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  • 1.
    Abarghouyi, Hadis
    et al.
    IUST, Iran; MTNi Co, Iran.
    Razavizadeh, S. Mohammad
    IUST, Iran.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    QoE-Aware Beamforming Design for Massive MIMO Heterogeneous Networks2018In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 67, no 9, p. 8315-8323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main goals of the future wireless networks is improving the users quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we consider the problem of the QoE-based resource allocation in the downlink of a massive multiple-input multiple-output heterogeneous network. The network consists of a macrocell with a number of small cells embedded in it. The small cells base stations (BSs) are equipped with a few antennas, while the macro BS is equipped with a massive number of antennas. We consider the two services Video and Web Browsing and design the beamforming vectors at the BSs. The objective is to maximize the aggregated mean opinion score (MOS) of the users under constraints on the BSs powers and the required quality of service of the users. We also consider extra constraints on the QoE of users to more strongly enforce the QoE in the beamforming design. To reduce the complexity of the optimization problem, we suggest suboptimal and computationally efficient solutions. Our results illustrate that increasing the number of antennas at the BSs and also increasing the number of small cells antennas in the network leads to a higher user satisfaction.

  • 2.
    Akbar, Noman
    et al.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Nan
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Downlink Power Control in Massive MIMO Networks with Distributed Antenna Arrays2018In: 2018 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (ICC), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate downlink power control in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) networks with distributed antenna arrays. The base station (BS) in each cell consists of multiple antenna arrays, which are deployed in arbitrary locations within the cell. Due to the spatial separation between antenna arrays, the large-scale propagation effect is different from a user to different antenna arrays in a cell, which makes power control a challenging problem as compared to conventional massive MIMO. We assume that the BS in each cell obtains the channel estimates via uplink pilots. Based on the channel estimates, the BSs perform maximum ratio transmission for the downlink. We then derive a closed-form spectral efficiency (SE) expression, where the channels are subject to correlated fading. Utilizing the derived expression, we propose a max-min power control algorithm to ensure that each user in the network receives a uniform quality of service. Numerical results demonstrate that, for the network considered in this work, optimizing for max-min SE through the max-min power control improves the sum SE of the network as compared to the equal power allocation.

  • 3.
    Akbar, Noman
    et al.
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Nan
    Australian Natl Univ, Australia.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Max-Min Power Control in Downlink Massive MIMO With Distributed Antenna Arrays2021In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 740-751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate optimal downlink power allocation in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) networks with distributed antenna arrays (DAAs) under correlated and uncorrelated channel fading. In DAA massive MIMO, a base station (BS) consists of multiple antenna sub-arrays. Notably, the antenna sub-arrays are deployed in arbitrary locations within a DAA massive MIMO cell. Consequently, the distance-dependent large-scale propagation coefficients are different from a user to these different antenna sub-arrays, which makes power control a challenging problem. We assume that the network operates in time-division duplex mode, where each BS obtains the channel estimates via uplink pilots. Based on the channel estimates, the BSs perform maximum-ratio transmission in the downlink. We then derive a closed-form signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) expression, where the channels are subject to correlated fading. Based on the SINR expression, we propose a network-wide max-min power control algorithm to ensure that each user in the network receives a uniform quality of service. Numerical results demonstrate the performance advantages offered by DAA massive MIMO. For some specific scenarios, DAA massive MIMO can improve the average per-user throughput up to 55%. Furthermore, we demonstrate that channel fading covariance is an important factor in determining the performance of DAA massive MIMO.

  • 4.
    Akhlaghpasand, Hossein
    et al.
    Iran Univ Sci and Technol, Iran.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Razavizadeh, S. Mohammad
    Iran Univ Sci and Technol, Iran.
    Jamming Suppression in Massive MIMO Systems2020In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 182-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this brief, we propose a framework for protecting the uplink transmission of a massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) system from a jamming attack. Our framework includes a novel minimum mean-squared error-based jamming suppression (MMSE-JS) estimator for channel training and a linear zero-forcing jamming suppression (ZFJS) detector for uplink combining. The MMSE-JS exploits some intentionally unused pilots to reduce the pilot contamination caused by the jammer. The ZFJS suppresses the jamming interference during the detection of the legitimate users data symbols. The proposed framework is implementable, since the complexities of computing the MMSE-JS and the ZFJS are linear (not exponential) with respect to the number of antennas at the base station and can be fabricated using 28-nm fully depleted silicon on insulator technology and for the mMIMO systems. Our analysis shows that the jammer cannot dramatically affect the performance of an mMIMO system equipped with the combination of MMSE-JS and ZFJS. Numerical results confirm our analysis.

  • 5.
    Akhlaghpasand, Hossein
    et al.
    Iran Univ Sci and Technol, Iran.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Razavizadeh, S. Mohammad
    Iran Univ Sci and Technol, Iran.
    Jamming-Robust Uplink Transmission for Spatially Correlated Massive MIMO Systems2020In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 3495-3504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider how the uplink transmission of a spatially correlated massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system can be protected from a jamming attack. To suppress the jamming, we propose a novel framework including a new optimal linear estimator in the training phase and a bilinear equalizer in the data phase. The proposed estimator is optimal in the sense of maximizing the spectral efficiency of the legitimate system attacked by a jammer, and its implementation needs the statistical knowledge about the jammers channel. We derive an efficient algorithm to estimate the jamming information needed for implementation of the proposed framework. Furthermore, we demonstrate that optimized power allocation at the legitimate users can improve the performance of the proposed framework regardless of the jamming power optimization. Our proposed framework can be exploited to combat jamming in scenarios with either ideal or non-ideal hardware at the legitimate users and the jammer. Numerical results reveal that using the proposed framework, the jammer cannot dramatically affect the performance of the legitimate system.

