women2009In: in JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH, vol 18, no 5, 2009, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 759-759Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Möller, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andolf, E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Psychiatric illness in women requesting caesarean section2015In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 122, no 3, p. 351-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To compare psychiatric in-and outpatient care during the 5 years before first delivery in primiparae delivered by caesarean section on maternal request with all other primiparae women who had given birth during the same time period. Design Prospective, population-based register study. Setting Sweden. Sample Women giving birth for the first time between 2002 and 2004 (n = 64 834). Methods Women giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request (n = 1009) were compared with all other women giving birth (n = 63 825). The exposure of interest was any psychiatric diagnosis according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ninth revision, ICD-9, 290-319; tenth revision, ICD-10, F00-F99) in The Swedish national patient register during the 5 years before first delivery. Main outcome measures Psychiatric diagnoses and delivery data. Results The burden of psychiatric illnesses was significantly higher in women giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request (10 versus 3.5%, P less than 0.001). The most common diagnoses were ` Neurotic disorders, stress-related disorders and somatoform disorders (5.9%, aOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-2.9), and ` Mood disorders (3.4%, aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.7-3.6). The adjusted odds ratio for caesarean section on maternal request was 2.5 (95% CI 2.0-3.2) for any psychiatric disorder. Women giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request were older, used tobacco more often, had a lower educational level, higher body mass index, were more often married, unemployed, and their parents were more often born outside of Scandinavia (P less than 0.05). Conclusions Women giving birth by caesarean section on maternal request more often have a severe psychiatric disease burden. This finding points to the need for psychological support for these women as well as the need to screen and treat psychiatric illness in pregnant women.

  • 16.
    Tornblom-Paulander, Sara
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Tingaker, Berith K.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Werner, Agneta
    Department Obstet and Gynecol, Sweden.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Conner, Peter
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wessel, Hans
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Novel topical formulation of lidocaine provides significant pain relief for intrauterine device insertion: pharmacokinetic evaluation and randomized placebo-controlled trial2015In: Fertility and Sterility, ISSN 0015-0282, E-ISSN 1556-5653, Vol. 103, no 2, p. 422-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and analgesic efficacy of a novel topical formulation of lidocaine at insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD). Design: Randomized controlled trial; phase-I and phase-II studies. Setting: University and public hospitals. Patient(s): Women aged greater than= 18 years who wanted to receive an IUD. Four women were parous in phase I; all in phase II were nulliparous. Intervention(s): A single, 8.5-mL dose of lidocaine formulation (SHACT) was administered (to the portio, cervix, and uterus) with a specially designed applicator. Main Outcome Measure(s): The phase-I study (single-arm) was designed for pharmacokinetic assessment; the phase-II study (randomized) was intended for investigation of efficacy and safety. Result(s): From the phase-I study (15 participants), mean pharmacokinetic values were: maximum plasma concentration: 351 +/- 205 ng/mL; time taken to reach maximum concentration: 68 +/- 41 minutes; and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 180 minutes: 717 +/- 421 ng*h/mL. Pain relief was observed with lidocaine vs. placebo in the phase-II study (218 women, randomized). Mean visual analog scale score for maximum pain during the first 10 minutes after IUD insertion was 36% lower with lidocaine than with placebo (28.3 +/- 24.6 vs. 44.2 +/- 26.0). Pain intensity was also significantly lower in the lidocaine group at 30 minutes. On average, 3 of 4 patients will have less pain with lidocaine than with placebo. Adverse events were similar in the placebo and lidocaine groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion(s): Lidocaine provides pain relief lasting for 30-60 minutes for women undergoing IUD insertion, without any safety concerns. Further studies of this lidocaine formulation, for IUD insertion and other clinical applications, are planned. (C) 2015 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

  • 17.
    Wolgast, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Reis, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Drug use in pregnant women-a pilot study of the coherence between reported use of drugs and presence of drugs in plasma2018In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 535-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, information on drug use during pregnancy is obtained through an interview and recorded in a standardized medical record at every visit to the antenatal care clinic throughout the pregnancy. Antenatal, delivery, and neonatal records constitute the basis for the Swedish Medical Birth Register (MBR). The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the reliability of reported drug use by simultaneous screening for drug substances in the blood stream of the pregnant woman and thereby validate self-reported data in the MBR. Plasma samples from 200 women were obtained at gestational weeks 10-12 and 25 and screened for drugs by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TOF-MS). The results from the analysis were then compared to medical records. At the first sampling occasion, the drugs found by screening had been reported by 86% of the women and on the second sampling, 85.5%. Missed reported information was clearly associated with drugs for occasional use. The most common drugs in plasma taken in early and mid-pregnancy were meclizine and paracetamol. Two types of continuously used drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and propranolol, were used. All women using them reported it and the drug screening revealed a 100% coherence. This study shows good coherence between reported drug intake and the drugs found in plasma samples, which in turn positively validates the MBR.

  • 18.
    Wolgast, Emelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lindh Åstrand, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Lilliecreutz, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Womens perceptions of medication use during pregnancy and breastfeeding-A Swedish cross-sectional questionnaire study2019In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 98, no 7, p. 856-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Use of medication for different kinds of symptoms and diseases during pregnancy is common. When counseling the pregnant woman, an understanding of her perceptions concerning the use of medication as well as possible associated anxiety and obstacles is important to ensure high adherence to the treatment regimen. Material and methods A questionnaire was developed regarding the use of medication, perceptions on use of medication, as well as perceptions about pregnancy outcomes in association with medication use during pregnancy. In total, 850 pregnant women in gestational weeks 25-29 participated in the study. Results The response rate was 92.7% (n = 832/898). About 19.4% of the respondents (n = 160/824) were frequent users (medication use daily to several times a week) and 28.4% (n = 234/824) were non-frequent users (medication use once a week to once a month). The majority perceived medication use during early pregnancy (61.4%, n = 501/816), late pregnancy (55.6%, n = 455/819) and breastfeeding (57.7%, n = 474/821) as probably harmful or harmful. These findings were more common in non-users (medication used rarely or never) than frequent users (P-value amp;lt;0.001, amp;lt;0.001 and 0.007). The pregnant women had great confidence in advice from a physician (83.8%, n = 666/795) or a midwife (77.0%, n = 620/805) concerning medication during pregnancy. Conclusions The majority of pregnant women in Sweden consider the use of medication during pregnancy either probably harmful or harmful and this perception is associated with non-use of medication. The pregnant women in our study had high confidence in healthcare professionals when seeking advice; thus, actively asking about perceptions could lead to better counseling.

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