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• 1.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Strategy for simultaneously increasing both hardness and toughness in ZrB2-rich Zr1-xTaxBy thin films2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 3, article id 031506Article in journal (Refereed)

Refractory transition-metal diborides exhibit inherent hardness. However, this is not always sufficient to prevent failure in applications involving high mechanical and thermal stress, since hardness is typically accompanied by brittleness leading to crack formation and propagation. Toughness, the combination of hardness and ductility, is required to avoid brittle fracture. Here, the authors demonstrate a strategy for simultaneously enhancing both hardness and ductility of ZrB2-rich thin films grown in pure Ar on Al2O3(0001) and Si(001) substrates at 475 degrees C. ZrB2.4 layers are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) from a ZrB2 target, while Zr1-xTaxBy alloy films are grown, thus varying the B/metal ratio as a function of x, by adding pulsed high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a Ta target to deposit Zr1-xTaxBy alloy films using hybrid Ta-HiPIMS/ZrB2-DCMS sputtering with a substrate bias synchronized to the metal-rich portion of each HiPIMS pulse. The average power P-Ta (and pulse frequency) applied to the HiPIMS Ta target is varied from 0 to 1800W (0 to 300 Hz) in increments of 600W (100 Hz). The resulting boron-to-metal ratio, y = B/(Zr+Ta), in as-deposited Zr1-xTaxBy films decreases from 2.4 to 1.5 as P-Ta is increased from 0 to 1800W, while x increases from 0 to 0.3. A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), glancing-angle XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), analytical Z-contrast scanning TEM, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atom-probe tomography reveals that all films have the hexagonal AlB2 crystal structure with a columnar nanostructure, in which the column boundaries of layers with 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt; 0.2 are B-rich, whereas those with x amp;gt;= 0.2 are Ta-rich. The nanostructural transition, combined with changes in average column widths, results in an similar to 20% increase in hardness, from 35 to 42 GPa, with a simultaneous increase of similar to 30% in nanoindentation toughness, from 4.0 to 5.2MPa root m. Published by the AVS.

• 2.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Atom Probe Tomography of TiSiN Thin Films2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

This thesis concerns the wear resistant coating TiSiN and the development of the analysis technique atom probe tomography (APT) applied to this materials system. The technique delivers compositional information through time-of-flight mass spectrometry, with sub-nanometer precision in 3D for a small volume of the sample. It is thus a powerful technique for imaging the local distribution of elements in micro and nanostructures. To gain the full benefits of the technique for the materials system in question, I have developed a method that combines APT with isotopic substitution, here demonstrated by substitution of natN with 15N. This alters the time-of-flight of ions with of one or more N and will thereby enable the differentiation of the otherwise inseparable isotopes 14N and 28Si. Signs of small-scale fluctuations in the data led the development of an algorithm needed to properly visualize these fluctuations. A method to identify the best sampling parameter for visualization of small-scale compositional fluctuations was added to an algorithm originally designed to find the best sampling parameters for measuring and visualizing strong compositional variations. With the identified sampling parameters, the nano-scale compositional fluctuations of Si in the metal/metalloid sub-lattice could be visualized. The existence and size of these fluctuations were corroborated by radial distribution functions, a technique independent of the previously determined sampling parameter. The radial distribution function algorithm was also developed further to ease in the interpretation. The number of curves could thereby be reduced by showing elements, rather than single and molecular ions (of which there were several different kinds). The improvement of the algorithm also allowed interpretation of signs regarding the stoichiometry of SiNy. With a combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy and APT we show Si segregation on the nanometer scale in arc-deposited Ti0.92Si0.0815N and Ti0.81Si0.1915N thin films. APT composition maps and proximity histograms generated from Ti-rich domains show that the TiN contain at least ~2 at. % Si for Ti0.92Si0.08N and ~5 at. % Si for Ti0.81Si0.19N, thus confirming the formation of solid solutions. The formation of relatively pure SiNy domains in the Ti0.81Si0.19N films is tied to pockets between microstructured, columnar features in the film. Finer SiNy enrichments seen in APT possibly correspond to tissue layers around TiN crystallites, thus effectively hindering growth of TiN crystallites, causing TiN renucleation and thus explaining the featherlike nanostructure within the columns of these films.