  • 6.
    Akhlaghpasand, Hossein
    et al.
    Iran Univ Sci and Technol, Iran.
    Razavizadeh, S. Mohammad
    Iran Univ Sci and Technol, Iran.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Do, Tan Tai
    Ericsson AB, Sweden.
    Jamming Detection in Massive MIMO Systems2018In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, ISSN 2162-2337, E-ISSN 2162-2345, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 242-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This letter considers the physical layer security of a pilot-based massive multiple-input multiple-output (MaMIMO) system in presence of a multi-antenna jammer. We propose a new jamming detection method that makes use of a generalized likelihood ratio tes

  • 7.
    Aslam, Mohammed Zahid
    et al.
    SIRADEL, France.
    Corre, Yoann
    SIRADEL, France.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Large-scale Massive MIMO Network Evaluation Using Ray-based Deterministic Simulations2018In: 2018 IEEE 29TH ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON PERSONAL, INDOOR AND MOBILE RADIO COMMUNICATIONS (PIMRC), IEEE , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale massive MIMO network deployments can provide higher spectral efficiency and better coverage for future communication systems like 5G. Due to the large number of antennas at the base station, the system achieves stable channel quality and spatially separable channels to the different users. In this paper, linear, planar, circular and cylindrical arrays are used in the evaluation of a large-scale multi-cell massive MIMO network. The system-level performance is predicted using two different kinds of channel models. First, a ray-based deterministic tool is utilized in a real North American city environment. Second, an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channel model is considered, as often used in previously published massive MIMO studies. The analysis is conducted in a 16-macro-cell network with outdoor and randomly distributed users. It is shown that the array configuration has a large impact on the throughput statistics. Although the system level performance with i.i.d. Rayleigh fading can be close to the deterministic prediction in some situations (e.g., with large linear arrays), significant differences are noticed when considering other types of arrays.

  • 8.
    Aslam, Mohammed Zahid
    et al.
    SIRADEL, France.
    Corre, Yoann
    SIRADEL, France.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Performance of a dense urban massive MIMO network from a simulated ray-based channel2019In: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, ISSN 1687-1472, E-ISSN 1687-1499, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO network deployments are expected to be a key feature of the upcoming 5G communication systems. Such networks are able to achieve a high level of channel quality and can simultaneously serve multiple users with the same resources. In this paper, realistic massive MIMO channels are evaluated both in single and multi-cell environments. The favorable propagation property is evaluated in the single-cell scenario and provides perspectives on the minimal criteria required to achieve such conditions. The dense multi-cell urban scenario provides a comparison between linear, planar, circular, and cylindrical arrays to evaluate a large-scale multi-cell massive MIMO network. The system-level performance is predicted using two different kinds of channel models. First, a ray-based deterministic tool is utilized in a real North American city environment. Second, an independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) Rayleigh fading channel model is considered, as often used in previously published massive MIMO studies. The analysis is conducted in a 16-macro-cell network with both randomly distributed outdoor and indoor users. It is shown that the physical array properties like the shape and configuration have a large impact on the throughput statistics. Although the system-level performance with i.i.d. Rayleigh fading can be close to the deterministic prediction in some situations (e.g., with large linear arrays), significant differences are noticed when considering other types of arrays. The differences in the performance of the various arrays utilizing the exact same network parameters and the same number of total antenna elements provide insights into the selection of these physical parameters for upcoming 5G networks.

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  • 9.
    Aslam, Mohammed Zahid
    et al.
    Siradel.
    Corre, Yoann
    Siradel.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lostanlen, Yves
    Siradel.
    Massive MIMO Channel Performance Analysis Considering Separation of Simultaneous Users2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key aspects of massive MIMO (mMIMO) is its ability to spatially differentiate between multiple simultaneous users. The spatial separability improves as the number of base station (BS) antenna elements is increased. In real BS deployments, the number of BS array elements will be fixed, and expected to provide the required service to a certain number of simultaneous users in the existing propagation environment. The mMIMO performance is investigated in this paper, in an urban macro-cell scenario, using three kinds of channel models with different complexity levels: the independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading model, a geometry-based stochastic model, and a physical ray-based software. Two performance indicators are analyzed: the favorable propagation metric and the multi-user eigenvalue distribution. Two frequencies (2 GHz and 28 GHz) and two antenna array shapes (linear and circular) are considered and compared.

  • 10.
    Azizzadeh, Azad
    et al.
    Razi Univ, Iran.
    Mohammadkhani, Reza
    Univ Kurdistan, Iran.
    Makki, Seyed Vahab Al-Din
    Razi Univ, Iran.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    BER performance analysis of coarsely quantized uplink massive MIMO2019In: Signal Processing, ISSN 0165-1684, E-ISSN 1872-7557, Vol. 161, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having lower quantization resolution, has been introduced in the literature, to reduce the power consumption of massive MIMO and millimeter wave MIMO systems. Here, we analyze the bit error rate (BER) performance of quantized uplink massive MIMO employing few-bit resolution ADCs. Considering ZF detection, we derive a signal-to-interference, quantization and noise ratio (SIQNR) to achieve an analytical BER approximation for coarsely quantized M-QAM massive MIMO systems, by using a linear quantization model. The proposed expression is a function of the quantization resolution in bits. We further numerically investigate the effects of different quantization levels, from 1-bit to 4-bits, on the BER of three modulation types QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM. The uniform and non-uniform quantizers are employed in our simulation. Monte Carlo simulation results reveal that our approximate formula gives a tight upper bound on the BER performance of b-bit resolution quantized systems using non-uniform quantizers, whereas the use of uniform quantizers cause a lower performance. We also found a small BER performance degradation in coarsely quantized systems, for example 2-3 bits QPSK and 3-4 bits 16-QAM, compared to the full-precision (unquantized) case. However, this performance degradation can be compensated by increasing the number of antennas at the BS. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 11.
    Bashar, Manijeh
    et al.
    Univ Surrey, England.
    Ngo, Hien Quoc
    Queens Univ Belfast, North Ireland.
    Cumanan, Kanapathippillai
    Univ York, England.
    Burr, Alister G.
    Univ York, England.
    Xiao, Pei
    Univ Surrey, England.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uplink Spectral and Energy Efficiency of Cell-Free Massive MIMO With Optimal Uniform Quantization2021In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 223-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the performance of limited-fronthaul cell-free massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) taking account the fronthaul quantization and imperfect channel acquisition. Three cases are studied, which we refer to as Estimate&Quantize, Quantize&Estimate, and Decentralized, according to where channel estimation is performed and exploited. Maximum-ratio combining (MRC), zero-forcing (ZF), and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) receivers are considered. The Max algorithm and the Bussgang decomposition are exploited to model optimum uniform quantization. Exploiting the optimal step size of the quantizer, analytical expressions for spectral and energy efficiencies are presented. Finally, an access point (AP) assignment algorithm is proposed to improve the performance of the decentralized scheme. Numerical results investigate the performance gap between limited fronthaul and perfect fronthaul cases, and demonstrate that exploiting relatively few quantization bits, the performance of limited-fronthaul cell-free massive MIMO closely approaches the perfect-fronthaul performance.

