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  • 1.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ti2Au2C and Ti3Au2C2 formed by solid state reaction of gold with Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC22017In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 53, no 69, p. 9554-9557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incorporation of layers of noble metals in non-van der Waals layered materials may be used to form novel layered compounds. Recently, we demonstrated a high-temperature-induced exchange process of Au with Si in the layered phase Ti3SiC2, resulting in the formation of Ti3AuC2 and Ti3Au2C2. Here, we generalize this technique showing that Au/Ti2AlC and Au/Ti3AlC2 undergo an exchange reaction at 650 [degree]C to form Ti2Au2C and Ti3Au2C2 and determine their structures by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ab initio calculations. These results imply that noble-metal-containing layered phases should be possible to synthesize in many systems. The metal to be introduced should be inert to the transition-metal carbide layers, and exhibit negative heat of mixing with the initial A element in a liquid phase or two-phase liquid/solid region at the annealing temperature.

  • 2.
    Goyenola, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theoretical prediction and synthesis of CSxFy thin films2016In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, no 17, p. 9527-9534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new carbon-based compound: CSxFy was addressed by density functional theory calculations and synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering. Geometry optimizations and energy calculations were performed on graphene-like model systems containing sulfur and fluorine atoms. It is shown that [S+F] concentrations in the range of 0−10 at.%, structural ordered characteristics similar to graphene pieces containing ring defects are energetically feasible. The modeling predicts that CSxFy thin films with graphite and fullerene-like characteristics may be obtained for the mentioned concentration range. Accordingly, thin films were synthesized from a graphite solid target and sulfur hexafluoride as reactive gas. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, transmission electron microscopy characterization and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the presence of small ordered clusters with graphitic features in a sample containing 0.4 at.% of S and 3.4 at.% of F.

  • 3.
    Hu, C.
    et al.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halim, Joseph
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Sun, L.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, J.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Yang, J.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Anasori, B.
    Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Wang, J.
    Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Sakka, Y.
    National Institute Mat Science, Japan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barsoum, Michel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Mo2Ga2C: a new ternary nanolaminated carbide2015In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 51, no 30, p. 6560-6563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of a new hexagonal Mo2Ga2C phase, wherein two Ga layers - instead of one - are stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement in between Mo2C layers. It is reasonable to assume this compound is the first of a larger family.

  • 4.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phase Formation of Nanolaminated Transition Metal Carbide Thin Films2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on inherently nanolaminated transition metal carbides is inspired by their unique properties combining metals and ceramics, such as higher damage tolerance, better machinability and lower brittleness compared to the binary counterparts, yet retaining the metallic conductivity. The interesting properties are related to their laminated structure, composed of transition-metalcarbide layers interleaved by non-transition-metal (carbide) layers. These materials in thin-film form are particularly interesting for potential applications such as protective coatings and electrical contacts. The goal of this work is to explore nanolaminated transition metal carbides from the aspects of phase formation and crystal growth during thin-film synthesis. This was realized by studying phases in select material systems synthesized from two major approaches, namely, fromdirect-deposition and post-deposition treatment.

    The first approach was used in studies on the Mo-Ga-C and Zr-Al-C systems. In the former system, intriguing properties have been predicted for the 3D phases and their 2D derivatives (socalled MXenes), while in the latter system, the phases are interesting for nuclear applications. In this work, the discovery of a new Mo-based nanolaminated ternary carbide, Mo2Ga2C, is evidenced from thin-film and bulk processes. Its structure was determined using theoretical and experimental techniques, showing that Mo2Ga2C has Ga double-layers in simple hexagonal stacking between adjacent Mo2C layers, and therefore is structurally very similar to Mo2GaC, except for the additional Ga layers. For the Zr-Al-C system, the optimization of phase composition and structure of Zr2Al3C4 in a thin-film deposition process was studied by evaluating the effect of deposition parameters. I concluded that the formation of Zr2Al3C4 is favored with a plasma flux overstoichiometric in Al, and with a minimum lattice-mismatch to the substrates. Consequently, epitaxial Zr2Al3C4 thin film of high quality were deposited on 4H-SiC(001) substrates at 800 °C.

