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  • 1.
    Asutay, E.
    et al.
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kleiner, M.
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Development of methodology for documentation of key action properties and haptie sensation of pipe organ playing2012Inngår i: Acoustics Bulletin, ISSN 0308-437X, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 42-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Musical instruments provide auditory, visual and tactile feedback to the performer. The organist hears the pipes sounding as well as the contribution of room acoustics, sees the console, smells the air of the room, and feels the key action properties through his or her fingers and feet. Thus just as perception of most objects and events is multisensory, the sensation and perception of instrument playing are also multisensory. Within the project, The Organ as Memory Bank, we investigate the underlying dimensions of haptics in pipe organ playing, focusing on the mechanical manual-key action. This research involves both objective and subjective characterisation of the key action. Objective characterisation focuses on mechanical construction of the key and trackers and how it shapes the tactile feedback. The dynamic behaviour of the keys is measured as a function of key-fall and velocity as keys are pressed using a controllable linear actuator and characterized by objective parameters. The subjective characterisation of the haptics of organ playing is initially surveyed online. Semantic differential scales, which are devised based on the results of the survey, will be used in subjective experiments to reveal the underlying dimensions. Finally the objective (physical) and subjective (perceptual) characteristics will be linked to reveal the salient sensorial key action properties.

  • 2.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Attentional and Emotional Prioritization of the Sounds Occurring Outside the Visual Field2015Inngår i: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 281-286Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to detect and localize sounds in an environment is critical for survival. Localizing sound sources is a computational challenge for the human brain because the auditory cortex seems to lack a topographical space representation. However, attention and task demands can modulate localization performance. Here, we investigated whether the localization performance for sounds occurring directly in front of or behind people could be modulated by emotional salience and sound-source location. We measured auditory-induced emotion by ecological sounds occurring in the frontal or rear perceptual fields, and employed a speeded localization task. The results showed that both localization speed and accuracy were higher, and that stronger negative emotions were induced when sound sources were behind the participants. Our results provide clear behavioral evidence that auditory attention can be influenced by sound-source location. Importantly, we also show that the effect of spatial location on attention is mediated by emotion, which is in line with the argument that emotional information is prioritized in processing. Auditory system functions as an alarm system and is in charge of detecting possible salient events, and alarming for an attention shift. Further, spatial processing in the auditory dorsal pathway has a function of guiding the visual system to a particular location of interest. Thus, an auditory bias toward the space outside the visual field can be useful, so that visual attention could be quickly shifted in case of emotionally significant information.

  • 3.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Chalmers, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Auditory attentional selection is biased by reward cues2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 36989Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory attention theories suggest that humans are able to decompose the complex acoustic input into separate auditory streams, which then compete for attentional resources. How this attentional competition is influenced by motivational salience of sounds is, however, not well-understood. Here, we investigated whether a positive motivational value associated with sounds could bias the attentional selection in an auditory detection task. Participants went through a reward-learning period, where correct attentional selection of one stimulus (CS+) lead to higher rewards compared to another stimulus (CS-). We assessed the impact of reward-learning by comparing perceptual sensitivity before and after the learning period, when CS+ and CS-were presented as distractors for a different target. Performance decreased after reward-learning when CS+ was a distractor, while it increased when CS- was a distractor. Thus, the findings show that sounds that were associated with high rewards captures attention involuntarily. Additionally, when successful inhibition of a particular sound (CS-) was associated with high rewards then it became easier to ignore it. The current findings have important implications for the understanding of the organizing principles of auditory perception and provide, for the first time, clear behavioral evidence for reward-dependent attentional learning in the auditory domain in humans.

  • 4.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Emotional Bias in Change Deafness in Multisource Auditory Environments2014Inngår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 143, nr 1, s. 27-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories of auditory attention suggest that humans decompose complex auditory input into individual auditory objects, which then compete for attention to dominate auditory perception. Since emotional significance of external stimuli has been argued to provide cues for sensory prioritization and allocation of attention, emotionally salient auditory objects can receive attention to dominate auditory perception. On the basis of the function of audition as an alarm system that informs the organism about its immediate surroundings, and on empirical evidence that emotion can modulate auditory perception, we argue that auditory stimuli with greater emotional saliency would dominate perception in multisource environments. To test our hypothesis, we employed a change detection task in which participants were asked to indicate whether multisource auditory scenes were identical or different. Participants were better at detecting changes at the presence of an emotionally negative environment compared to neutral environment. Further, we found that participants were better at detecting changes of emotionally negative targets compared to neutral targets. Our results demonstrate that detecting changes in auditory scenes is influenced by emotion. The findings are discussed in the light of the theories of auditory attention, emotional modulation of attention, and the adaptive function of emotion for perception.

  • 5.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR 97401 USA.
    Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 10363Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to affective stimuli could enhance perception and facilitate attention via increasing alertness, vigilance, and by decreasing attentional thresholds. However, evidence on the impact of affective sounds on perception and attention is scant. Here, a novel aspect of affective facilitation of attention is studied: whether arousal induced by task-irrelevant auditory stimuli could modulate attention in a visual search. In two experiments, participants performed a visual search task with and without auditory-cues that preceded the search. Participants were faster in locating high-salient targets compared to low-salient targets. Critically, search times and search slopes decreased with increasing auditory-induced arousal while searching for low-salient targets. Taken together, these findings suggest that arousal induced by sounds can facilitate attention in a subsequent visual search. This novel finding provides support for the alerting function of the auditory system by showing an auditory-phasic alerting effect in visual attention. The results also indicate that stimulus arousal modulates the alerting effect. Attention and perception are our everyday tools to navigate our surrounding world and the current findings showing that affective sounds could influence visual attention provide evidence that we make use of affective information during perceptual processing.

  • 6.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Negative emotion provides cues for orienting auditory spatial attention2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, nr 618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The auditory stimuli provide information about the objects and events around us. They can also carry biologically significant emotional information (such as unseen dangers and conspecific vocalizations), which provides cues for allocation of attention and mental resources. Here, we investigated whether task-irrelevant auditory emotional information can provide cues for orientation of auditory spatial attention. We employed a covert spatial orienting task: the dot-probe task. In each trial, two task-irrelevant auditory cues were simultaneously presented at two separate locations (lef-tright or front-back). Environmental sounds were selected to form emotional vs. neutral, emotional vs. emotional, and neutral vs. neutral cue pairs. The participants task was to detect the location of an acoustic target that was presented immediately after the task-irrelevant auditory cues. The target was presented at the same location as one of the auditory cues. The results indicated that participants were significantly faster to locate the target when it replaced the negative cue compared to when it replaced the neutral cue. The positive cues did not produce a clear attentional bias. Further, same valence pairs (emotionalemotional or neutralneutral) did not modulate reaction times due to a lack of spatial attention capture by one cue in the pair. Taken together, the results indicate that negative affect can provide cues for the orientation of spatial attention in the auditory domain.

  • 7.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Perception of Loudness Is Influenced by Emotion2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Loudness perception is thought to be a modular system that is unaffected by other brain systems. We tested the hypothesis that loudness perception can be influenced by negative affect using a conditioning paradigm, where some auditory stimuli were paired with aversive experiences while others were not. We found that the same auditory stimulus was reported as being louder, more negative and fear-inducing when it was conditioned with an aversive experience, compared to when it was used as a control stimulus. This result provides support for an important role of emotion in auditory perception.

