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  • 1.
    Knutsson, Mikael
    et al.
    NTNU Trondheim Business Sch, Norway.
    Martinsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wollbrant, Conny
    Univ Stirling, Scotland.
    Gender differences in altruism: Evidence from a natural field experiment on matched donations2019In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 176, p. 47-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports new findings on gender differences in altruism. Conducting a natural field experiment (N = 2,164) we study donation behavior in a naturally occurring environment using a matched donation design. Contrary to previous research, we find that reducing the "price of altruism" by increasing matching efficiency has a significantly stronger effect on females than on males. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Martinsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Medhin, Haileselassie
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Environm and Climate Res Ctr, Ethiopia.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    MINIMUM LEVELS AND FRAMING IN PUBLIC GOOD PROVISION2019In: Economic Inquiry, ISSN 0095-2583, E-ISSN 1465-7295, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 1568-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a laboratory experiment in the field, we examine how the framing of a social dilemma, give to or take from a public good, interacts with a policy intervention that enforces a minimum contribution level to the public good. We find significantly higher cooperation in the give frame than in the take frame in our standard public goods experiment. When a minimum contribution level is introduced, contributions are crowded out in the give frame but crowded in in the take frame. Our results show the importance of choosing the frame when making policy recommendations. (JEL C91, H41)

  • 3.
    Martinsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Physician behavior and conditional altruism: the effects of payment system and uncertain health benefit2019In: Theory and Decision, ISSN 0040-5833, E-ISSN 1573-7187, Vol. 87, no 3, p. 365-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper experimentally investigates the altruistic behavior of physicians and whether this behavior is affected by payment system and uncertainty in health outcome. Subjects in the experiment take on the role of physicians and decide on the provision of medical care for different types of patients, who are identical in all respects other than the degree to which a given level of medical treatment affects their health. We investigate physician altruism from the perspective of ethical principles, by categorizing physicians according to how well their treatment decisions align with different principles for priority setting. The experiment shows that many physicians are altruistic toward their patients but also that the degree of altruism varies across patients with different medical needs. We find a strong effect of payment system that is overall unaffected by the introduction of risk and ambiguity in patients health outcomes. There is, however, substantial heterogeneity across individuals, in particular under the capitation payment system where physicians responses to the introduction of uncertainty in patient health are modulated by their own generic risk and ambiguity preferences.

  • 4.
    Martinsson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public Goods and Minimum Provision Levels: Does the Institutional Formation Affect Cooperation?2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 1473-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate experimentally the role of institutional formation on the implementation of a binding minimum contribution level to a public good. Groups either face the minimum level exogenously imposed by a central authority, or are allowed to decide for themselves by means of a group vote whether a minimum level should be implemented. We find that a binding minimum contribution level has a positive and substantially significant effect on cooperation. Interestingly, we do not find an additional positive effect of democracy in the context of our experiment; the minimum-level intervention is as effective when exogenously implemented as when endogenously chosen.

  • 5.
    Persson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Testing the impact of frustration and anger when responsibility is low2018In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 145, p. 435-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anger is a powerful emotion and it is important to understand its role in human interaction. Angry individuals may become hostile in their dealings with others, and this has strategic consequences. Battigalli, Dufwenberg, and Smith (2015; BDS) develop a formal framework where frustration and anger affect interaction and shape economic outcomes. This paper presents an experiment designed to test predictions based on versions of the theory that involve no or low responsibility of the punished person. In this specific context, I find only limited, support for the theory: While unfulfilled expectations about material pay-offs generate negative emotions in subjects (which is in line with BDS conceptualization of frustration), these emotions do not affect subjects behavior in the experiment. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Persson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Back, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Davidson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johannisson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Discrepancy between Health Care Rationing at the Bedside and Policy Level2018In: Medical decision making, ISSN 0272-989X, E-ISSN 1552-681X, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 881-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Whether doctors at the bedside level should be engaged in health care rationing is a controversial topic that has spurred much debate. From an empirical point of view, a key issue is whether there exists a behavioral difference between rationing at the bedside and policy level. Psychological theory suggests that we should indeed expect such a difference, but existing empirical evidence is inconclusive. Objective. To explore whether rationing decisions taken at the bedside level are different from rationing decisions taken at the policy level. Method. Behavioral experiment where participants (n = 573) made rationing decisions in hypothetical scenarios. Participants (medical and nonmedical students) were randomly assigned to either a bedside or a policy condition. Each scenario involved 1 decision, concerning either a life-saving medical treatment or a quality-of-life improving treatment. All scenarios were identical across the bedside and policy condition except for the level of decision making. Results. We found a discrepancy between health care rationing at policy and bedside level for scenarios involving life-saving decisions, where subjects rationed treatments to a greater extent at the policy level compared to bedside level (35.6% v. 29.3%, P = 0.001). Medical students were more likely to ration care compared to nonmedical students. Follow-up questions showed that bedside rationing was more emotionally burdensome than rationing at the policy level, indicating that psychological factors likely play a key role in explaining the observed behavioral differences. We found no difference in rationing between bedside and policy level for quality-of-life improving treatments (54.6% v. 55.7%, P = 0.507). Conclusions. Our results indicate a robust bedside effect in the life-saving domain of health care rationing decisions, thereby adding new insights to the understanding of the malleability of preferences related to resource allocation.