    With the approach of post-deposition treatment, the studies were focused on a new method of thermally-induced selective substitution reaction of Au for the non-transition-metal layers in nanolaminated carbides. Here, the reaction mechanism has been explored in Al-containing (Ti2AlC

    and Ti3AlC2) and Ga-containing (Mo2GaC and Mo2Ga2C) phases. The Al and Ga in these phases were selectively replaced by Au while the carbide layers remained intact, resulting in the formation of new layered phases, Ti2Au2C, Ti3Au2C2, Mo2AuC, and Mo2(Au1-xGax)2C, respectively. The substitution reaction was explained by fast outward diffusion of the Al or Ga being attracted to the surface Au, in combination with back-filling of Au, which is chemically inert to the carbide layers,to the vacancies.

    The substitution reaction was further applied to Ga-containing nanolaminated carbides, (Cr0.5Mn0.5)2GaC and Mo2GaC, motivated by development of novel magnetic nanolaminates. The former experiment resulted in the formation of (Cr0.5Mn0.5)2AuC, where the retained (Cr0.5Mn0.5)2C layers allowed a comparative study on the magnetic properties under the exchange of Ga for Au. After Au substitution, reduction in the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization were observed, showing a weakened magnetic exchange interaction of the magnetic (Cr0.5Mn0.5)Clayers across the Au. In the Mo2GaC case, an Fe-containing MAX phase, Mo2AC with 50 at.% of Fe on the A site, was synthesized through selective substitution of Au-Fe alloy for the Ga layers, showing the first direct evidence for Fe in the MAX-phase structure. The substitution of Fe did not take place on another Mo2GaC sample tested for Fe exchange only, indicating the essential role of Au in catalyzing the Fe-substitution reaction.

    The knowledge gained from this thesis work contributes to improved approaches for attaining thin films of nanolaminated transition metal carbides with desired phase composition and crystal quality. The reports on the new nanolaminated phases through exchange interactions are likely to expand the family of nanolaminated carbides and advance their properties, and trigger more studies on related (quasi-) 2D materials.

    List of papers
    1. Mo2Ga2C: a new ternary nanolaminated carbide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mo2Ga2C: a new ternary nanolaminated carbide
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 51, no 30, p. 6560-6563Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of a new hexagonal Mo2Ga2C phase, wherein two Ga layers - instead of one - are stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement in between Mo2C layers. It is reasonable to assume this compound is the first of a larger family.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117813 (URN)10.1039/c5cc00980d (DOI)000352269000022 ()25768789 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [621-2011-4420, 642-2013-8020, 621-2014-4890]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research through the Synergy Grant FUNCASE Functional Carbides for Advanced Surface Engineering; Future Research Leaders 5 Program; ERC [258509]; Ningbo Natural Science Foundation [2013A610128]; National Natural Science Foundation of China [U1232136]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    2. Structural and chemical determination of the new nanolaminated carbide Mo2Ga2C from first principles and materials analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and chemical determination of the new nanolaminated carbide Mo2Ga2C from first principles and materials analysis
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 99, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Following our recent discovery of a new nanolaminated carbide, Mo2Ga2C, we herein present a detailed structural and chemical analysis of this phase based on ab initio calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and neutron powder diffraction. Calculations suggest an energetically and dynamically stable structure for C in the octahedral sites between the Mo layers, with Ga bilayers - stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement - between the Mo2C layers. The predicted elastic properties are below those of the related nanolaminate Mo2GaC. The predicted structure, including lattice parameters and atomic positions, is experimentally confirmed. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2015
    Keywords
    First principles; Phase stability; Nanolaminated material; Crystal structure; Mo2Ga2C
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122193 (URN)10.1016/j.actamat.2015.07.063 (DOI)000362145400017 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [621-2011-4420, 642-2013-8020, 621-2014-4890]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research through the Synergy Grant FUNCASE Functional Carbides for Advanced Surface Engineering; Future Research Leaders 5 Program; ERC [258509]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Available from: 2015-10-26 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2018-05-24
  • 5.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thin Film Synthesis of New Nanolaminated Ternary Carbides2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary transition metal carbides with inherently nanolaminated crystal structure are a class of materials with typically higher damage tolerance, better machinability and lower brittleness compared to the binary counterparts, yet retaining their satisfactory electrical and thermal conductivity. Their interesting properties can be related to the laminated structure. Though studies of their properties based on calculations and bulk materials have suggested potential thin film applications, such as high temperature hard coatings and electrical contacts, a relatively small number of these phases have been synthesized as thin films.  Investigation of thin film deposition of these inherently nanolaminated materials further the understanding of their phase formation and crystal growth.