  • 12.
    Bashar, Manijeh
    et al.
    Univ Surrey, England.
    Xiao, Pei
    Univ Surrey, England.
    Tafazolli, Rahim
    Univ Surrey, England.
    Cumanan, Kanapathippillai
    Univ York, England.
    Burr, Alister G.
    Univ York, England.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Limited-Fronthaul Cell-Free Massive MIMO With Local MMSE Receiver Under Rician Fading and Phase Shifts2021In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, ISSN 2162-2337, E-ISSN 2162-2345, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 1934-1938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cell-free Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system is considered, where the access points (APs) are linked to a central processing unit (CPU) via the limited-capacity fronthaul links. It is assumed that only the quantized version of the weighted signals are available at the CPU. The achievable rate of a limited fronthaul cell-free massive MIMO with local minimum mean square error (MMSE) detection is studied. We study the assumption of uncorrelated quantization distortion, which is commonly used in literature. We show that this assumption will not affect the validity of the insights obtained in our work. To investigate this, we compare the uplink per-user rate with different system parameters for two different scenarios; 1) the exact uplink per-user rate and 2) the uplink per-user rate while ignoring the correlation between the inputs of the quantizers. Finally, we present the conditions which imply that the quantization distortions across APs can be assumed to be uncorrelated.

  • 13.
    Becirovic, Ema
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Combining Reciprocity and CSI Feedback in MIMO Systems2022In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 10065-10080Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reciprocity-based time-division duplex (TDD) Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems utilize channel estimates obtained in the uplink to perform precoding in the downlink. However, this method has been criticized of breaking down, in the sense that the channel estimates are not good enough to spatially separate multiple user terminals, at low uplink reference signal signal-to-noise ratios, due to insufficient channel estimation quality. Instead, codebook-based downlink precoding has been advocated for as an alternative solution in order to bypass this problem. We analyze this problem by considering a “grid-of-beams world” with a finite number of possible downlink channel realizations. Assuming that the terminal accurately can detect the downlink channel, we show that in the case where reciprocity holds, carefully designing a mapping between the downlink channel and the uplink reference signals will perform better than both the conventional TDD Massive MIMO and frequency-division duplex (FDD) Massive MIMO approach. We derive elegant metrics for designing this mapping, and further, we propose algorithms that find good sequence mappings.

  • 14.
    Becirovic, Ema
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    DETECTION OF PILOT-HOPPING SEQUENCES FOR GRANT-FREE RANDOM ACCESS IN MASSIVE MIMO SYSTEMS2019In: 2019 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING (ICASSP), IEEE , 2019, p. 8380-8384Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study an active user detection problem for massive machine type communications (mMTC). The users transmit pilot-hopping sequences and detection of active users is performed based on the received energy. We utilize the channel hardening and favorable propagation properties of massive multiple- input multipleoutput (MIMO) to simplify the user detection. We propose and compare a number of different user detection methods and find that using non- negative least squares (NNLS) is well suited for the task at hand as it achieves good results as well as having the benefit of not having to specify further parameters.

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  • 15.
    Becirovic, Ema
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How Much Will Tiny IoT Nodes Profit from Massive Base Station Arrays?2018In: 2018 26TH EUROPEAN SIGNAL PROCESSING CONFERENCE (EUSIPCO), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2018, p. 832-836Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the benefits that Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices will have from connecting to a massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base station. In particular, we study how many users that could be simultaneously spatially multiplexed and how much the range can be increased by deploying massive base station arrays. We also investigate how the devices can scale down their uplink power as the number of antennas grows with retained rates. We consider the uplink and utilize upper and lower bounds on known achievable rate expressions to study the effects of the massive arrays. We conduct a case study where we use simulations in the settings of existing IoT systems to draw realistic conclusions. We find that the gains which ultra narrowband systems get from utilizing massive MIMO are limited by the bandwidth and therefore those systems will not be able to spatially multiplex any significant number of users. We also conclude that the power scaling is highly dependent on the nominal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the single-antenna case.

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  • 16.
    Becirovic, Ema
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Joint Antenna Detection and Bayesian Channel Estimation for Non-Coherent User Terminals2020In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 7081-7096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a method of improving the channel estimates for non-coherent multi-antenna terminals, which are terminals that cannot control the relative phase between its antenna ports, with channels that can be considered constant over multiple time slots. The terminals have multiple antennas and are free to choose whichever antenna they want to use in each time slot. An unknown phase shift is introduced in each time slot as we cannot guarantee that the terminals are phase coherent across time slots. We compare three different clustering techniques that we use to detect the active antenna. We also compare a set of different statistical and heuristic estimators for the channels and the phase shifts. We evaluate the methods by using correlated Rayleigh fading and three different bounds on the uplink capacity. The accuracy of the capacity bounds are verified with bit-error-rate simulations. With our proposed methods we can have an SNR improvement of approximately 2 dB at 1 bit/s/Hz.