  • 8.
    Asutay, Erkin
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    Royal Holloway University of London.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI, Gothenburg.
    Bergman, Penny
    Chalmers.
    Kleiner, Mendel
    Chalmers.
    Emoacoustics: A Study of the Psychoacoustical and Psychological Dimensions of Emotional Sound Design2012Inngår i: JOURNAL OF THE AUDIO ENGINEERING SOCIETY, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 60, nr 1-2, s. 21-28Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though traditional psychoacoustics has provided indispensable knowledge about auditory perception, it has, in its narrow focus on signal characteristics, neglected listener and contextual characteristics. To demonstrate the influence of the meaning the listener attaches to a sound in the resulting sensations we used a Fourier-time-transform processing to reduce the identifiability of 18 environmental sounds. In a listening experiment, 20 subjects listened to and rated their sensations in response to, first, all the processed stimuli and then, all original stimuli, without being aware of the relationship between the two groups. Another 20 subjects rated only the processed stimuli, which were primed by their original counterparts. This manipulation was used in order to see the difference in resulting sensation when the subject could tell what the sound source is. In both tests subjects rated their emotional experience for each stimulus on the orthogonal dimensions of valence and arousal, as well as perceived annoyance and perceived loudness for each stimulus. They were also asked to identify the sound source. It was found that processing caused correct identification to reduce substantially, while priming recovered most of the identification. While original stimuli induced a wide range of emotional experience, reactions to processed stimuli were emotionally neutral. Priming manipulation reversed the effects of processing to some extent. Moreover, even though the 5th percentile Zwickers-loudness (N5) value of most of the stimuli was reduced after processing, neither perceived loudness nor auditory-induced emotion changed accordingly. Thus indicating the importance of considering other factors apart from the physical sound characteristics in sound design.

  • 9.
    Bergman, Penny
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tajadura-Jimenez, Ana
    University of Loyola Andalucia, Spain.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Auditory-Induced Emotion Mediates Perceptual Categorization of Everyday Sounds2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, nr 1565Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds. Importantly, the perceptual aspects were mediated by emotional responses. Together these results show that emotions are an integral part of auditory perception that is used as the intuitive basis for categorizing everyday sounds.

  • 10.
    Bjaelkebring, Par
    et al.
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Regulation of Experienced and Anticipated Regret in Daily Decision Making2016Inngår i: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 381-386Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decisions were sampled from 108 participants during 8 days using a web-based diary method. Each day participants rated experienced regret for a decision made, as well as forecasted regret for a decision to be made. Participants also indicated to what extent they used different strategies to prevent or regulate regret. Participants regretted 30% of decisions and forecasted regret in 70% of future decisions, indicating both that regret is relatively prevalent in daily decisions but also that experienced regret was less frequent than forecasted regret. In addition, a number of decision-specific regulation and prevention strategies were successfully used by the participants to minimize regret and negative emotions in daily decision making. Overall, these results suggest that regulation and prevention of regret are important strategies in many of our daily decisions.

  • 11.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts.

  • 12.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Johansson, Boo E. A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults2015Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, nr 703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a persons rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  • 13.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Queen Mary University of London, England.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Response: Commentary: Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 1887Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 14.
    Bouwmeester, S
    et al.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L.
    Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Aczel, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Barbosa, F
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Bègue, L
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Brañas-Garza, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Chmura, TGH
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Cornelissen, G
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Døssing, FS
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Espín, AM
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Evans, AM
    Tilburg University, The Netherlands.
    Ferreira-Santos, S
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Fiedler, S
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Flegr, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Ghaffari, M
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Glöckner, A
    University of Hagen, Germany; Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Goeschl, T
    University of Heidelberg, Germany.
    Guo, L
    University of California, USA.
    Hauser, OP
    Harvard University, USA.
    Hernan-Gonzalez, R
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Herrero, A
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Horne, Z
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Houdek, P
    University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Johannesson, M
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Kujal, P
    Middlesex University, UK.
    Laine, T
    Universite Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Lohse, J
    University of Birmingham, UK.
    Martins, EC
    Maia University, Institute ISMI/CPUP, USA.
    Mauro, C
    Catholic University of Portugal, Portugal.
    Mischkowski, D
    University of Hagen, Germany.
    Mukherjee, S
    Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, India.
    Myrseth, KOR
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Navarro-Martínez, D
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Neal, TMS
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Novakova, J
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pagà, R
    Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona, Spain.
    Paiva, TO
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Palfi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Piovesan, M
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rahal, RM
    Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Salomon, E
    University of Illinois, USA.
    Srinivasan, N
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Srivastava, A
    University of Allahabad, India.
    Szaszi, B
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Szollosi, A
    Eotvos Lorand University, Hungary.
    Thor, K Ø
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trueblood, JS
    Vanderbilt University, USA.
    van Bavel, JJ
    New York University, USA.
    van ‘t Veer, A. E.
    Leiden University, The Netherlands.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Warner, M
    Arizona State University, USA.
    Wengström, E
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wills, J
    New York University, USA.
    Wollbrant, CE
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; NTNU Business School, Norway.
    Registered Replication Report: Rand, Greene, and Nowak (2012): Multilab direct replication of: Study 7 from Rand, D. G., Greene, J. D., & Nowak, M. A. (2012) Spontaneous giving and calculated greed. Nature, 489, 427–430.2017Inngår i: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 527-542Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned to conditions and who met the protocol inclusion criteria (an intent-to-treat approach that included the 65.9% of participants in the time-pressure condition and 7.5% in the forced-delay condition who did not adhere to the time constraints), and we observed a difference in contributions of −0.37 percentage points compared with an 8.6 percentage point difference calculated from the original data. Analyzing the data as the original article did, including data only for participants who complied with the time constraints, the RRR observed a 10.37 percentage point difference in contributions compared with a 15.31 percentage point difference in the original study. In combination, the results of the intent-to-treat analysis and the compliant-only analysis are consistent with the presence of selection biases and the absence of a causal effect of time pressure on cooperation. 

  • 15.
    Carpenter, Stephanie M.
    et al.
    Decis Research, OR USA University of Michigan, MI 48109 USA .
    Peters, Ellen
    Ohio State University, OH 43210 USA Decis Research, OR USA .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Isen, Alice M.
    Cornell University, NY 14853 USA Cornell University, NY 14853 USA .
    Positive feelings facilitate working memory and complex decision making among older adults2013Inngår i: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 184-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of induced mild positive feelings on working memory and complex decision making among older adults (aged 6385) was examined. Participants completed a computer administered card task in which participants could win money if they chose from gain decks and lose money if they chose from loss decks. Individuals in the positive-feeling condition chose better than neutral-feeling participants and earned more money overall. Participants in the positive-feeling condition also demonstrated improved working-memory capacity. These effects of positive-feeling induction have implications for affect theory, as well as, potentially, practical implications for people of all ages dealing with complex decisions.

  • 16.
    Dickert, Stephan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Kleber, Janet
    WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria; Alpen Adria University of Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, OR USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Mental Imagery, Impact, and Affect: A Mediation Model for Charitable Giving2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. e0148274-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the puzzling phenomena in philanthropy is that people can show strong compassion for identified individual victims but remain unmoved by catastrophes that affect large numbers of victims. Two prominent findings in research on charitable giving reflect this idiosyncrasy: The (1) identified victim and (2) victim number effects. The first of these suggests that identifying victims increases donations and the second refers to the finding that peoples willingness to donate often decreases as the number of victims increases. While these effects have been documented in the literature, their underlying psychological processes need further study. We propose a model in which identified victim and victim number effects operate through different cognitive and affective mechanisms. In two experiments we present empirical evidence for such a model and show that different affective motivations (donor-focused vs. victim-focused feelings) are related to the cognitive processes of impact judgments and mental imagery. Moreover, we argue that different mediation pathways exist for identifiability and victim number effects.