    Motivated by predicted superconductivity and thermoelectric properties of molybdenum carbides and related layered molybdenum compounds, nanolaminated materials in the Mo-Ga-C ternary system were studied. Apart from the previously reported Mo2GaC, a new layered carbide, Mo2Ga2C, was synthesized in both thin film and bulk form with a postulated crystal structure related to Mo2GaC. The proposed structure was further validated by first principles calculations, showing higher stability compared to other crystal structure as well as other competing phases. The calculated lattice parameters were consistent with values from Rietveld analysis of X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns. In addition, both scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed experimental evidence of the close structural-chemical relation between Mo2Ga2C and Mo2GaC.

    Driven by a need of high temperature protective coatings in nuclear applications, Zr-based nanolaminated carbides have become more attractive. In this work, another nanolaminated carbide, Zr2Al3C4, was synthesized in thin film form by pulsed cathodic arc deposition. Formation of the Zr2Al3C4 phase and its competing phases was studied with X-ray diffraction of thin films deposited with varying incoming flux compositions, temperatures and substrate materials. On 4H-SiC(001) substrates, highly phase-pure epitaxial Zr2Al3C4 films were formed, whereas depositions on Al2O3(001) substrates resulted in competing phases. A growth behavior similar to that of nanolaminated Mn+1AXn phases (M is a group 3-7 transition metal; A is commonly a group 13-14 element; X is C or N; n = 1 - 3) was observed, despite the structuraland chemical differences between Zr2Al3C4 and MAX phases.