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  • 17.
    Becirovic, Ema
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Joint Antenna Detection and Channel Estimation for Non-Coherent User Terminals2019In: 2019 IEEE 20TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SIGNAL PROCESSING ADVANCES IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS (SPAWC 2019), IEEE , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a method of improving channel estimates for non-coherent terminals with channels that can be considered constant over multiple time slots. The terminals have multiple antennas and are free to choose whichever antenna they want to use in each time slot. An unknown phase shift is introduced in each time slot as we cannot guarantee that the terminals are phase coherent across time slots. The proposed methods of improving channel estimates are a combination of clustering and heuristic methods. With our proposed methods we can have an improvement of 1.5 dB at 1 bit/s/Hz.

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  • 18.
    Becirovic, Ema
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reciprocity Aided CSI Feedback for Massive MIMO2020In: 2020 54TH ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS, AND COMPUTERS, IEEE , 2020, p. 1022-1027Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A potential showstopper for reciprocity-based beamforming is that the uplink SNR often is much smaller than the downlink SNR, making it hard to estimate channels on the uplink. We analyze this problem by considering a "grid-of-beams world" with a finite number of possible channel realizations. We assume that the terminal can accurately detect the channel and we propose a method of improving the channel detection from uplink pilots by designing a mapping between the channel and the pilots. We find a simple metric that is to be minimized to maximize performance. Further, we propose an algorithm that draws pilot sequences from a distribution aimed to minimize the metric. We see that we can come close to optimal performance, which requires long sequences, with significantly shorter sequences.

  • 19.
    Björnson, Emil
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Supelec, France.
    Kountouris, Marios
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Massive MIMO Systems with Non-Ideal Hardware: Energy Efficiency, Estimation, and Capacity Limits2014In: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ISSN 0018-9448, E-ISSN 1557-9654, Vol. 60, no 11, p. 7112-7139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of large-scale antenna arrays can bring substantial improvements in energy and/or spectral efficiency to wireless systems due to the greatly improved spatial resolution and array gain. Recent works in the field of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) show that the user channels decorrelate when the number of antennas at the base stations (BSs) increases, thus strong signal gains are achievable with little interuser interference. Since these results rely on asymptotics, it is important to investigate whether the conventional system models are reasonable in this asymptotic regime. This paper considers a new system model that incorporates general transceiver hardwareimpairments at both the BSs (equipped with large antenna arrays) and the single-antenna user equipments (UEs). As opposed to the conventional case of ideal hardware, we show that hardwareimpairments create finite ceilings on the channel estimation accuracy and on the downlink/uplink capacity of each UE. Surprisingly, the capacity is mainly limited by the hardware at the UE, while the impact of impairments in the large-scale arrays vanishes asymptotically and interuser interference (in particular, pilot contamination) becomes negligible. Furthermore, we prove that the huge degrees of freedom offered by massive MIMO can be used to reduce the transmit power and/or to tolerate larger hardware impairments, which allows for the use of inexpensive and energy-efficient antenna elements.

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  • 20.
    Björnson, Emil
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Supelec, France.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Ottersten, Björn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Multi-Objective Signal Processing Optimization: The Way to Balance Conflicting Metrics in 5G Systems2014In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of cellular networks is driven by the dream of ubiquitous wireless connectivity: any data service is instantly accessible everywhere. With each generation of cellular networks, we have moved closer to this wireless dream; first by delivering wireless access to voice communications, then by providing wireless data services, and recently by delivering a Wi-Fi-like experience with wide-area coverage and user mobility management. The support for high data rates has been the main objective in recent years [1], as seen from the academic focus on sum-rate optimization and the efforts from standardization bodies to meet the peak rate requirements specified in IMT-Advanced. In contrast, a variety of metrics/objectives are put forward in the technological preparations for fifth-generation (5G) networks: higher peak rates, improved coverage with uniform user experience, higher reliability and lower latency, better energy efficiency (EE), lower-cost user devices and services, better scalability with number of devices, etc. These multiple objectives are coupled, often in a conflicting manner such that improvements in one objective lead to degradation in the other objectives. Hence, the design of future networks calls for new optimization tools that properly handle the existence of multiple objectives and tradeoffs between them.

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  • 21.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reproducible Research: Best Practices and Potential Misuse2019In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 106-+Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 22.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ottersten, Björn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Luxembourg.
    Optimal Multiuser Transmit Beamforming: A Difficult Problem with a Simple Solution Structure2014In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 142-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmit beamforming is a versatile technique for signal transmission from an array of antennas to one or multiple users [1]. In wireless communications, the goal is to increase the signal power at the intended user and reduce interference to nonintended users. A high signal power is achieved by transmitting the same data signal from all antennas but with different amplitudes and phases, such that the signal components add coherently at the user. Low interference is accomplished by making the signal components add destructively at nonintended users. This corresponds mathematically to designing beamforming vectors (that describe the amplitudes and phases) to have large inner products with the vectors describing the intended channels and small inner products with nonintended user channels.

  • 23.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    de Carvalho, Elisabeth
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Popovski, Petar
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Random Access Protocol for Massive MIMO: Strongest-User Collision Resolution (SUCR)2016In: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (ICC), IEEE , 2016, p. 820-825Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless networks with many antennas at the base stations and multiplexing of many users, known as Massive MIMO systems, are key to handle the rapid growth of data traffic. As the number of users increases, the random access in contemporary networks will be flooded by user collisions. In this paper, we propose a reengineered random access protocol, coined strongest-user collision resolution (SUCR). It exploits the channel hardening feature of Massive MIMO channels to enable each user to detect collisions, determine how strong the contenders channels are, and only keep transmitting if it has the strongest channel gain. The proposed SUCR protocol can quickly and distributively resolve the vast majority of all pilot collisions.

