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  • 1.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
    A deviational approach to blockmodeling of valued networks2016In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 44, p. 160-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a novel approach to blockmodeling of valued (one-mode) networks where the identification of (binary) block patterns in the valued relations differ from existing approaches. Rather than looking at the absolute values of relations, or examining valued ties on a per-actor basis (cf. Nordlund, 2007), the approach identifies prominent (binary) ties on the basis of deviations from expected values. By comparing the distribution of each actor's valued relations to its alters with the macro-level distributions of total in- and outdegrees, prominent (1) and non-prominent (0) ties are determined both on a per-actor-to-actor and a per-actor-from-actor basis. This allows for a direct interpretation of the underlying functional anatomy of a non-dichotomized valued network using the standard set of ideal blocks as found in generalized blockmodeling of binary networks.

    In addition to its applicability for direct blockmodeling, the article also suggests a novel indirect measure of deviational structural equivalence on the basis of such deviations from expected values.

    Exemplified with the note-sharing data in Žiberna (2007a), citations among social work journals (Baker, 1992), and total commodity trade among EU/EFTA countries as of 2010, both the direct and indirect approach produce results that are more sensitive to variations at the dyadic level than existing approaches. This is particularly evident in the case of the EU/EFTA trade network, where the indirect approach yields partitions and blockmodels in support of theories of regional trade, despite the significantly skewed valued degree distribution of the dataset.

  • 2.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Direct blockmodeling of valued and binary networks: a dichotomization-free approach2020In: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 61, p. 128-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-standing open problem with direct blockmodeling is that it is explicitly intended for binary, not valued, networks. The underlying dilemma is how empirical valued blocks can be compared with ideal binary blocks, an intrinsic problem in the direct approach where partitions are solely determined through such comparisons. Addressing this dilemma, valued networks have either been dichotomized into binary versions, or novel types of ideal valued blocks have been introduced. Both these workarounds are problematic in terms of interpretability, unwanted data reduction, and the often arbitrary setting of model parameters. This paper proposes a direct blockmodeling approach that effectively bypasses the dilemma with blockmodeling of valued networks. By introducing an adaptive weighted correlation-based criteria function, the proposed approach is directly applicable to both binary and valued networks, without any form of dichotomization or transformation of the valued (or binary) data at any point in the analysis, while still using the conventional set of ideal binary blocks from structural, regular and generalized blockmodeling. The proposed approach seemingly solves two other open problems with direct blockmodeling. First, its standardized goodness-of-fit measure allows for direct comparisons across solutions, within and between networks of different sizes, value types, and notions of equivalence. Secondly, through an inherent bias of point-biserial correlations, the approach puts a premium on solutions that are closer to the mid-point density of blockmodels. This, it is argued, translates into solutions that are more intuitive and easier to interpret. The approach is demonstrated by structural, regular and generalized blockmodeling applications of six classical binary and valued networks. Finding feasible and intuitive optimal solutions in both the binary and valued examples, the approach is proposed not only as a practical, dichotomization-free heuristic for blockmodeling of valued networks but also, through its additional benefits, as an alternative to the conventional direct approach to blockmodeling.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-12-25 06:00
  • 3.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    International Networks2013In: Encyclopedia of Social Networks / [ed] Barnett, G., Sage Publications, 2013, p. 425-431Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Center for Network Science, Central European University, Hungary, Department of Economic History, Lund university, Sweden.
    Power-relational core–periphery structures: Peripheral dependency and core dominance in binary and valued networks2018In: Network Science, ISSN 2050-1242, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 348-369-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With origins in post-war development thinking, the core-periphery concept has spread across the social and, increasingly, the natural sciences. Initially reflecting divergent socioeconomic properties of geographical regions, its relational connotations rapidly led to more topological interpretations. In today’s network science, the standard core-periphery model consists of a cohesive set of core actors and a peripheral set of internally disconnected actors.

    Exploring the classical core-periphery literature, this paper finds conceptual support for the characteristic intra-categorical density differential. However, this literature also lends support to the notions of peripheral dependency and core dominance, power-relational aspects that existing approaches do not capture.

    To capture such power-relations, this paper suggests extensions to the correlation-based core-periphery metric of Borgatti-Everett (2000). Capturing peripheral dependency and, optionally, core dominance, these extensions allow for either measuring the degree of such power-relational features in given core-periphery partitions, or as part of a criteria function to search for power-relational core-periphery structures.

    Applied to the binary and valued citation data in Borgatti and Everett (2000), the proposed extensions seemingly capture dependency and dominance features of core-periphery structures. This is particularly evident when, circling back to to the original domains of the concept, examining the network of European commodity trade in 2010.

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  • 5.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Preceding and governing measurements: an Emmanuelian conceptualization of ecological unequal exchange2014In: Structures of the World Political Economy / [ed] Suter, S., Chase-Dunn, C., Zurich: Lit-Verlag , 2014, p. 315-346Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Nordlund, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fierascu, Silvia I.
    Cent European Univ, Hungary.
    Introduction to the special issue on social and political networks2018In: Romanian Journal of Political Science, ISSN 1582-456X, Vol. 18, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 7.
    Nordlund, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Center for Network Science, Central European University, Hungary.
    Žiberna, Aleš
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Blockmodeling of valued networks2019In: Advances in Network Clustering and Blockmodeling / [ed] Patrick Doreian, Vladimir Batagelj and Anuska Ferligoj, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2019, p. 147-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Svensson, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Public Policy, Central European University, Budapest.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Department of Political Science, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
    The building blocks of a Euroregion: Novel metrics to measure cross-border integration2015In: Journal of European Integration, ISSN 0703-6337, E-ISSN 1477-2280, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 371-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores how the notion of European integration at the local level can be conceptualized and measured. Based on a process-oriented inclusive understanding of integration and using relational datasets that maps both domestic and cross-border communication ties among political representatives in four Euroregions along the borders of Hungary–Slovakia and Sweden–Norway, we begin by applying and theoretically dissecting network-analytical metrics based on frequency of ties. Despite finding that such measures capture analytically relevant properties of political cross-border networks, we argue that they are less than ideal for capturing the notion of political integration. Instead, with inspiration from the blockmodeling tradition in network analysis, we propose two novel metrics—cross-border connectivity and integrational overfitting. These metrics not only enrich our understanding of political integration in cross-border settings but also can serve as useful mapping tools for policy-makers. A software client enabling the analysis of these measures supplements this article.

  • 9.
    Vedres, Balazs
    et al.
    Cent European Univ, Hungary.
    Nordlund, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Cent European Univ, Hungary; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Disembedded Openness: Inequalities in European Economic Integration at the Sectoral Level2018In: Studies in comparative international development, ISSN 0039-3606, E-ISSN 1936-6167, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 169-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of European integration resulted in a marked increase in transnational economic flows, yet regional inequalities along many developmental indicators remain. We analyze the unevenness of European economies with respect to the embedding of export sectors in upstream domestic flows and their dependency on dominant export partners. We use the WIOD dataset of sectoral flows for the period of 1995-2011 for 24 European countries. We found that East European economies were significantly more likely to experience increasing unevenness and dependency with increasing openness, while core countries of Europe managed to decrease their unevenness but increased their openness. Nevertheless, by analyzing the trajectories of changes for each country, we see that East European countries are also experiencing a turning point, either switching to a path similar to the core or to a retrograde path with decreasing openness. We analyze our data using pooled time series models and case studies of country trajectories.

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