1. Resolving Mass Spectral Overlaps in Atom Probe Tomography by Isotopic Substitutions: Case of TiSi15N
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resolving Mass Spectral Overlaps in Atom Probe Tomography by Isotopic Substitutions: Case of TiSi15N
2018 (English)In: Ultramicroscopy, ISSN 0304-3991, E-ISSN 1879-2723, Vol. 184, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Mass spectral overlaps in atom probe tomography (APT) analyses of complex compounds typically limit the identification of elements and microstructural analysis of a material. This study concerns the TiSiN system, chosen because of severe mass-to-charge-state ratio overlaps of the 14N+ and 28Si2+ peaks as well as the 14N$\tiny\frac{+}{2}$ and 28Si2+ peaks. By substituting 14N with 15N, mass spectrum peaks generated by ions composed of one or more N atoms will be shifted toward higher mass-to-charge-state ratios, thereby enabling the separation of N from the predominant Si isotope. We thus resolve thermodynamically driven Si segregation on the nanometer scale in cubic phase Ti1-xSix15N thin films for Si contents 0.08 ≤ x ≤ 0.19 by APT, as corroborated by transmission electron microscopy. The APT analysis yields a composition determination that is in good agreement with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analyses. Additionally, a method for determining good voxel sizes for visualizing small-scale fluctuations is presented and demonstrated for the TiSiN system.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
##### National Category
Physical Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122721 (URN)10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.08.004 (DOI)000415650200007 ()28850866 (PubMedID)
##### Note

Funding Agencies:VINN Excellence Center on Functional Nanoscale Materials (FunMat) [2007-00863]; Swedish Research Council (VR) project [2013-4018]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science (Grant SFO Mat-LiU) on Advanced Functional Materials [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Project Isotope

Available from: 2015-11-18 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2019-08-01Bibliographically approved
2. Solid Solution and Segregation Effects in Arc-Deposited Ti1-xSixN Thin Films Resolved on the nanometer scale by 15N Isotopic Substitution in AtomP robe Tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid Solution and Segregation Effects in Arc-Deposited Ti1-xSixN Thin Films Resolved on the nanometer scale by 15N Isotopic Substitution in AtomP robe Tomography
##### Abstract [en]

Nanostructured TiSiN is an important material in wear--‐resistant coatings for extending the lifetime of cutting tools. Yet, the understanding regarding the structure, phase composition, and bonding on the detailed nanometer scale, which determines the properties of TiSiN, is lacking. This limits our understanding of the growth phenomena and eventually a larger exploitation of the material. By substituting natN2 with 15N2 during reactive arc deposition of TiSiN thin films, atom probe tomography (APT) gives elemental sensitivity and sub-nanometer resolution, a finer scale than what can be obtained by commonly employed energy dispersive electron spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using a combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy and APT we show that arc-deposited Ti0.92Si0.0815N and Ti0.81Si0.1915N exhibit Si segregation on the nanometer scale in the alloy films. APT composition maps and proximity histograms from domains with higher than average Ti content show that the TiN domains contain at least ~2 at. % Si for Ti0.92Si0.08N and ~5 at. % Si for Ti0.81Si0.19N, thus confirming the formation of solid solutions. The formation of relatively pure SiNy domains in the Ti0.81Si0.19N films is tied to pockets between microstructured, columnar features in the film. Finer SiNy enrichments seen in APT possibly correspond to tissue layers around TiN crystallites, thus effectively hindering growth of TiN crystallites, causing TiN renucleation and thus explaining the featherlike nanostructure within the columns of these films. For the stoichiometry of the TiN phase, we establish a global under stoichiometry, in accordance with the tendency for SiNy films to have tetrahedral bonding coordination towards a nominal Si3N4 composition.