  • 24.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    de Carvalho, Elisabeth
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Sorensen, Jesper H.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Popovski, Petar
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    A Random Access Protocol for Pilot Allocation in Crowded Massive MIMO Systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 2220-2234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology has great potential to manage the rapid growth of wireless data traffic. Massive MIMO achieves tremendous spectral efficiency by spatial multiplexing many tens of user equipments (UEs). These gains are only achieved in practice if many more UEs can connect efficiently to the network than today. As the number of UEs increases, while each UE intermittently accesses the network, the random access functionality becomes essential to share the limited number of pilots among the UEs. In this paper, we revisit the random access problem in the Massive MIMO context and develop a reengineered protocol, termed strongest-user collision resolution (SUCRe). An accessing UE asks for a dedicated pilot by sending an uncoordinated random access pilot, with a risk that other UEs send the same pilot. The favorable propagation of massive MIMO channels is utilized to enable distributed collision detection at each UE, thereby determining the strength of the contenders signals and deciding to repeat the pilot if the UE judges that its signal at the receiver is the strongest. The SUCRe protocol resolves the vast majority of all pilot collisions in crowded urban scenarios and continues to admit UEs efficiently in overloaded networks.

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  • 25.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Giselsson, Pontus
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Two Applications of Deep Learning in the Physical Layer of Communication Systems2020In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 134-140Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 26.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Paris Saclay, France.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Massive MIMO Has Unlimited Capacity2018In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 574-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of cellular networks can be improved by the unprecedented array gain and spatial multiplexing offered by Massive MIMO. Since its inception, the coherent interference caused by pilot contamination has been believed to create a finite capacity limit, as the number of antennas goes to infinity. In this paper, we prove that this is incorrect and an artifact from using simplistic channel models and suboptimal precoding/combining schemes. We show that with multicell MMSE precoding/combining and a tiny amount of spatial channel correlation or large-scale fading variations over the array, the capacity increases without bound as the number of antennas increases, even under pilot contamination. More precisely, the result holds when the channel covariance matrices of the contaminating users are asymptotically linearly independent, which is generally the case. If also the diagonals of the covariance matrices are linearly independent, it is sufficient to know these diagonals (and not the full covariance matrices) to achieve an unlimited asymptotic capacity.

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  • 27.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Nokia Bell Labs, France.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy / CentraleSupelec, France.
    Massive MIMO networks: spectral, energy, and hardware efficiency2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (Massive MIMO) is the latest technology that will improve the speed and throughput of wireless communication systems for years to come. Whilst there may be some debate over the origins of the term Massive MIMO and what it precisely means, this monograph describes in detail how the research conducted in the past decades lead to a scalable multiantenna technology that offers great throughput and energy efficiency under practical conditions. Written for students, practicing engineers and researchers who want to learn the conceptual and analytical foundations of Massive MIMO, in terms of spectral, energy, and/or hardware efficiency, as well as channel estimation and practical considerations, it provides a clear and tutorial like exposition of all the major topics. It also connects the dots of the research literature covering numerous topics not easily found therein. Massive MIMO Networks is the first monograph on the subject to cover the spatial chan el correlation and consider rigorous signal processing design essential for the complete understanding by its target audience.

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  • 28.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nokia Bell Labs, France.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Nokia Bell Labs, Nozay, France.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy; Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Pilot Contamination is Not a Fundamental Asymptotic Limitation in Massive MIMO2017In: 2017 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATIONS (ICC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) provides great improvements in spectral efficiency over legacy cellular networks, by coherent combining of the signals over a large antenna array and by spatial multiplexing of many users. Since its inception, the coherent interference caused by pilot contamination has been believed to be an impairment that does not vanish, even with an unlimited number of antennas. In this work, we show that this belief is incorrect and an artifact from using simplistic channel models and suboptimal signal processing schemes. We focus on the uplink and prove that with multicell MMSE combining, the spectral efficiency grows without bound as the number of antennas increases, even under pilot contamination, under a condition of linear independence between the channel covariance matrices. This condition is generally satisfied, except in special cases that are hardly found in practice.

  • 29.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How Energy-Efficient Can a Wireless Communication System Become?2018In: 2018 CONFERENCE RECORD OF 52ND ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS, AND COMPUTERS, IEEE , 2018, p. 1252-1256Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The data traffic in wireless networks is steadily growing. The long-term trend follows Coopers law, where the traffic is doubled every Two-and-a-half year, and it will likely continue for decades to come. The data transmission is tightly connected with the energy consumption in the power amplifiers, transceiver hardware, and baseband processing. The relation is captured by the energy efficiency metric, measured in bit/Joule, which describes how much energy is consumed per correctly received information hit. While the data rate is fundamentally limited by the channel capacity, there is currently no clear understanding of how energy-efficient a communication system can become. Current research papers typically present values on the order of 10Mbit/Joule, while previous network generations seem to operate at energy efficiencies on the order of 10 kbit/Joule. Is this roughly as energy-efficient future systems (5G and beyond) can become, or are we still far from the physical limits? These questions are answered in this paper. We analyze a different cases representing potential future deployment and hardware characteristics.

  • 30.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Three Practical Aspects of Massive MIMO: Intermittent User Activity, Pilot Synchronism, and Asymmetric Deployment2015In: 2015 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers three aspects of Massive MIMO (multiple- input multiple-output) communication networks that have received little attention in previous works, but are important to understand when designing and implementing this promising wireless technology. First, we analyze how bursty data traffic behaviors affect the system. Using a probabilistic model for intermittent user activity, we show that the spectral efficiency (SE) scales gracefully with reduced user activity. Then, we make an analytic comparison between synchronous and asynchronous pilot signaling, and prove that the choice between these has no impact on the SE. Finally, we provide an analytical and numerical study of the SE achieved with random network deployment.

  • 31.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France; Huawei, France.
    Massive MIMO for Maximal Spectral Efficiency: How Many Users and Pilots Should Be Allocated?2016In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 1293-1308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO is a promising technique for increasing the spectral efficiency (SE) of cellular networks, by deploying antenna arrays with hundreds or thousands of active elements at the base stations and performing coherent transceiver processing. A common rule-of-thumb is that these systems should have an order of magnitude more antennas M than scheduled users K because the users channels are likely to be near-orthogonal when M/K > 10. However, it has not been proved that this rule-of-thumb actually maximizes the SE. In this paper, we analyze how the optimal number of scheduled users K-star depends on M and other system parameters. To this end, new SE expressions are derived to enable efficient system-level analysis with power control, arbitrary pilot reuse, and random user locations. The value of K-star in the large-M regime is derived in closed form, while simulations are used to show what happens at finite M, in different interference scenarios, with different pilot reuse factors, and for different processing schemes. Up to half the coherence block should be dedicated to pilots and the optimal M/K is less than 10 in many cases of practical relevance. Interestingly, K-star depends strongly on the processing scheme and hence it is unfair to compare different schemes using the same K.