    List of papers
    1. Mo2Ga2C: a new ternary nanolaminated carbide
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mo2Ga2C: a new ternary nanolaminated carbide
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 51, no 30, p. 6560-6563Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of a new hexagonal Mo2Ga2C phase, wherein two Ga layers - instead of one - are stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement in between Mo2C layers. It is reasonable to assume this compound is the first of a larger family.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117813 (URN)10.1039/c5cc00980d (DOI)000352269000022 ()25768789 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [621-2011-4420, 642-2013-8020, 621-2014-4890]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research through the Synergy Grant FUNCASE Functional Carbides for Advanced Surface Engineering; Future Research Leaders 5 Program; ERC [258509]; Ningbo Natural Science Foundation [2013A610128]; National Natural Science Foundation of China [U1232136]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04
    2. Structural and chemical determination of the new nanolaminated carbide Mo2Ga2C from first principles and materials analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and chemical determination of the new nanolaminated carbide Mo2Ga2C from first principles and materials analysis
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 99, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Following our recent discovery of a new nanolaminated carbide, Mo2Ga2C, we herein present a detailed structural and chemical analysis of this phase based on ab initio calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and neutron powder diffraction. Calculations suggest an energetically and dynamically stable structure for C in the octahedral sites between the Mo layers, with Ga bilayers - stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement - between the Mo2C layers. The predicted elastic properties are below those of the related nanolaminate Mo2GaC. The predicted structure, including lattice parameters and atomic positions, is experimentally confirmed. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2015
    Keywords
    First principles; Phase stability; Nanolaminated material; Crystal structure; Mo2Ga2C
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122193 (URN)10.1016/j.actamat.2015.07.063 (DOI)000362145400017 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [621-2011-4420, 642-2013-8020, 621-2014-4890]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research through the Synergy Grant FUNCASE Functional Carbides for Advanced Surface Engineering; Future Research Leaders 5 Program; ERC [258509]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Available from: 2015-10-26 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2018-05-24
    3. Synthesis and characterization of Zr2Al3C4 thin films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and characterization of Zr2Al3C4 thin films
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 595, p. 142-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Zr2Al3C4 is an inherently nanolaminated carbide where layers of ZrC alternate with layers of Al3C2. Characterization of bulk samples has shown it has improved damage tolerance and oxidation resistance compared to its binary counterpart ZrC. Though a potential candidate for coatings applied for use in harsh environments, thin films of Zr2Al3C4 have not been reported. We have synthesized epitaxial Zr2Al3C4 thin films by pulsed cathodic arc deposition from three elemental cathodes, and have studied the effect of incident atomic flux ratio, deposition temperature, and choice of substrate on material quality. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Zr2Al3C4 of the highest structural quality was obtained for growth on 4 H-SiC(001) substrate at 800 degrees C. Also, suppression of competing phases could be achieved on alpha-Al2O3(001) at elevated substrate temperatures. Very similar growth behavior to that of the well-known M(n+1)AX(n) phases - Al supersaturation, binary carbide intergrowth and high sensitivity to choice of substrate - indicates a strong connection between the two families of materials, despite their differences in structure and in chemistry. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE SA, 2015
    Keywords
    Thin film; Cathodic arc deposition; Zr2Al3C4; Nanolaminate; Zirconium carbide
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123798 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2015.10.079 (DOI)000365812400024 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Research Council under the European Community Seventh Framework Program (FP7)/ERC [258509]; KAW Foundation; Swedish Research Council (VR) [642-2013-8020, 621-2012-4425]; KAW Fellowship program

    Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Phase formation of nanolaminated Mo2AuC and Mo-2(Au1-xGax)(2)C by a substitutional reaction within Au-capped Mo2GaC and Mo2Ga2C thin films2017In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 9, no 45, p. 17681-17687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Au-containing nanolaminated carbides Mo2AuC and Mo-2(Au1-xGax)(2)C were synthesized by a thermally induced substitutional reaction in Mo2GaC and Mo2Ga2C, respectively. The Au substitution of the Ga layers in the structures was observed using cross-sectional high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Expansion of c lattice parameters was also observed in the Au-containing phases compared to the original phases. Energy dispersive spectroscopy detected residual Ga in Au-substituted layers of both phases with a peculiar Ga in-plane ordering for Au : Ga = 9 : 1 ratio along the Au-Ga layers in Mo-2(Au1-xGax)(2)C. These results indicate a generalization of the Au substitution reaction for the A elements in MAX phases.

  • 7.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Goyenola, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis and properties of CSxFy thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/SF6 discharge2017In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 29, no 19, article id 195701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical and experimental study on the growth and properties of a ternary carbon-based material, CSxFy, synthesized from SF6 and C as primary precursors is reported. The synthetic growth concept was applied to model the possible species resulting from the fragmentation of SF6 molecules and the recombination of S-F fragments with atomic C. The possible species were further evaluated for their contribution to the film growth. Corresponding solid CSxFy thin films were deposited by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering from a C target in a mixed Ar/SF6 discharge with different SF6 partial pressures (P-SF6). Properties of the films were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and nanoindentation. A reduced mass density in the CSxFy films is predicted due to incorporation of precursor species with a more pronounced steric effect, which also agrees with the low density values observed for the films. Increased P-SF6 leads to decreasing deposition rate and increasing density, as explained by enhanced fluorination and etching on the deposited surface by a larger concentration of F/F-2 species during the growth, as supported by an increment of the F relative content in the films. Mechanical properties indicating superelasticity were obtained from the film with lowest F content, implying a fullerene-like structure in CSxFy compounds.