##### National Category
Physical Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122722 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-18 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2018-01-03Bibliographically approved
• 3.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Sandvik Coromant, Stockholm, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Resolving Mass Spectral Overlaps in Atom Probe Tomography by Isotopic Substitutions: Case of TiSi15N2018In: Ultramicroscopy, ISSN 0304-3991, E-ISSN 1879-2723, Vol. 184, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed)

Mass spectral overlaps in atom probe tomography (APT) analyses of complex compounds typically limit the identification of elements and microstructural analysis of a material. This study concerns the TiSiN system, chosen because of severe mass-to-charge-state ratio overlaps of the 14N+ and 28Si2+ peaks as well as the 14N$\tiny\frac{+}{2}$ and 28Si2+ peaks. By substituting 14N with 15N, mass spectrum peaks generated by ions composed of one or more N atoms will be shifted toward higher mass-to-charge-state ratios, thereby enabling the separation of N from the predominant Si isotope. We thus resolve thermodynamically driven Si segregation on the nanometer scale in cubic phase Ti1-xSix15N thin films for Si contents 0.08 ≤ x ≤ 0.19 by APT, as corroborated by transmission electron microscopy. The APT analysis yields a composition determination that is in good agreement with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analyses. Additionally, a method for determining good voxel sizes for visualizing small-scale fluctuations is presented and demonstrated for the TiSiN system.

• 4.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Atom Probe Tomography of Hard Nitride and Boride Thin Films2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Hard ceramic thin films, including TiSiN, ZrAlN, ZrB2, and ZrTaB2, with applications for wear-resistant coatings, have been studied using atom probe tomography and correlated with several other analytical techniques, including X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis. Outstanding obstacles for quantitative atom probe tomography of ceramic thin films have been surmounted.

Mass spectral overlaps in TiSiN, which make 28Si indistinguishable from 14N, was resolved by isotopic substitution with 15N, and the nanostructural distribution of elements was thus revealed in 3-D, which enabled the identification of additional structural elements within the nanostructured Ti0.81Si0.1915N film. Improvements to the growth model of TiSiN by cathodic arc deposition was suggested.

A self-organized nanolabyrinthine structure of ZrAlN, consisting of standing lamellae of fcc-ZrN and hexagonal AlN, was investigated with focus on the onset and limits of the self-organization. The local crystallographic orientational relationships were (001)ZrN || (0001)AlN and <110>ZrN || <2-1-10>AlN. Close to the MgO substrates, a smooth transition region was formed, going from segregated and disordered to the self-organized nanolabyrinthine structure. With increased growth temperature, coarse (111)-oriented ZrN grains occasionally precipitated and locally replaced the nanolabyrinthine structure. Significant local magnification effects rendered the Zr and N signals unusable, thereby inhibiting quantitative compositional analysis of the constituent phases, but the nanostructure was resolved using the Al signal.

Ceramic materials are often affected by correlated evaporation, which can result in losses due to the detector dead-time/space. A compositional correction procedure was suggested, tested against an established procedure, and applied to ZrB2. The correction was found to be less dependent on the isotope abundances and background correction compared to the established procedure. While losses due to dead-time/space occur in atom probe tomography of all materials, the correlative field evaporation behavior of ceramics significantly increases the compositional error. The evaporation behavior of ZrB2 was therefore thoroughly investigated and evidence of preferential retention, correlated evaporation, and inhomogeneous field distributions at a low-index pole was presented. The high mass resolution, relatively low multiple events percentage, and quality of the co-evaporation correlation data was partly attributed to the crystal structure and film orientation, which promoted a layer-by-layer field evaporation.

The evaporation behavior of the related ZrTaB2 films was found to be similar to that of ZrB2. The distribution of Ta in relation to Zr was investigated, showing that the column boundaries were both metal- and Ta-rich, and that there was a significant amount of Ta in solid solution within the columns.

In addition, an instrumental artefact previously not described in atom probe tomography was found in several of the materials investigated in this thesis. The artefact consists of high-density lines along the analysis direction, which cannot be related to pole artefacts. The detection system of the atom probe was identified as the cause, because the artefact patterns on detector histograms coincided with the structure of the microchannel plate. Inconsistencies in the internal boundaries of the microchannel plate multifibers from the manufacturing process can influence the signal to the detector and locally increase the detection efficiency in a pattern characteristic to the microchannel plate in question.