  • 7.
    Persson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hagman, William
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Affective Response Predicts Risky Choice for Fast, but Not Slow, Decisions2018In: JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE PSYCHOLOGY AND ECONOMICS, ISSN 1937-321X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 213-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use skin conductance to measure emotional arousal in subjects who make risky choices under time pressure or time delay. Our results show a strong correlation between subjects skin conductance responses and their risky choices under time pressure but not under time delay. Subjects were more risk taking for higher levels of measured electrodermal activity (skin conductance). In line with descriptive theories of risky choice, the effect was most pronounced for choices involving losses rather than gains. Taken together, our findings indicate that participants under time pressure rely on affect at the point of decision-making. This provides support for behavioral models that recognize the role of emotional brain systems in decision-making under risk.

  • 8.
    Persson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Asutay, Erkin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Löfberg, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Västfjäll, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Decis Res, OR USA.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Variation in the mu-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Does Not Moderate Social-Rejection Sensitivity in Humans2019In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1050-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given previous findings from animal studies and small-scale studies in humans, variation in the mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been proposed as a strong biological candidate for moderating sensitivity to social rejection. Using a substantially larger sample (N = 490) than previous studies, a prospective genotyping strategy, and preregistered analysis plans, we tested the hypotheses that OPRM1 variation measured by the functional A118G polymorphism (rs1799971) moderates (a) dispositional sensitivity to rejection and feelings of distress following social exclusion and (b) decision making involving social cognition. In three experimental tasks commonly used to assess altruism, reciprocity, and trust in humans, we found no evidence in favor of the hypotheses; nine main tests were preregistered, and all of them yielded small and statistically insignificant estimates. In secondary analyses, we used Bayesian inference and estimation to quantify support for our findings. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the link between OPRM1 A118G variation and social-rejection sensitivity is weaker than previously thought.

  • 9.
    Persson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barrafrem, Kinga
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Meunier, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Tinghög, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The effect of decision fatigue on surgeons clinical decision making2019In: Health Economics, ISSN 1057-9230, E-ISSN 1099-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The depleting effect of repeated decision making is often referred to as decision fatigue. Understanding how decision fatigue affects medical decision making is important for achieving both efficiency and fairness in health care. In this study, we investigate the potential role of decision fatigue in orthopedic surgeons decisions to operate, exploiting a natural experiment whereby patient allocation to time slots is plausibly randomized at the level of the patient. Our results show that patients who met a surgeon toward the end of his or her work shift were 33 percentage points less likely to be scheduled for an operation compared with those who were seen first. In a logistic regression with doctor-fixed effects and standard errors clustered at the level of the doctor, the odds of operation were estimated to decrease by 10.5% (odds ratio=0.895, pamp;lt;.001; 95% CI [0.842, 0.951]) for each additional patient appointment in the doctors work shift. This pattern in surgeons decision making is consistent with decision fatigue. Because long shifts are common in medicine, the effect of decision fatigue could be substantial and may have important implications for patient outcomes.

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