  • 17.
    Dickert, Stephan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. WU Vienna University of Econ and Business, Austria.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, NY USA.
    Kleber, Janet
    University of Vienna, Austria.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, NY USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Scope insensitivity: The limits of intuitive valuation of human lives in public policy2015Inngår i: Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, ISSN 2211-3681, E-ISSN 2211-369X, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 248-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical question for government officials, managers of NGOs, and politicians is how to respond to situations in which large numbers of lives are at risk. Theories in judgment and decision making as well as economics suggest diminishing marginal utility with increasing quantities of goods. In the domain of lifesaving, this form of non-linearity implies decreasing concern for individual lives as the number of affected people increases. In this paper, we show how intuitive valuations based on prosocial emotions can lead to scope insensitivity and suboptimal responses to lives at risk. We present both normative and descriptive models of valuations of lives and discuss the underlying psychological processes as they relate to judgments and decisions made in public policy and by NGO5. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Inc on behalf of Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  • 18.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Sweden.
    Jungstrand, Amand A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Anticipated Guilt for Not Helping and Anticipated Warm Glow for Helping Are Differently Impacted by Personal Responsibility to Help2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, nr 1475Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g., guilt) and to approach positive emotions (e.g., warm glow) are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help. Helping scenarios were created and pilot tests established that each helping scenario could be formulated both in a high-responsibility version and in a low-responsibility version. In Study 1 participants read high-responsibility and low-responsibility helping scenarios, and rated either their anticipated guilt if not helping or their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., separate evaluation). Study 2 was similar but here participants rated both their anticipated guilt if not helping and their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e., joint evaluation). Anticipated guilt was clearly higher in the high-responsibility versions, but anticipated warm glow was unaffected (in Studies 1a and 1b), or even higher in the low-responsibility versions (Study 2). In Studies 3 (where anticipated guilt and warm glow were evaluated separately) and 4 (where they were evaluated jointly), personal responsibility to help was manipulated within-subjects. Anticipated guilt was again constantly higher in the high-responsibility versions but for many types of responsibility-manipulations, anticipated warm glow was higher in the low-responsibility versions. The results suggest that we anticipate guilt if not fulfilling our responsibility but that we anticipate warm glow primarily when doing over and beyond our responsibility. We argue that future studies investigating motivations for helping should measure both anticipated negative consequences for oneself if not helping, and anticipated positive consequences for oneself if helping.

  • 19.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Moyner Hohle, Sigrid
    Simula Res Lab, Norway.
    Lohre, Erik
    Simula Res Lab, Norway.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    The rise and fall of scary numbers: The effect of perceived trends on future estimates, severity ratings, and help-allocations in a cancer context2018Inngår i: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 48, nr 11, s. 618-633Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistical information such as death risk estimates is frequently used for illustrating the magnitude of a problem. Such mortality statistics are however easier to evaluate if presented next to an earlier estimate, as the two data points together will illustrate an upward or downward change. How are people influenced by such changes? In seven experiments, participants read mortality statistics (e.g., number of yearly deaths or expert-estimated death risks) made at two points of time about various cancer types. Each cancer type was manipulated to have either a downward trajectory (e.g., the estimated death risk was 37% in 2012, and was adjusted downward to 22% in 2014), an upward trajectory (e.g., 7% -amp;gt; 22%), or a flat trajectory (e.g., 22% -amp;gt; 22%). For each cancer type, participants estimated future mortality statistics and rated the perceived severity. They also allocated real money between projects aimed at preventing the different cancer types. Participants responses indicated that they thought that a trend made out of two data points would continue in the future. People also perceived cancer types with similar present mortality statistics as more severe and allocated more money to them when they had an upward trajectory compared to a flat or downward trajectory. Although there are boundary conditions, we conclude that peoples severity ratings and helping behavior can be influenced by trend information even when such information is based on only two data points.

  • 20.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Arthur
    Lund University, Department of Psychology, Lund, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, United States of America.
    Bullshit-sensitivity predicts prosocial behavior2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 7, artikkel-id e0201474Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullshit-sensitivity is the ability to distinguish pseudo-profound bullshit sentences (e.g. “Your movement transforms universal observations”) from genuinely profound sentences (e.g. “The person who never made a mistake never tried something new”). Although bullshit-sensitivity has been linked to other individual difference measures, it has not yet been shown to predict any actual behavior. We therefore conducted a survey study with over a thousand participants from a general sample of the Swedish population and assessed participants’ bullshit-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven bullshit sentences) and profoundness-receptivity (i.e. their perceived meaningfulness of seven genuinely profound sentences), and used these variables to predict two types of prosocial behavior (self-reported donations and a decision to volunteer for charity). Despite bullshit-receptivity and profoundness-receptivity being positively correlated with each other, logistic regression analyses showed that profoundness-receptivity had a positive association whereas bullshit-receptivity had a negative association with both types of prosocial behavior. These relations held up for the most part when controlling for potentially intermediating factors such as cognitive ability, time spent completing the survey, sex, age, level of education, and religiosity. The results suggest that people who are better at distinguishing the pseudo-profound from the actually profound are more prosocial.

  • 21.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Donations to Outgroup Charities, but Not Ingroup Charities, Predict Helping Intentions Toward Street-Beggars in Sweden2019Inngår i: Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, ISSN 0899-7640, E-ISSN 1552-7395, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 814-838Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how donation behavior to charitable organizations and helping intentions toward begging European Union (EU)-migrants are related. This question was tested by analyzing survey responses from 1,050 participants sampled from the general Swedish population. Although the overall results suggested that donations to charitable organizations were positively related to helping intentions toward beggars, the results differed substantially as a function of whether the organization was perceived to focus its efforts on outgroup victims or on ingroup victims. Specifically, whereas donation behavior toward outgroup-focused organizations clearly predicted more helping intentions toward beggars (also when controlling for demographics, education, income, religiosity, and political inclination), donation behavior toward ingroup-focused organizations predicted slightly less helping intentions toward beggars. We conclude that the type of charitable organization a person donates to might tell us more about his or her values and preferences than merely whether or not he or she donates at all.

  • 22.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Artur
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon, USA.
    Attitudes and donation behavior when reading positive and negative charity appeals2018Inngår i: Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, ISSN 1049-5142, E-ISSN 1540-6997, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 444-474Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article tries to clarify whether negative charity appeals (i.e., advertisements emphasizing the bad consequences of not helping) or positive charity appeals (i.e., advertisements emphasizing the good consequences of helping) are more effective. Previous literature does not provide a single answer to this question and we suggest that one contributing reason for this is that different studies have operationalized appeal effectiveness in different ways (e.g., actual behavior, self-rated helping intentions, or expressed attitudes about the ad or the organization). Results from four separate studies suggest that positive appeals are more effective in inducing favorable attitudes toward the ad and toward the organization but that negative appeals are more effective (in studies 1A and 1B) or at least equally effective (in studies 1C and 1D) in eliciting actual donations. Also, although people’s attitude toward the appeal (i.e., liking) was a good predictor for the expected effectiveness in increasing donation behavior (in Study 2), it was a poor predictor of actual donation behavior in all four main studies. These results cast doubt on marketing theories suggesting that attitudes toward an advertisement and toward the brand always lead to higher purchase behavior.