Altogether, this thesis shows that atom probe tomography of nitride and boride thin films is burdened by several artefacts and distortions, but that relevant material outcomes can nevertheless be achieved by informed choices of film isotopic constituents and analytical parameters, exclusion of heavily distorted regions (such as pole artefacts), and the use of compositional correction procedures when applicable.

1. Resolving Mass Spectral Overlaps in Atom Probe Tomography by Isotopic Substitutions: Case of TiSi15N
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resolving Mass Spectral Overlaps in Atom Probe Tomography by Isotopic Substitutions: Case of TiSi15N
2018 (English)In: Ultramicroscopy, ISSN 0304-3991, E-ISSN 1879-2723, Vol. 184, p. 51-60Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Mass spectral overlaps in atom probe tomography (APT) analyses of complex compounds typically limit the identification of elements and microstructural analysis of a material. This study concerns the TiSiN system, chosen because of severe mass-to-charge-state ratio overlaps of the 14N+ and 28Si2+ peaks as well as the 14N$\tiny\frac{+}{2}$ and 28Si2+ peaks. By substituting 14N with 15N, mass spectrum peaks generated by ions composed of one or more N atoms will be shifted toward higher mass-to-charge-state ratios, thereby enabling the separation of N from the predominant Si isotope. We thus resolve thermodynamically driven Si segregation on the nanometer scale in cubic phase Ti1-xSix15N thin films for Si contents 0.08 ≤ x ≤ 0.19 by APT, as corroborated by transmission electron microscopy. The APT analysis yields a composition determination that is in good agreement with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elastic recoil detection analyses. Additionally, a method for determining good voxel sizes for visualizing small-scale fluctuations is presented and demonstrated for the TiSiN system.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
##### National Category
Physical Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122721 (URN)10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.08.004 (DOI)000415650200007 ()28850866 (PubMedID)
##### Note

Funding Agencies:VINN Excellence Center on Functional Nanoscale Materials (FunMat) [2007-00863]; Swedish Research Council (VR) project [2013-4018]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science (Grant SFO Mat-LiU) on Advanced Functional Materials [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Project Isotope

Available from: 2015-11-18 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2019-08-01Bibliographically approved
2. Self-organized Nanostructuring in Zr0.64Al0.36N Thin Films Studied by Atom Probe Tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-organized Nanostructuring in Zr0.64Al0.36N Thin Films Studied by Atom Probe Tomography
2016 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

We have applied atom probe tomography (apt) to analyze the selforganized structure of wear-resistant Zr0.64Al0.36N thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy shows that these films grow as a two-dimensional nanocomposite, consisting of interleaved lamellae in a labyrinthine structure, with a size scale of ∼ 5 nm. The structure was recovered in the Al apt signal, while the Zr and N data lacked structural information due to severe local magnification effects. The onset of the self-organized growth was observed to occur locally by nucleation, at 5-8 nm from the MgO substrate, after increasing Zr-Al compositional fluctuations. Finally, it was observed that the self-organized growth mode could be perturbed by renucleation of ZrN.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
##### National Category
Natural Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84258 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2016.07.034 (DOI)000381939700037 ()
##### Note

Funding agencies: VINN Excellence Center on Functional Nanoscale Materials; Swedish Research Council; Swedish Government Strategic Faculty Grant in Materials Science (SFO Mat-LiU) at Linkoping University; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova) [2011-0