  • 32.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Optimizing Multi-Cell Massive MIMO for Spectral Efficiency: How Many Users Should Be Scheduled?2014In: 2014 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing, GlobalSIP 2014, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014, p. 612-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive MIMO is a promising technique to increase the spectral efficiency of cellular networks, by deploying antenna arrays with hundreds or thousands of active elements at the base stations and performing coherent beamforming. A common rule-of-thumb is that these systems should have an order of magnitude more antennas, N, than scheduled users, K, because the users' channels are then likely to be quasi-orthogonal. However, it has not been proved that this rule-of-thumb actually maximizes the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we analyze how the optimal number of scheduled users, K*, depends on N and other system parameters. The value of K* in the large-N regime is derived in closed form, while simulations are used to show what happens at finite N, in different interference scenarios, and for different beamforming.

  • 33.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Marzetta, Thomas L.
    Nokia, France.
    Massive MIMO: Ten Myths and One Critical Question2016In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 114-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communications is one of the most successful technologies in modern years, given that an exponential growth rate in wireless traffic has been sustained for over a century (known as Coopers law). This trend will certainly continue, driven by new innovative applications; for example, augmented reality and the Internet of Things. Massive MIMO has been identified as a key technology to handle orders of magnitude more data traffic. Despite the attention it is receiving from the communication community, we have personally witnessed that Massive MIMO is subject to several widespread misunderstandings, as epitomized by following (fictional) abstract: "The Massive MIMO technology uses a nearly infinite number of high-quality antennas at the base stations. By having at least an order of magnitude more antennas than active terminals, one can exploit asymptotic behaviors that some special kinds of wireless channels have. This technology looks great at first sight, but unfortunately the signal processing complexity is off the charts and the antenna arrays would be so huge that it can only be implemented in millimeter-wave bands." These statements are, in fact, completely false. In this overview article, we identify 10 myths and explain why they are not true. We also ask a question that is critical for the practical adoption of the technology and which will require intense future research activities to answer properly. We provide references to key technical papers that support our claims, while a further list of related overview and technical papers can be found at the Massive MIMO Info Point: http://massivemimo.eu

  • 34.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Marcenaro, Lucio
    Univ Genoa, Italy.
    Configuring an Intelligent Reflecting Surface for Wireless Communications: Highlights from the 2021 IEEE Signal Processing Cup student competition [SP Competitions]2022In: IEEE signal processing magazine (Print), ISSN 1053-5888, E-ISSN 1558-0792, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 126-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shape of a surface determines how it interacts with wireless radio-frequency signals. Taking a homogenous metal plate as an example, we can bend and rotate it in different ways to make the incident wireless signal become diffusely or specularly reflected in the desired manner. The same effect can be electronically achieved by using an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS), which is a 2D array of metamaterials. By creating heterogeneous impedance variations over the surface, we can synthesize the reflection of a bent and rotated surface but without any mechanical manipulations.

  • 35.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Supelec, France.
    Matthaiou, Michail
    Chalmers, Sweden; Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Massive MIMO with Non-Ideal Arbitrary Arrays: Hardware Scaling Laws and Circuit-Aware Design2015In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 4353-4368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are cellular networks where the base stations (BSs) are equipped with unconventionally many antennas, deployed on co-located or distributed arrays. Huge spatial degrees-of-freedom are achieved by coherent processing over these massive arrays, which provide strong signal gains, resilience to imperfect channel knowledge, and low interference. This comes at the price of more infrastructure; the hardware cost and circuit power consumption scale linearly/affinely with the number of BS antennas N  . Hence, the key to cost-efficient deployment of large arrays is low-cost antenna branches with low circuit power, in contrast to today's conventional expensive and power-hungry BS antenna branches. Such low-cost transceivers are prone to hardware imperfections, but it has been conjectured that the huge degrees-of-freedom would bring robustness to such imperfections. We prove this claim for a generalized uplink system with multiplicative phase-drifts, additive distortion noise, and noise amplification. Specifically, we derive closed-form expressions for the user rates and a scaling law that shows how fast the hardware imperfections can increase with N  while maintaining high rates. The connection between this scaling law and the power consumption of different transceiver circuits is rigorously exemplified. This reveals that one can make the circuit power increase as N − −  √   , instead of linearly, by careful circuit-aware system design

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  • 36.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matthaiou, Michail
    Chalmers, Sweden; Queens University of Belfast, North Ireland.
    Pitarokoilis, Antonios
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Erik G
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Distributed Massive MIMO in Cellular Networks: Impact of Imperfect Hardware and Number of Oscillators2015In: 23rd European Signal Processing Conference, EUSIPCO 2015, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 2436-2440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) combines the array gain of coherent MIMO processing with the proximity gains of distributed antenna setups. In this paper, we analyze how transceiver hardware impairments affect the downlink with maximum ratio transmission. We derive closed-form spectral efficiencies expressions and study their asymptotic behavior as the number of the antennas increases. We prove a scaling law on the hardware quality, which reveals that massive MIMO is resilient to additive distortions, while multiplicative phase noise is a limiting factor. It is also better to have separate oscillators at each antenna than one per BS

  • 37.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    A New Look at Cell-Free Massive MIMO: Making It Practical With Dynamic Cooperation2019In: 2019 IEEE 30th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), IEEE Communications Society, 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes a new look at Cell-free Massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) through the lens of the dynamic cooperation cluster framework from the Network MIMO literature. The purpose is to identify and address scalability issues that appear in prior work. We provide distributed algorithms for initial access, pilot assignment, cluster formation, precoding, and combining that are scalable in the sense of being implementable with arbitrarily many users. Interestingly, the suggested precoding and combining outperform conjugate beamforming and matched filtering, respectively, while also being fully distributed.