  • 23.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Sundfelt, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Argument-inconsistency in charity appeals: Statistical information about the scope of the problem decrease helping toward a single identified victim but not helping toward many non-identified victims in a refugee crisis context2016Inngår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 56, s. 126-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that both the characteristics of the victims one can help and the existence of victims one cannot help influence economic helping decisions in suboptimal ways. The aim of this study was to systematically test if these two aspects interact with each other. In Studies 1 and 2, we created hypothetical charity appeals related to the Syrian refugee crisis and factorially manipulated characteristics of victims possible to help (one identified child/nine non-identified children) and presence of statistical information about the scope and nature of the problem (information-box absent/present). We found a significant interaction effect both when using self-rated helping intention (Study 1), and when using actual donation behavior as the dependent variable (Study 2). Statistical information decreased helping intentions toward a single identified child but had no, or even a small positive effect on helping nine non-identified children. In Study 3, non-student participants reading a charity appeal with both a story about one identified child and statistical information donated less often than participants reading appeals with either only a story about one identified child or only statistical information. We suggest that both emotional arguments (e.g., a story and picture of an identified child in need) and analytical arguments (e.g., detailed statistical information about the scope and nature of the problem) can make us more motivated to help refugees, but that mixing different argument-types can make charity appeals internally inconsistent and decrease donations. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Genevsky, Alexander
    et al.
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Slovic, Paul
    Decis Research, OR USA .
    Knutson, Brian
    Stanford University, CA USA .
    Neural Underpinnings of the Identifiable Victim Effect: Affect Shifts Preferences for Giving2013Inngår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 33, nr 43, s. 17188-17196Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The "identifiable victim effect" refers to peoples tendency to preferentially give to identified versus anonymous victims of misfortune, and has been proposed to partly depend on affect. By soliciting charitable donations from human subjects during behavioral and neural (i.e., functional magnetic resonance imaging) experiments, we sought to determine whether and how affect might promote the identifiable victim effect. Behaviorally, subjects gave more to orphans depicted by photographs versus silhouettes, and their shift in preferences was mediated by photograph-induced feelings of positive arousal, but not negative arousal. Neurally, while photographs versus silhouettes elicited activity in widespread circuits associated with facial and affective processing, only nucleus accumbens activity predicted and could statistically account for increased donations. Together, these findings suggest that presenting evaluable identifiable information can recruit positive arousal, which then promotes giving. We propose that affect elicited by identifiable stimuli can compel people to give more to strangers, even despite costs to the self.

  • 25.
    Gärtner, Manja
    et al.
    DIW Berlin.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Decision Research .
    Decision-making traits and states as determinants of risky choicesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We test the effects of dual processing differences in both individual traits and decision states on risk taking. In an experiment with a large representative sample (N = 1,832), we vary whether risky choices are induced to be based on either emotion or reason, while simultaneously measuring individual decision-making traits. Our results show that decision-making traits are strong and robust determinants of risk taking: a more intuitive trait is associated with more risk taking, while a more deliberative trait is associated with less risk taking. Experimentally induced states, on the other hand, have no effect on risk taking. A test of state-trait interactions shows that the association between an intuitive trait and risk taking becomes weaker in the emotion-inducing state and in the loss domain. In contrast, the association between a deliberative trait and risk taking is stable across states. These findings highlight the importance of considering state-trait interactions when using dual processing theories to predict individual differences in risk taking.

  • 26.
    Hagman, William
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges2015Inngår i: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 439-453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? Should all types of nudges be judged the same? To date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. In addition we explore how individual differences in thinking and feeling influence attitudes toward nudges. General population samples in Sweden and the United States (n=952) were presented with vignettes describing nudge-policies and rated acceptability and intrusiveness on freedom of choice. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition and analytical thinking were included. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high in both countries, but were slightly higher among Swedes than Americans. Somewhat paradoxically a majority of the respondents also perceived the presented nudge-policies as intrusive to freedom of choice. Nudge- polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges (p<.0001). Individuals with a more individualistic worldview were less likely to perceive nudges as acceptable, while individuals more prone to analytical thinking were less likely to perceive nudges as intrusive to freedom of choice. To conclude, our findings suggest that the notion of “one-nudge- fits-all” is not tenable. Recognizing this is an important aspect both for successfully implementing nudges as well as nuancing nudge theory. 

  • 27.
    Hagman, William
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Dickert, Stephan
    Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; Klagenfurt University, Klagenfurt, Austria.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The effect of paternalistic alternatives on attitudes toward default nudges2019Inngår i: Behavioural Public Policy, ISSN 2398-0648Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nudges are increasingly being proposed and used as a policy tool around the world. The success of nudges depends on public acceptance. However, several questions about what makes a nudge acceptable remain unanswered. In this paper, we examine whether policy alternatives to nudges influence the public's acceptance of these nudges: Do attitudes change when the nudge is presented alongside either a more paternalistic policy alternative (legislation) or a less paternalistic alternative (no behavioral intervention)? In two separate samples drawn from the Swedish general public, we find a very small effect of alternatives on the acceptability of various default nudges overall. Surprisingly, we find that when the alternative to the nudge is legislation, acceptance decreases and perceived intrusiveness increases (relative to conditions where the alternative is no regulation). An implication of this finding is that acceptance of nudges may not always automatically increase when nudges are explicitly compared to more paternalistic alternatives.

  • 28.
    Juslin, Patrik N
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Liljestrom, Simon
    Stockholm University.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Emotional reactions to music in a nationally representative sample of Swedish adults: Prevalence and causal influences2011Inngår i: Musicae scientiae, ISSN 1029-8649, E-ISSN 2045-4147, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 174-207Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical studies have indicated that listeners value music primarily for its ability to arouse emotions. Yet little is known about which emotions listeners normally experience when listening to music, or about the causes of these emotions. The goal of this study was therefore to explore the prevalence of emotional reactions to music in everyday life and how this is influenced by various factors in the listener, the music, and the situation. A self-administered mail questionnaire was sent to a random and nationally representative sample of 1.500 Swedish citizens between the ages of 18 and 65, and 762 participants (51%) responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-two items explored both musical emotions in general (semantic estimates) and the most recent emotion episode featuring music for each participant (episodic estimates). The results revealed several variables (e.g., personality, age. gender, listener activity) that were correlated with particular emotions. A multiple discriminant analysis indicated that three of the most common emotion categories in a set of musical episodes (i.e., happiness, sadness, nostalgia) could be predicted with a mean accuracy of 70% correct based on data obtained from the questionnaire. The results may inform theorizing about musical emotions and guide the selection of causal variables for manipulation in future experiments.

  • 29.
    Kirchler, Michael
    et al.
    University of Innsbruck, Austria; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Bonn, Caroline
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Johannesson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Stockholm School Econ, Sweden.
    Sorensen, Erik O.
    NHH Norwegian School Econ, Norway.
    Stefan, Matthias
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR 97401 USA.
    The effect of fast and slow decisions on risk taking2017Inngår i: Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, ISSN 0895-5646, E-ISSN 1573-0476, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 37-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We experimentally compare fast and slow decisions in a series of experiments on financial risk taking in three countries involving over 1700 subjects. To manipulate fast and slow decisions, subjects were randomly allocated to responding within 7 seconds (time pressure) or waiting for at least 7 or 20 seconds (time delay) before responding. To control for different effects of time pressure and time delay on measurement noise, we estimate separate parameters for noise and risk preferences within a random utility framework. We find that time pressure increases risk aversion for gains and risk taking for losses compared to time delay, implying that time pressure increases the reflection effect of Prospect Theory. The results for gains are weaker and less robust than the results for losses. We find no significant difference between time pressure and time delay for loss aversion (tested in only one of the experiments). Time delay also leads to less measurement noise than time pressure and unconstrained decisions, and appears to be an effective way of decreasing noise in experiments.

  • 30.
    Kogut, Tehila
    et al.
    Ben Gurion University of Negev, Israel; Ben Gurion University of Negev, Israel.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Scope Insensitivity in Helping Decisions: Is It a Matter of Culture and Values?2015Inngår i: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 144, nr 6, s. 1042-1052Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The singularity effect of identifiable victims refers to peoples greater willingness to help a single concrete victim compared with a group of victims experiencing the same need. We present 3 studies exploring values and cultural sources of this effect. In the first study, the singularity effect was found only among Western Israelis and not among Bedouin participants (a more collectivist group). In Study 2, individuals with higher collectivist values were more likely to contribute to a group of victims. Finally, the third study demonstrates a more causal relationship between collectivist values and the singularity effect by showing that enhancing peoples collectivist values using a priming manipulation produces similar donations to single victims and groups. Moreover, participants collectivist preferences mediated the interaction between the priming conditions and singularity of the recipient. Implications for several areas of psychology and ways to enhance caring for groups in need are discussed.