Vid tiden för disputationen förelåg publikationen som manuskript

Available from: 2012-10-03 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2019-08-02Bibliographically approved
3. Strategy for simultaneously increasing both hardness and toughness in ZrB2-rich Zr1-xTaxBy thin films
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strategy for simultaneously increasing both hardness and toughness in ZrB2-rich Zr1-xTaxBy thin films
2019 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 3, article id 031506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Refractory transition-metal diborides exhibit inherent hardness. However, this is not always sufficient to prevent failure in applications involving high mechanical and thermal stress, since hardness is typically accompanied by brittleness leading to crack formation and propagation. Toughness, the combination of hardness and ductility, is required to avoid brittle fracture. Here, the authors demonstrate a strategy for simultaneously enhancing both hardness and ductility of ZrB2-rich thin films grown in pure Ar on Al2O3(0001) and Si(001) substrates at 475 degrees C. ZrB2.4 layers are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) from a ZrB2 target, while Zr1-xTaxBy alloy films are grown, thus varying the B/metal ratio as a function of x, by adding pulsed high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a Ta target to deposit Zr1-xTaxBy alloy films using hybrid Ta-HiPIMS/ZrB2-DCMS sputtering with a substrate bias synchronized to the metal-rich portion of each HiPIMS pulse. The average power P-Ta (and pulse frequency) applied to the HiPIMS Ta target is varied from 0 to 1800W (0 to 300 Hz) in increments of 600W (100 Hz). The resulting boron-to-metal ratio, y = B/(Zr+Ta), in as-deposited Zr1-xTaxBy films decreases from 2.4 to 1.5 as P-Ta is increased from 0 to 1800W, while x increases from 0 to 0.3. A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), glancing-angle XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), analytical Z-contrast scanning TEM, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atom-probe tomography reveals that all films have the hexagonal AlB2 crystal structure with a columnar nanostructure, in which the column boundaries of layers with 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt; 0.2 are B-rich, whereas those with x amp;gt;= 0.2 are Ta-rich. The nanostructural transition, combined with changes in average column widths, results in an similar to 20% increase in hardness, from 35 to 42 GPa, with a simultaneous increase of similar to 30% in nanoindentation toughness, from 4.0 to 5.2MPa root m. Published by the AVS.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
A V S AMER INST PHYSICS, 2019
##### National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159001 (URN)10.1116/1.5093170 (DOI)000472182400035 ()
##### Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council VR [2014-5790, 2018-03957, 642-2013-8020]; Knut and Alice Wallenbergs foundation [KAW 2015.0043]; VINNOVA [2018-04290]; Aforsk Foundation [16-359]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse [CTS 15: 219, CTS 17: 166, CTS 14: 431]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]

Available from: 2019-07-19 Created: 2019-07-19 Last updated: 2019-10-28
4. Atom probe tomography field evaporation characteristics and compositional corrections of ZrB2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atom probe tomography field evaporation characteristics and compositional corrections of ZrB2
2019 (English)In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 156, article id 109871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

The microstructure of stoichiometric ZrB2.0 and B over-stoichiometric ZrB2.5 thin films has been studied using atom probe tomography (APT), X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Both films consist of columnar ZrB2 grains with AlB2-type crystal structure. The narrow stoichiometry range of ZrB2 results in the presence of separate disordered B-rich boundaries even in ZrB2.0. At higher average B content, specifically ZrB2.5, the formation of a continuous network around the sides of the ZrB2 columns is promoted. In addition, the APT field evaporation characteristics of ZrB2 and its influence on the measured local composition has been studied and compared to the average composition from elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Differences in the measured average compositions of the two techniques are explained by the APT detector dead-time/space. A new pile-up pairs correction procedure based on co-evaporation correlation data was thus employed here for the APT data and compared with the 10B-method (the B equivalence of the 13C-method), as well as the combination of both methods. In ZrB2.0, all of the applied compositional correction methods were found to reduce the compositional difference when appropriate isotopic abundances were used. In ZrB2.5, the inhomogeneity of the film likely increased the local APT composition to such an extent that even conservative correction procedures overestimated the B content compared to the ERDA reference. The strengths of the pile-up pairs correction compared the 10B and the combined methods are higher precision, due to it being less dependent on the accuracy of estimated isotopic abundances, and that the correction itself is not dependent on careful background correction of the mass spectrum.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
##### Keywords
Atom probe tomography (APT), Zirconium diboride (ZrB), Field evaporation characteristics of borides, Elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), Compositional correction procedures, Transition metal diborides
##### National Category
Physical Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160356 (URN)10.1016/j.matchar.2019.109871 (DOI)000487565900025 ()
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-11-04Bibliographically approved
• 5.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Sandvik Coromant, Stockholm, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SECO Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Solid Solution and Segregation Effects in Arc-Deposited Ti1-xSixN Thin Films Resolved on the nanometer scale by 15N Isotopic Substitution in AtomP robe TomographyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