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  • 38.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Cell-Free versus Cellular Massive MIMO: What Processing is Needed for Cell-Free to Win?2019In: 2019 IEEE 20TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SIGNAL PROCESSING ADVANCES IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS (SPAWC 2019), IEEE , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication by joint signal processing from many distributed access points, called Cell-free Massive MIMO, is a potential beyond-5G network infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to provide the first comprehensive comparison with Cellular Massive MIMO. The uplink spectral efficiencies of four different cell-free implementations are analyzed, with spatially correlated fading and arbitrary processing. It turns out that it is possible to outperform cellular networks by a wide margin, but only using the right signal processing. A centralized implementation with optimal processing maximizes performance and, surprisingly, also reduces the fronthaul signaling.

  • 39.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    DEMYSTIFYING THE POWER SCALING LAW OF INTELLIGENT REFLECTING SURFACES AND METASURFACES2019In: 2019 IEEE 8TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON COMPUTATIONAL ADVANCES IN MULTI-SENSOR ADAPTIVE PROCESSING (CAMSAP 2019), IEEE , 2019, p. 549-553Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) have recently attracted the attention of communication theorists as a means to control the wireless propagation channel. It has been shown that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single-user IRS-aided transmission increases as N 2, with N being the number of passive reflecting elements in the IRS. This has been interpreted as a major potential advantage of using IRSs, instead of conventional Massive MIMO (mMIMO) whose SNR scales only linearly in N. This paper shows that this interpretation is incorrect. We first prove analytically that mMIMO always provides higher SNRs, and then show numerically that the gap is substantial; a very large number of reflecting elements is needed for an IRS to obtain SNRs comparable to mMIMO.

  • 40.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Making Cell-Free Massive MIMO Competitive With MMSE Processing and Centralized Implementation2020In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 77-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-free Massive MIMO is considered as a promising technology for satisfying the increasing number of users and high rate expectations in beyond-5G networks. The key idea is to let many distributed access points (APs) communicate with all users in the network, possibly by using joint coherent signal processing. The aim of this paper is to provide the first comprehensive analysis of this technology under different degrees of cooperation among the APs. Particularly, the uplink spectral efficiencies of four different cell-free implementations are analyzed, with spatially correlated fading and arbitrary linear processing. It turns out that it is possible to outperform conventional Cellular Massive MIMO and small cell networks by a wide margin, but only using global or local minimum mean-square error (MMSE) combining. This is in sharp contrast to the existing literature, which advocates for maximum-ratio combining. Also, we show that a centralized implementation with optimal MMSE processing not only maximizes the SE but largely reduces the fronthaul signaling compared to the standard distributed approach. This makes it the preferred way to operate Cell-free Massive MIMO networks. Non-linear decoding is also investigated and shown to bring negligible improvements.

  • 41.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Power Scaling Laws and Near-Field Behaviors of Massive MIMO and Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces2020In: IEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society, E-ISSN 2644-125X, Vol. 1, p. 1306-1324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of large arrays might be the solution to the capacity problems in wireless communications. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) grows linearly with the number of array elements N whenusing Massive MIMO receivers and half-duplex relays. Moreover, intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs)have recently attracted attention since these can relay signals to achieve an SNR that grows as N2, whichseems like a major benefit. In this article, we use a deterministic propagation model for a planar arrayof arbitrary size, to demonstrate that the mentioned SNR behaviors, and associated power scaling laws,only apply in the far-field. They cannot be used to study the regime where N → ∞. We derive an exactchannel gain expression that captures three essential near-field behaviors and use it to revisit the powerscaling laws. We derive new finite asymptotic SNR limits but also conclude that these are unlikely tobe approached in practice. We further prove that an IRS-aided setup cannot achieve a higher SNR thanan equal-sized Massive MIMO setup, despite its faster SNR growth. We quantify analytically how muchlarger the IRS must be to achieve the same SNR. Finally, we show that an optimized IRS does not behaveas an “anomalous” mirror but can vastly outperform that benchmark

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  • 42.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Rayleigh Fading Modeling and Channel Hardening for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces2021In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, ISSN 2162-2337, E-ISSN 2162-2345, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 830-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A realistic performance assessment of any wireless technology requires the use of a channel model that reflects its main characteristics. The independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channel model has been (and still is) the basis of most theoretical research on multiple antenna technologies in scattering environments. This letter shows that such a model is not physically appearing when using a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) with rectangular geometry and provides an alternative physically feasible Rayleigh fading model that can be used as a baseline when evaluating RIS-aided communications. The model is used to revisit the basic RIS properties, e.g., the rank of spatial correlation matrices and channel hardening.

  • 43.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Scalable Cell-Free Massive MIMO Systems2020In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 4247-4261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imagine a coverage area with many wireless access points that cooperate to jointly serve the users, instead of creating autonomous cells. Such a cell-free network operation can potentially resolve many of the interference issues that appear in current cellular networks. This ambition was previously called Network MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) and has recently reappeared under the name Cell-Free Massive MIMO. The main challenge is to achieve the benefits of cell-free operation in a practically feasible way, with computational complexity and fronthaul requirements that are scalable to large networks with many users. We propose a new framework for scalable Cell-Free Massive MIMO systems by exploiting the dynamic cooperation cluster concept from the Network MIMO literature. We provide a novel algorithm for joint initial access, pilot assignment, and cluster formation that is proved to be scalable. Moreover, we adapt the standard channel estimation, precoding, and combining methods to become scalable. A new uplink and downlink duality is proved and used to heuristically design the precoding vectors on the basis of the combining vectors. Interestingly, the proposed scalable precoding and combining outperform conventional maximum ratio (MR) processing and also performs closely to the best unscalable alternatives.