  • 31.
    Koppel, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Morrison, India
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Posadzy, Kinga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa.
    The effect of acute pain on risky and intertemporal choice2017Inngår i: Experimental Economics, ISSN 1386-4157, E-ISSN 1573-6938, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 878-893Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain is a highly salient and attention-demanding experience that motivates people to act. We investigated the effect of pain on decision making by delivering acute thermal pain to participants’ forearm while they made risky and intertemporal choices involving money. Participants (n = 107) were more risk seeking under pain than in a no-pain control condition when decisions involved gains but not when they involved equivalent losses. Pain also resulted in greater preference for immediate (smaller) over future (larger) monetary rewards. We interpret these results as a motivation to offset the aversive, pain-induced state, where monetary rewards become more appealing under pain than under no pain and when delivered sooner rather than later. Our findings add to the long-standing debate regarding the role of intuition and reflection in decision making.

  • 32.
    Koppel, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Morrison, India
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Decis Research, OR USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The (Null) Effect of Affective Touch on Betrayal Aversion, Altruism, and Risk Taking2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5153, E-ISSN 1662-5153, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 251Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pleasant touch is thought to increase the release of oxytocin. Oxytocin, in turn, has been extensively studied with regards to its effects on trust and prosocial behavior, but results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of touch on economic decision making. Participants (n = 120) were stroked on their left arm using a soft brush (touch condition) or not at all (control condition; varied within subjects), while they performed a series of decision tasks assessing betrayal aversion (the Betrayal Aversion Elicitation Task), altruism (donating money to a charitable organization), and risk taking (the Balloon Analog Risk Task). We found no significant effect of touch on any of the outcome measures, neither within nor between subjects. Furthermore, effects were not moderated by gender or attachment. However, attachment avoidance had a significant effect on altruism in that those who were high in avoidance donated less money. Our findings contribute to the understanding of affective touch-and, by extension, oxytocin-in social behavior, and decision making by showing that touch does not directly influence performance in tasks involving risk and prosocial decisions. Specifically, our work casts further doubt on the validity of oxytocin research in humans.

  • 33.
    Koppel, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Andersson, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    No Effect of Ego Depletion on Risk Taking2019Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 9724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effect of ego depletion on risk taking. Specifically, we conducted three studies (total n= 1,716) to test the prediction that ego depletion results in decisions that are more strongly in line with prospect theory, i.e., that ego depletion reduces risk taking for gains, increases risk taking for losses, and increases loss aversion. Ego depletion was induced using two of the most common manipulations from previous literature: the letter e task (Studies 1 and 3) and the Stroop task (Study 2). Risk taking was measured using a series of standard, incentivized economic decision-making tasks assessing risk preferences in the gain domain, risk preferences in the loss domain, and loss aversion. None of the studies revealed a significant effect of ego depletion on risk taking. Our findings cast further doubts about the ability of ego-depletion manipulations to affect actual behavior in experimental settings.

  • 34.
    Kvarven, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Bergen.
    Strömland, Eirik
    Bergen University.
    Wollbrant, Conny
    Stirling University.
    David, Andersson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Magnus, Johannesson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Stockholm School of economics .
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Decision Research .
    Myrseth, Kristian
    Trinity College Dublin .
    The Intuitive Cooperation Hypothesis Revisited: A Meta-analytic Examination of Effect-size and Between-study HeterogeneityManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis that intuition promotes cooperation has attracted considerable attention. We address the question with a meta-analysis of 82 cooperation experiments, spanning four different types of intuition manipulations—time pressure, cognitive load, depletion, and induction—including 29,087 participants in total. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most comprehensive data set to date. We obtain a positive overall effect of intuition on cooperation, though substantially weaker than that reported in prior meta-analyses, and between studies the effect exhibits a substantial degree of systematic variation. We find that this overall effect depends exclusively on the inclusion of six experiments featuring emotion-induction manipulations, which prompt participants to rely on emotion over reason when making allocation decisions. Upon excluding from the total data set experiments featuring this class of manipulations, between-study variation in the meta-analysis is reduced substantially—and we observed no statistically discernable effect of intuition on cooperation.

  • 35.
    Liljestrom, Simon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Experimental evidence of the roles of music choice, social context, and listener personality in emotional reactions to music2013Inngår i: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 579-599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Music may arouse intense emotions in listeners, but little is known about the circumstances that contribute to such reactions. Here we report a listening experiment that investigated the roles of selected musical, situational, and individual factors in emotional reactions to music. In a 2 x 2 factorial design, we manipulated music choice (self-chosen vs. randomly sampled) and social context (alone vs. with a close friend or partner). Fifty university students (20-43 years old) rated their emotional responses to the music in terms of overall emotion intensity and 15 emotions. We also measured personality traits (NEO-PI-R) and psychophysiological responses (skin conductance, heart rate). Consistent with predictions based on previous field studies, listeners reported more intense emotions (1) to self-chosen music than to randomly selected music and (2) when listening with a close friend or partner than when listening alone. Moreover, listeners scoring high on the trait Openness to experience experienced more intense emotions than listeners scoring low. All three factors correlated positively with the experience of positive emotions such as happiness and pleasure.

  • 36.
    Lind, Therese
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, OR, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Motivated reasoning when assessing the effects of refugee intake2018Inngår i: Behavioural Public Policy, ISSN 2398-063XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Do differences in worldview ideology hinder people from objectively interpreting the effect of immigration? In an experiment with Swedish adults (n = 1015), we investigate whether people display motivated reasoning when interpreting numerical information about the effects of refugee intake on crime rate. Our results show clear evidence of motivated reasoning along the lines of worldview ideology (i.e., whether people identify themselves primarily as nationally oriented or globally oriented). In scenarios where refugee intake was associated with higher crime rate, nationally oriented people were 18 percentage points more likely to make the correct assessment compared to globally oriented people. Likewise, in scenarios where refugee intake was associated with lower crime rate, nationally oriented people were 20 percentage points less likely to make the correct assessment compared to globally oriented people. Individuals with higher numeric ability were less likely to engage in motivated reasoning, suggesting that motivated reasoning more commonly is driven by feelings and emotional cues rather than deliberate analytical processes.

  • 37.
    Markowitz, Ezra M.
    et al.
    Columbia University, NY, USA.
    Slovic, Paul
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hodges, Sara D.
    University of Oregon, USA.
    Compassion fade and the challenge of environmental conservation2013Inngår i: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 397-406Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Compassion shown towards victims often decreases as the number of individuals in need of aid increases, identifiability of the victims decreases, and the proportion of victims helped shrinks. Such "compassion fade" may hamper individual-level and collective responses to pressing large-scale crises. To date, research on compassion fade has focused on humanitarian challenges; thus, it remains unknown whether and to what extent compassion fade emerges when victims are non-human others. Here we show that compassion fade occurs in the environmental domain, but only among non-environmentalists. These findings suggest that compassion fade may challenge our collective ability and willingness to confront the major environmental problems we face, including climate change. The observed moderation effect of environmental identity further indicates that compassion fade may present a significant psychological barrier to building broad public support for addressing these problems. Our results highlight the importance of bringing findings from the field of judgment and decision making to bear on pressing societal issues.