Nanostructured TiSiN is an important material in wear--‐resistant coatings for extending the lifetime of cutting tools. Yet, the understanding regarding the structure, phase composition, and bonding on the detailed nanometer scale, which determines the properties of TiSiN, is lacking. This limits our understanding of the growth phenomena and eventually a larger exploitation of the material. By substituting natN2 with 15N2 during reactive arc deposition of TiSiN thin films, atom probe tomography (APT) gives elemental sensitivity and sub-nanometer resolution, a finer scale than what can be obtained by commonly employed energy dispersive electron spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using a combination of analytical transmission electron microscopy and APT we show that arc-deposited Ti0.92Si0.0815N and Ti0.81Si0.1915N exhibit Si segregation on the nanometer scale in the alloy films. APT composition maps and proximity histograms from domains with higher than average Ti content show that the TiN domains contain at least ~2 at. % Si for Ti0.92Si0.08N and ~5 at. % Si for Ti0.81Si0.19N, thus confirming the formation of solid solutions. The formation of relatively pure SiNy domains in the Ti0.81Si0.19N films is tied to pockets between microstructured, columnar features in the film. Finer SiNy enrichments seen in APT possibly correspond to tissue layers around TiN crystallites, thus effectively hindering growth of TiN crystallites, causing TiN renucleation and thus explaining the featherlike nanostructure within the columns of these films. For the stoichiometry of the TiN phase, we establish a global under stoichiometry, in accordance with the tendency for SiNy films to have tetrahedral bonding coordination towards a nominal Si3N4 composition.

• 6.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Atom probe tomography field evaporation characteristics and compositional corrections of ZrB22019In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 156, article id 109871Article in journal (Refereed)

The microstructure of stoichiometric ZrB2.0 and B over-stoichiometric ZrB2.5 thin films has been studied using atom probe tomography (APT), X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Both films consist of columnar ZrB2 grains with AlB2-type crystal structure. The narrow stoichiometry range of ZrB2 results in the presence of separate disordered B-rich boundaries even in ZrB2.0. At higher average B content, specifically ZrB2.5, the formation of a continuous network around the sides of the ZrB2 columns is promoted. In addition, the APT field evaporation characteristics of ZrB2 and its influence on the measured local composition has been studied and compared to the average composition from elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). Differences in the measured average compositions of the two techniques are explained by the APT detector dead-time/space. A new pile-up pairs correction procedure based on co-evaporation correlation data was thus employed here for the APT data and compared with the 10B-method (the B equivalence of the 13C-method), as well as the combination of both methods. In ZrB2.0, all of the applied compositional correction methods were found to reduce the compositional difference when appropriate isotopic abundances were used. In ZrB2.5, the inhomogeneity of the film likely increased the local APT composition to such an extent that even conservative correction procedures overestimated the B content compared to the ERDA reference. The strengths of the pile-up pairs correction compared the 10B and the combined methods are higher precision, due to it being less dependent on the accuracy of estimated isotopic abundances, and that the correction itself is not dependent on careful background correction of the mass spectrum.

The full text will be freely available from 2021-08-10 08:00
• 7.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Dept. of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Microscopy and Microanalysis, Department of Applied Physics, Göteborg, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Self-organized Nanostructuring in Zr0.64Al0.36N Thin Films Studied by Atom Probe Tomography2016In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)

We have applied atom probe tomography (apt) to analyze the selforganized structure of wear-resistant Zr0.64Al0.36N thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. Transmission electron microscopy shows that these films grow as a two-dimensional nanocomposite, consisting of interleaved lamellae in a labyrinthine structure, with a size scale of ∼ 5 nm. The structure was recovered in the Al apt signal, while the Zr and N data lacked structural information due to severe local magnification effects. The onset of the self-organized growth was observed to occur locally by nucleation, at 5-8 nm from the MgO substrate, after increasing Zr-Al compositional fluctuations. Finally, it was observed that the self-organized growth mode could be perturbed by renucleation of ZrN.

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