  • 8.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Näslund, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rivin, O.
    Nucl Research Centre Negev, Israel.
    Caspi, E. N.
    Nucl Research Centre Negev, Israel.
    Ozeri, O.
    Soreq Nucl Research Centre, Israel.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barsoum, Michel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structural and chemical determination of the new nanolaminated carbide Mo2Ga2C from first principles and materials analysis2015In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 99, p. 157-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following our recent discovery of a new nanolaminated carbide, Mo2Ga2C, we herein present a detailed structural and chemical analysis of this phase based on ab initio calculations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and neutron powder diffraction. Calculations suggest an energetically and dynamically stable structure for C in the octahedral sites between the Mo layers, with Ga bilayers - stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement - between the Mo2C layers. The predicted elastic properties are below those of the related nanolaminate Mo2GaC. The predicted structure, including lattice parameters and atomic positions, is experimentally confirmed. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Farle, Michael
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany; Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany; Immanuel Kant Baltic Fed Univ, Russia.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermally induced substitutional reaction of Fe into Mo2GaC thin films2017In: MATERIALS RESEARCH LETTERS, ISSN 2166-3831, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 533-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Fe-based MAX phase is realized by solid-state substitution reaction of an Fe/Au/Mo2GaC thin-film diffusion couple, as determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Chemical analysis together with elemental mapping reveals that as much as 50 at.% Fe on the A site can be obtained by thermally induced Au and Fe substitution for Ga atomic layers in Mo2GaC. One-sixth of the original Ga is also replaced by Au atoms. When annealing Mo2GaC thin films covered with Fe only, the Mo2GaC phase remains intact, that is, Au acts as a catalyst for the substitution reaction. [GRAPHICS] .

  • 10.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fashandi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wiedwald, Ulf
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany; Natl Univ Sci and Technol MISIS, Russia.
    Salikhov, Ruslan
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany.
    Farle, Michael
    Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany; Immanuel Kant Balt Fed Univ, Russia.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnetic properties and structural characterization of layered (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)AuC synthesized by thermally induced substitutional reaction in (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC2018In: APL MATERIALS, ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 026104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnetic properties of the new phase (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)AuC are compared to the known MAX-phase (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC, where the former was synthesized by thermally induced substitution reaction of Au for Ga in (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC. The reaction introduced a lattice expansion of similar to 3% along the c-axis, an enhancement of the coercive field from 30 mT to 140 mT, and a reduction of the Curie temperature and the saturation magnetization. Still, (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)AuC displays similar features in the magnetic field-and temperature-dependent magnetization curves as previously reported magnetic MAX phases, e.g., (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC and (Mo0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC. Thework suggests a pathway for tuning the magnetic properties of MAX phases. (c) 2018 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

  • 11.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tucker, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis and characterization of Zr2Al3C4 thin films2015In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 595, p. 142-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zr2Al3C4 is an inherently nanolaminated carbide where layers of ZrC alternate with layers of Al3C2. Characterization of bulk samples has shown it has improved damage tolerance and oxidation resistance compared to its binary counterpart ZrC. Though a potential candidate for coatings applied for use in harsh environments, thin films of Zr2Al3C4 have not been reported. We have synthesized epitaxial Zr2Al3C4 thin films by pulsed cathodic arc deposition from three elemental cathodes, and have studied the effect of incident atomic flux ratio, deposition temperature, and choice of substrate on material quality. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Zr2Al3C4 of the highest structural quality was obtained for growth on 4 H-SiC(001) substrate at 800 degrees C. Also, suppression of competing phases could be achieved on alpha-Al2O3(001) at elevated substrate temperatures. Very similar growth behavior to that of the well-known M(n+1)AX(n) phases - Al supersaturation, binary carbide intergrowth and high sensitivity to choice of substrate - indicates a strong connection between the two families of materials, despite their differences in structure and in chemistry. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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