  • 38. McCarthy, Randy J.
    et al.
    Skowronski, John J.
    Verschuere, Bruno
    Meijer, Ewout H.
    Jim, Ariane
    Hoogesteyn, Katherine
    Orthey, Robin
    Acar, Oguz A.
    Aczel, Balazs
    Bakos, Bence E.
    Barbosa, Fernando
    Baskin, Ernest
    Bègue, Laurent
    Ben-Shakhar, Gershon
    Birt, Angie R.
    Blatz, Lisa
    Charman, Steve D.
    Claesen, Aline
    Clay, Samuel L.
    Coary, Sean P.
    Crusius, Jan
    Evans, Jacqueline R.
    Feldman, Noa
    Ferreira-Santos, Fernando
    Gamer, Matthias
    Gerlsma, Coby
    Gomes, Sara
    González-Iraizoz, Marta
    Holzmeister, Felix
    Huber, Juergen
    Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.
    Isoni, Andrea
    Jessup, Ryan K.
    Kirchler, Michael
    klein Selle, Nathalie
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kovacs, Marton
    Laine, Tei
    Lentz, Frank
    Loschelder, David D.
    Ludvig, Elliot A.
    Lynn, Monty L.
    Martin, Scott D.
    McLatchie, Neil M.
    Mechtel, Mario
    Nahari, Galit
    Özdoğru, Asil Ali
    Pasion, Rita
    Pennington, Charlotte R.
    Roets, Arne
    Rozmann, Nir
    Scopelliti, Irene
    Spiegelman, Eli
    Suchotzki, Kristina
    Sutan, Angela
    Szecsi, Peter
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tisserand, Jean-Christian
    Tran, Ulrich S.
    Van Hiel, Alain
    Vanpaemel, Wolf
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene, Oregon.
    Verliefde, Thomas
    Vezirian, Kévin
    Voracek, Martin
    Warmelink, Lara
    Wick, Katherine
    Wiggins, Bradford J.
    Wylie, Keith
    Yıldız, Ezgi
    Registered Replication Report on Srull and Wyer (1979)2018Inngår i: Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, ISSN 2515-2459, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 321-336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Srull and Wyer (1979) demonstrated that exposing participants to more hostility-related stimuli caused them subsequently to interpret ambiguous behaviors as more hostile. In their Experiment 1, participants descrambled sets of words to form sentences. In one condition, 80% of the descrambled sentences described hostile behaviors, and in another condition, 20% described hostile behaviors. Following the descrambling task, all participants read a vignette about a man named Donald who behaved in an ambiguously hostile manner and then rated him on a set of personality traits. Next, participants rated the hostility of various ambiguously hostile behaviors (all ratings on scales from 0 to 10). Participants who descrambled mostly hostile sentences rated Donald and the ambiguous behaviors as approximately 3 scale points more hostile than did those who descrambled mostly neutral sentences. This Registered Replication Report describes the results of 26 independent replications (N = 7,373 in the total sample; k = 22 labs and N = 5,610 in the primary analyses) of Srull and Wyer?s Experiment 1, each of which followed a preregistered and vetted protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis showed that the protagonist was seen as 0.08 scale points more hostile when participants were primed with 80% hostile sentences than when they were primed with 20% hostile sentences (95% confidence interval, CI = [0.004, 0.16]). The ambiguously hostile behaviors were seen as 0.08 points less hostile when participants were primed with 80% hostile sentences than when they were primed with 20% hostile sentences (95% CI = [?0.18, 0.01]). Although the confidence interval for one outcome excluded zero and the observed effect was in the predicted direction, these results suggest that the currently used methods do not produce an assimilative priming effect that is practically and routinely detectable.

  • 39.
    Nilsson, Artur
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    The Complex Relation Between Receptivity to Pseudo-Profound Bullshit and Political Ideology2019Inngår i: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, ISSN 0146-1672, E-ISSN 1552-7433, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 1440-1454Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This research systematically mapped the relationship between political ideology and receptivity to pseudo-profound bullshit-that is, obscure sentences constructed to impress others rather than convey truth. Among Swedish adults (N = 985), bullshit receptivity was (a) robustly positively associated with socially conservative (vs. liberal) self-placement, resistance to change, and particularly binding moral intuitions (loyalty, authority, purity); (b) associated with centrism on preference for equality and even leftism (when controlling for other aspects of ideology) on economic ideology self-placement; and (c) lowest among right-of-center social liberal voters and highest among left-wing green voters. Most of the results held up when we controlled for the perceived profundity of genuine aphorisms, cognitive reflection, numeracy, information processing bias, gender, age, education, religiosity, and spirituality. The results are supportive of theoretical accounts that posit ideological asymmetries in cognitive orientation, while also pointing to the existence of bullshit receptivity among both right- and left-wingers.