  • 44.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Utility-Based Precoding Optimization Framework for Large Intelligent Surfaces2019In: CONFERENCE RECORD OF THE 2019 FIFTY-THIRD ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS & COMPUTERS, IEEE , 2019, p. 863-867Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spectral efficiency of wireless networks can be made nearly infinitely large by deploying many antennas, but the deployment of very many antennas requires new topologies beyond the compact and discrete antenna arrays used by conventional base stations. In this paper, we consider the large intelligent surface scenario where small antennas are deployed on a large and dense two-dimensional grid. Building on the heritage of MIMO, we first analyze the beamwidth and sidelobes when transmitting from large intelligent surfaces. We compare different precoding schemes and determine how to optimize the transmit power with respect to different utility functions.

  • 45.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy; University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Debbah, Merouane
    University of Paris Saclay, France; Huawei Technology, France.
    Massive MIMO with Imperfect Channel Covariance Information2016In: 2016 50TH ASILOMAR CONFERENCE ON SIGNALS, SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS, IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2016, p. 974-978Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the impact of imperfect statistical information in the uplink of massive MIMO systems. In particular, we first show why covariance information is needed and then propose two schemes for covariance matrix estimation. A lower bound on the spectral efficiency (SE) of any combining scheme is derived, under imperfect covariance knowledge, and a closed-form expression is computed for maximum-ratio combining. We show that having covariance information is not critical, but that it is relatively easy to acquire it and to achieve SE close to the ideal case of having perfect statistical information.

  • 46.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Nokia Bell Labs, France.
    Can Hardware Distortion Correlation be Neglected When Analyzing Uplink SE in Massive MIMO?2018In: 2018 IEEE 19TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SIGNAL PROCESSING ADVANCES IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS (SPAWC), IEEE , 2018, p. 221-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how the distortion created by hardware impairments in a multiple-antenna base station affects the uplink spectral efficiency (SE), with focus on Massive MIMO. The distortion is correlated across the antennas, but has been often approximated as uncorrelated to facilitate (tractable) SE analysis. To determine when this approximation is accurate, basic properties of the distortion correlation are first uncovered. Then, we focus on third-order non-linearities and prove analytically and numerically that the correlation can be neglected in the SE analysis when there are many users. In i.i.d. Rayleigh fading with equal signal-to-noise ratios, this occurs when having five users.

  • 47.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    Univ Pisa, Italy.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Paris Saclay, France.
    Hardware Distortion Correlation Has Negligible Impact on UL Massive MIMO Spectral Efficiency2019In: IEEE Transactions on Communications, ISSN 0090-6778, E-ISSN 1558-0857, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 1085-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how the distortion created by hardware impairments in a multiple-antenna base station affects the uplink spectral efficiency (SE), with a focus on massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO). This distortion is correlated across the antennas but has been often approximated as uncorrelated to facilitate (tractable) SE analysis. To determine when this approximation is accurate, basic properties of distortion correlation are first uncovered. Then, we separately analyze the distortion correlation caused by third-order non-linearities and by quantization. Finally, we study the SE numerically and show that the distortion correlation can be safely neglected in massive MIMO when there are sufficiently many users. Under independent identically distributed Rayleigh fading and equal signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), this occurs for more than five transmitting users. Other channel models and SNR variations have only minor impact on the accuracy. We also demonstrate the importance of taking the distortion characteristics into account in the receive combining.

  • 48.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Supelec, France.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy; CentraleSupelec, France.
    Hoydis, Jakob
    Bell Labs, Germany.
    Debbah, Merouane
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Optimal Design of Energy-Efficient Multi-User MIMO Systems: Is Massive MIMO the Answer?2015In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 3059-3075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assume that a multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system is designed from scratch to uniformly cover a given area with maximal energy efficiency (EE). What are the optimal number of antennas, active users, and transmit power? The aim of this paper is to answer this fundamental question. We consider jointly the uplink and downlink with different processing schemes at the base station and propose a new realistic power consumption model that reveals how the above parameters affect the EE. Closed-form expressions for the EE-optimal value of each parameter, when the other two are fixed, are provided for zero-forcing (ZF) processing in single-cell scenarios. These expressions prove how the parameters interact. For example, in sharp contrast to common belief, the transmit power is found to increase (not to decrease) with the number of antennas. This implies that energy-efficient systems can operate in high signal-to-noise ratio regimes in which interference-suppressing signal processing is mandatory. Numerical and analytical results show that the maximal EE is achieved by a massive MIMO setup wherein hundreds of antennas are deployed to serve a relatively large number of users using ZF processing. The numerical results show the same behavior under imperfect channel state information and in symmetric multi-cell scenarios.

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  • 49.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy; University of Paris Saclay, France.
    Kountouris, Marios
    Huawei Technology Co Ltd, France.
    Deploying Dense Networks for Maximal Energy Efficiency: Small Cells Meet Massive MIMO2016In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 832-847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What would a cellular network designed for maximal energy efficiency look like? To answer this fundamental question, tools from stochastic geometry are used in this paper to model future cellular networks and obtain a new lower bound on the average uplink spectral efficiency. This enables us to formulate a tractable uplink energy efficiency (EE) maximization problem and solve it analytically with respect to the density of base stations (BSs), the transmit power levels, the number of BS antennas and users per cell, and the pilot reuse factor. The closed-form expressions obtained from this general EE maximization framework provide valuable insights on the interplay between the optimization variables, hardware characteristics, and propagation environment. Small cells are proved to give high EE, but the EE improvement saturates quickly with the BS density. Interestingly, the maximal EE is achieved by also equipping the BSs with multiple antennas and operate in a "massive MIMO" fashion, where the array gain from coherent detection mitigates interference and the multiplexing of many users reduces the energy cost per user.

  • 50.
    Björnson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sanguinetti, Luca
    University of Pisa, Italy; CentraleSupelec, France.
    Kountouris, Marios
    CentraleSupelec, France.
    Designing Wireless Broadband Access for Energy Efficiency: Are Small Cells the Only Answer?2015In: 2015 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMMUNICATION WORKSHOP, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2015, p. 136-141Conference paper (Refereed)
12345 1 - 50 of 239
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