  • 40.
    Nilsson, Artur
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR 97401 USA.
    The congruency between moral foundations and intentions to donate, self-reported donations, and actual donations to charity2016Inngår i: journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 65, s. 22-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend past research on the congruency between moral foundations and morally relevant outcomes to ingroup- and outgroup-focused charitable giving. We measured intentions to donate to outgroup members (begging EU-migrants) and self-reported donations to ingroup (medical research) and outgroup (international aid) charity organizations in a heterogeneous sample (N = 1008) and actual donations to ingroup (cancer treatment) and outgroup (hunger relief) organizations in two experimental studies (N = 126; N = 200). Individualizing intuitions predicted helping in general across self-report and behavioral data. Binding intuitions predicted higher donations to ingroup causes, lower donations to outgroup causes, and less intentions to donate to outgroup members in the self-report data, and they predicted lower donations overall in the behavioral data. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 41.
    ODonnell, Michael
    et al.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Nelson, Leif D.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Ackermann, Evi
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Aczel, Balazs
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Akhtar, Athfah
    Birmingham City Univ, England.
    Aldrovandi, Silvio
    Birmingham City Univ, England.
    Alshaif, Nasseem
    Calif State Univ Bakersfield, CA USA.
    Andringa, Ronald
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Aveyard, Mark
    Amer Univ Sharjah, U Arab Emirates.
    Babincak, Peter
    Univ Presov, Slovakia.
    Balatekin, Nursena
    Uskudar Univ, Turkey.
    Baldwin, Scott A.
    Brigham Young Univ, UT 84602 USA.
    Banik, Gabriel
    Univ Presov, Slovakia.
    Baskin, Ernest
    St Josephs Univ, PA 19131 USA.
    Bell, Raoul
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Bialobrzeska, Olga
    SWPS Univ Social Sci and Humanities, Poland.
    Birt, Angie R.
    Mt St Vincent Univ, Canada.
    Boot, Walter R.
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Braithwaite, Scott R.
    Brigham Young Univ, UT 84602 USA.
    Briggs, Jessie C.
    Temple Univ, PA 19122 USA.
    Buchner, Axel
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Budd, Desiree
    Univ Wisconsin Stout, WI USA.
    Budzik, Kathryn
    Ashland Univ, OH USA.
    Bullens, Lottie
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Bulley, Richard L.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Cannon, Peter R.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Cantarero, Katarzyna
    SWPS Univ Social Sci and Humanities, Poland.
    Cesario, Joseph
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Chambers, Stephanie
    East Tennessee State Univ, TN USA.
    Chartier, Christopher R.
    Ashland Univ, OH USA.
    Chekroun, Peggy
    Univ Paris Nanterre, France.
    Chong, Clara
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Cleeremans, Axel
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Coary, Sean P.
    St Josephs Univ, PA 19131 USA.
    Coulthard, Jacob
    East Tennessee State Univ, TN USA.
    Cramwinckel, Florien M.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands; Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Denson, Thomas F.
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Diaz-Lago, Marcos
    Univ Deusto, Spain.
    DiDonato, Theresa E.
    Loyola Univ Maryland, MD USA.
    Drummond, Aaron
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Eberlen, Julia
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Ebersbach, Titus
    Univ Wuppertal, Germany.
    Edlund, John E.
    Rochester Inst Technol, NY 14623 USA.
    Finnigan, Katherine M.
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Fisher, Justin
    Appalachian State Univ, NC 28608 USA.
    Frankowska, Natalia
    SWPS Univ Social Sci and Humanities, Poland.
    Garcia-Sanchez, Efrain
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Golom, Frank D.
    Loyola Univ Maryland, MD USA.
    Graves, Andrew J.
    Appalachian State Univ, NC 28608 USA.
    Greenberg, Kevin
    Univ Utah, UT 84112 USA.
    Hanioti, Mando
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Hansen, Heather A.
    Calif State Univ Bakersfield, CA USA.
    Harder, Jenna A.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Harrell, Erin R.
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Hartanto, Andree
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Inzlicht, Michael
    Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Johnson, David J.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Karpinski, Andrew
    Temple Univ, PA 19122 USA.
    Keller, Victor N.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Klein, Olivier
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Koppel, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Krahmer, Emiel
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Lantian, Anthony
    Univ Paris Nanterre, France.
    Larson, Michael J.
    Brigham Young Univ, UT 84602 USA.
    Legal, Jean-Baptiste
    Univ Paris Nanterre, France.
    Lucas, Richard E.
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Lynott, Dermot
    Univ Lancaster, England.
    Magaldino, Corey M.
    Appalachian State Univ, NC 28608 USA.
    Massar, Karlijn
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    McBee, Matthew T.
    East Tennessee State Univ, TN USA.
    McLatchie, Neil
    Univ Lancaster, England.
    Melia, Nadhilla
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Mensink, Michael C.
    Univ Wisconsin Stout, WI USA.
    Mieth, Laura
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Moore-Berg, Samantha
    Temple Univ, PA 19122 USA.
    Neeser, Geraldine
    Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Newell, Ben R.
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Noordewier, Marret K.
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Ozdogru, Asil Ali
    Uskudar Univ, Turkey.
    Pantazi, Myrto
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Parzuchowski, Michal
    SWPS Univ Social Sci and Humanities, Poland.
    Peters, Kim
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Philipp, Michael C.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Pollmann, Monique M. H.
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Rentzelas, Panagiotis
    Birmingham City Univ, England.
    Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Roeer, Jan Philipp
    Witten Herdecke Univ, Germany.
    Ropovik, Ivan
    Univ Presov, Slovakia.
    Roque, Nelson A.
    Florida State Univ, FL 32306 USA.
    Rueda, Carolina
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Colombia.
    Rutjens, Bastiaan T.
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sackett, Katey
    Rochester Inst Technol, NY 14623 USA.
    Salamon, Janos
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary; Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Sanchez-Rodriguez, Angel
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Saunders, Blair
    Univ Dundee, Scotland.
    Schaafsma, Juliette
    Tilburg Univ, Netherlands.
    Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael
    Univ Bern, Switzerland; Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Germany.
    Shanks, David R.
    UCL, England.
    Sherman, Martin F.
    Loyola Univ Maryland, MD USA.
    Steele, Kenneth M.
    Appalachian State Univ, NC 28608 USA.
    Steffens, Niklas K.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Sun, Jessie
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Susa, Kyle J.
    Calif State Univ Bakersfield, CA USA.
    Szaszi, Barnabas
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Szollosi, Aba
    Univ New South Wales, Australia.
    Tamayo, Ricardo M.
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Colombia.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tong, Yuk-yue
    Singapore Management Univ, Singapore.
    Tweten, Carol
    Michigan State Univ, MI 48824 USA.
    Vadillo, Miguel A.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Spain.
    Valcarcel, Deisy
    Univ Nacl Colombia, Colombia.
    Van der Linden, Nicolas
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Belgium.
    van Elk, Michiel
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Harreveld, Frenk
    Univ Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Vazire, Simine
    Univ Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Verduyn, Philippe
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Williams, Matt N.
    Massey Univ, New Zealand.
    Willis, Guillermo B.
    Univ Granada, Spain.
    Wood, Sarah E.
    Univ Wisconsin Stout, WI USA.
    Yang, Chunliang
    UCL, England.
    Zerhouni, Oulmann
    Univ Paris Nanterre, France.
    Zheng, Robert
    Univ Utah, UT 84112 USA.
    Zrubka, Mark
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Hungary.
    Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998)2018Inngår i: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 268-294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with a category associated with intelligence (professor) subsequently performed 13% better on a trivia test than participants primed with a category associated with a lack of intelligence (soccer hooligans). In two unpublished replications of this study designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, Dijksterhuis, van Knippenberg, and Holland observed a smaller difference between conditions (2%-3%) as well as a gender difference: Men showed the effect (9.3% and 7.6%), but women did not (0.3% and -0.3%). The procedure used in those replications served as the basis for this multilab Registered Replication Report. A total of 40 laboratories collected data for this project, and 23 of these laboratories met all inclusion criteria. Here we report the meta-analytic results for those 23 direct replications (total N = 4,493), which tested whether performance on a 30-item general-knowledge trivia task differed between these two priming conditions (results of supplementary analyses of the data from all 40 labs, N = 6,454, are also reported). We observed no overall difference in trivia performance between participants primed with the professor category and those primed with the hooligan category (0.14%) and no moderation by gender.

  • 42.
    Persson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hagman, William
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Affective Response Predicts Risky Choice for Fast, but Not Slow, Decisions2018Inngår i: JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMICS, ISSN 1937-321X, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 213-227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use skin conductance to measure emotional arousal in subjects who make risky choices under time pressure or time delay. Our results show a strong correlation between subjects skin conductance responses and their risky choices under time pressure but not under time delay. Subjects were more risk taking for higher levels of measured electrodermal activity (skin conductance). In line with descriptive theories of risky choice, the effect was most pronounced for choices involving losses rather than gains. Taken together, our findings indicate that participants under time pressure rely on affect at the point of decision-making. This provides support for behavioral models that recognize the role of emotional brain systems in decision-making under risk.

  • 43.
    Persson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Löfberg, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Variation in the mu-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Does Not Moderate Social-Rejection Sensitivity in Humans2019Inngår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 1050-1062Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Given previous findings from animal studies and small-scale studies in humans, variation in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been proposed as a strong biological candidate for moderating sensitivity to social rejection. Using a substantially larger sample (N = 490) than previous studies, a prospective genotyping strategy, and preregistered analysis plans, we tested the hypotheses that OPRM1 variation measured by the functional A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) moderates (a) dispositional sensitivity to rejection and feelings of distress following social exclusion and (b) decision making involving social cognition. In three experimental tasks commonly used to assess altruism, reciprocity, and trust in humans, we found no evidence in favor of the hypotheses; nine main tests were preregistered, and all of them yielded small and statistically insignificant estimates. In secondary analyses, we used Bayesian inference and estimation to quantify support for our findings. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the link between OPRM1 A118G variation and social-rejection sensitivity is weaker than previously thought.

  • 44.
    Saarikallio, Suvi
    et al.
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Baltazar, Margarida
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Adolescents musical relaxation: understanding related affective processing2017Inngår i: Nordisk tidskrift for musikkterapi - Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0809-8131, E-ISSN 1944-8260, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 376-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Music listening promotes adolescents well-being and relaxation in daily life. Relaxation is linked to affective self-regulation, but little is known about the specific affective processes of musical relaxation. The current study aimed to elaborate the affective dimension of adolescents musical relaxation, through detailed exploration of the related affect regulation goals, strategies, and induction mechanisms. A qualitative study with 55 adolescents (42 girls, 13 boys), aged 15, was conducted. Participants listened to self-selected relaxation music for 20min, once in a laboratory and once at home, and provided written descriptions of their experience. A total of 110 episode descriptions were analyzed using summative, directed, content analysis for identifying typical patterns and interactions between the underlying concepts. Three major strategies (processing, distraction, induction) and two mechanisms (musical and mental) were identified. Processing was supported by both mechanisms, while distraction and induction predominantly by the musical mechanism. Change from negative to positive mood was particularly realized through musical distraction, while pure positive emotion induction was equally supported by all strategies and mechanisms. The analysis revealed clear patterns of how affect regulation strategies and induction mechanisms interrelate and serve different outcomes as part of adolescents relaxation. The findings provide conceptual clarification and theoretical grounds for understanding how affective processes function in musical relaxation. The discussion is performed in light of prior research and broader understanding of music as part of adolescents affective processing and self-regulation.

  • 45.
    Skagenholt, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA; Univ Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Examining the Triple Code Model in numerical cognition: An fMRI study2018Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikkel-id e0199247Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Triple Code Model (TCM) of numerical cognition argues for the existence of three representational codes for number: Arabic digits, verbal number words, and analog nonsymbolic magnitude representations, each subserved by functionally dissociated neural substrates. Despite the popularity of the TCM, no study to date has explored all three numerical codes within one fMRI paradigm. We administered three tasks, associated with each of the aforementioned numerical codes, in order to explore the neural correlates of numerosity processing in a sample of adults (N=46). Independent task-control contrast analyses revealed task-dependent activity in partial support of the model, but also highlight the inherent complexity of a distributed and overlapping fronto-parietal network involved in all numerical codes. The results indicate that the TCM correctly predicts the existence of some functionally dissociated neural substrates, but requires an update that accounts for interactions with attentional processes. Parametric contrasts corresponding to differences in task difficulty revealed specific neural correlates of the distance effect, where closely spaced numbers become more difficult to discriminate than numbers spaced further apart. A conjunction analysis illustrated overlapping neural correlates across all tasks, in line with recent proposals for a fronto-parietal network of number processing. We additionally provide tentative results suggesting the involvement of format-independent numerosity-sensitive retinotopic maps in the early visual stream, extending previous findings of nonsymbolic stimulus selectivity. We discuss the functional roles of the components associated with the model, as well as the purported fronto-parietal network, and offer arguments in favor of revising the TCM.

  • 46.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    Bolt, Taylor
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    Nomi, Jason S.
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    Skagenholt, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Uddin, Lucina Q.
    Univ Miami, FL 33124 USA.
    Disentangling Mathematics from Executive Functions by Investigating Unique Functional Connectivity Patterns Predictive of Mathematics Ability2019Inngår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 560-573Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms that give rise to mathematical competence? This study investigated the relationship between tests of mathematical ability completed outside the scanner and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) of cytoarchitectonically defined subdivisions of the parietal cortex in adults. These parietal areas are also involved in executive functions (EFs). Therefore, it remains unclear whether there are unique networks for mathematical processing. We investigate the neural networks for mathematical cognition and three measures of EF using resting-state fMRI data collected from 51 healthy adults. Using 10 ROIs in seed to whole-brain voxel-wise analyses, the results showed that arithmetical ability was correlated with FC between the right anterior intraparietal sulcus (hIP1) and the left supramarginal gyrus and between the right posterior intraparietal sulcus (hIP3) and the left middle frontal gyrus and the right premotor cortex. The connection between the posterior portion of the left angular gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus was also correlated with mathematical ability. Covariates of EF eliminated connectivity patterns with nodes in inferior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus, suggesting neural overlap. Controlling for EF, we found unique connections correlated with mathematical ability between the right hIP1 and the left supramarginal gyrus and between hIP3 bilaterally to premotor cortex bilaterally. This is partly in line with the "mapping hypothesis" of numerical cognition in which the right intraparietal sulcus subserves nonsymbolic number processing and connects to the left parietal cortex, responsible for calculation procedures. We show that FC within this circuitry is a significant predictor of math ability in adulthood.

  • 47.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lind, Thérese
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Strömbäck, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Financial literacy and the role of numeracy-How individuals attitude and affinity with numbers influence financial literacy2018Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, ISSN 2214-8043, E-ISSN 2214-8051, Vol. 74, s. 18-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Being financially literate is an important life skill that is equally important for ones own sake as well as for society. Findings indicate that individuals are financially illiterate while interventions to increase the level of financial literacy are ineffective. The effect of financial literacy on financial behavior reported in correlation studies may be driven by some unknown third variable, such as individual cognitive ability. The current study investigated the role of cognitive and emotional factors in attaining financial literacy. In a representative sample of the general population, our regression models indicate that a central component of financial literacy can be traced to numeracy and the emotional attitude towards numbers (i. e. mathematics anxiety). Thus, a driving force behind becoming financially literate resides in the ability to understand numbers and having an emotional attitude towards numbers that does not interfere with an individuals daily engagement in activities involving mathematics and financial decisions.

  • 48.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    How does mathematics anxiety impair mathematical abilities? Investigating the link between math anxiety, working memory, and number processing2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikkel-id e0211283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary society, it is essential to have adequate mathematical skills. Being numerate has been linked to positive life outcomes and well-being in adults. It is also acknowledged that math anxiety (MA) hampers mathematical skills increasingly with age. Still, the mechanisms by which MA affect performance remain debated. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we contrast the different ways in which MA has been suggested to interfere with math abilities. Our models indicate that MA may affect math performance through three pathways: (1) indirectly through working memory ability, giving support for the affective drop hypothesis of MAs role in mathematical performance, (2) indirectly through symbolic number processing, corroborating the notion of domain-specific mechanisms pertaining to number, and (3) a direct effect of MA on math performance. Importantly, the pathways vary in terms of their relative strength depending on what type of mathematical problems are being solved. These findings shed light on the mechanisms by which MA may interfere with mathematical performance.

  • 49.
    Slovic, Paul
    et al.
    Decis Research, OR 97401 USA; University of Oregon, OR 97403 USA.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decis Research, OR 97401 USA.
    Erlandsson, Arvid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gregory, Robin
    Decis Research, OR 97401 USA; ChoiceWorks Ltd, Canada.
    Iconic photographs and the ebb and flow of empathic response to humanitarian disasters2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, nr 4, s. 640-644Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The power of visual imagery is well known, enshrined in such familiar sayings as "seeing is believing" and "a picture is worth a thousand words." Iconic photos stir our emotions and transform our perspectives about life and the world in which we live. On September 2, 2015, photographs of a young Syrian child, Aylan Kurdi, lying face-down on a Turkish beach, filled the front pages of newspapers worldwide. These images brought much-needed attention to the Syrian war that had resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths and created millions of refugees. Here we present behavioral data demonstrating that, in this case, an iconic photo of a single child had more impact than statistical reports of hundreds of thousands of deaths. People who had been unmoved by the relentlessly rising death toll in Syria suddenly appeared to care much more after having seen Aylans photograph; however, this newly created empathy waned rather quickly. We briefly examine the psychological processes underlying these findings, discuss some of their policy implications, and reflect on the lessons they provide about the challenges to effective intervention in the face of mass threats to human well-being.

  • 50.
    Strömbäck, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lind, Thérèse
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Decision Research, Eugene Oregon, USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Does self-control predict financial behavior and financial well-being?2017Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, ISSN 2214-6350, E-ISSN 2214-6369, ISSN 2214-6350, Vol. 14, s. 30-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve our understanding of how people make financial decisions, it is important to investigate what psychological characteristics influence individuals’ positive financial behavior and financial well-being. In this study, we explore the effect of individual differences in self-control and other non-cognitive factors on financial behavior and financial well-being. A survey containing measures of financial behavior, subjective financial well-being, self-control, optimism, deliberative thinking and demographic variables was sent to a representative sample (n=2063)" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: normal; font-size: 14.399999618530273px; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Microsoft Sans Serif', 'Segoe UI Symbol', STIXGeneral, 'Cambria Math', 'Arial Unicode MS', sans-serif; position: relative;"> of the Swedish population. Our findings extend the application of the behavioral lifecycle hypothesis beyond savings behavior, to include general financial behavior. People with good self-control are more likely to save money from every pay-check, have better general financial behavior, feel less anxious about financial matters, and feel more secure in their current and future financial situation.

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