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  • 1.
    Amdursky, Nadav
    et al.
    Technion Israel Inst Technol, Israel.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meredith, Paul
    Swansea Univ, Wales.
    Macroscale Biomolecular Electronics and Ionics2019In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 31, no 3, article id 1802221Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conduction of ions and electrons over multiple length scales is central to the processes that drive the biological world. The multidisciplinary attempts to elucidate the physics and chemistry of electron, proton, and ion transfer in biological charge transfer have focused primarily on the nano- and microscales. However, recently significant progress has been made on biomolecular materials that can support ion and electron currents over millimeters if not centimeters. Likewise, similar transport phenomena in organic semiconductors and ionics have led to new innovations in a wide variety of applications from energy generation and storage to displays and bioelectronics. Here, the underlying principles of conduction on the macroscale in biomolecular materials are discussed, highlighting recent examples, and particularly the establishment of accurate structure-property relationships to guide rationale material and device design. The technological viability of biomolecular electronics and ionics is also discussed.

  • 2.
    Apaydin, Dogukan H.
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Gora, Monika
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Portenkirchner, Engelbert
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Oppelt, Kerstin T.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Neugebauer, Helmut
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Jakesoya, Marie
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kunze-Liebhaeuser, Julia
    University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    Zagorska, Malgorzata
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Mieczkowski, Jozef
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Electrochemical Capture and Release of CO2 in Aqueous Electrolytes Using an Organic Semiconductor Electrode2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 15, p. 12919-12923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing efficient methods for capture and controlled release of carbon dioxide is crucial to any carbon. capture and utilization technology. Herein we present an approach using an organic. semiconductor electrode to electrochemically capture dissolved CO2 in aqueous electrolytes. The process relies on electrochemical reduction of a thin film of a naphthalene bisimide derivative, 2,7,bis (4-(2- (2-ethylhexyl)thiazol-4-yl)phenyObenzo [lmn][3,8] phenanthroline-1,3,6,8(2H,7H)-tetraone (NBIT). This molecule is specifically tailored to afford one-electron reversible and one-electron quasi-reversible reduction in aqueous conditions while, not dissolving or degrading. The reduced NBIT reacts with CO2 to form a stable aemicarbonate salt, which can be subsequently oxidized electrochemically to release CO2. The semicarbonate structure is confirmed by in situ IR spectroelectrochemistry. This process of capturing and releasing carbon dioxide can be realized in an oxygen-free environment under ambient pressure and temperature, with uptake efficiency for CO2 capture of similar to 2.3 mmol g(-1). This is on par with the best solution-phase amine chemical capture technologies available today.

  • 3.
    Demchyshyn, Stepan
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; LIT, Austria.
    Melanie Roemer, Janina
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany.
    Groiss, Heiko
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Heilbrunner, Herwig
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Ulbricht, Christoph
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Apaydin, Dogukan
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Boehm, Anton
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany.
    Ruett, Uta
    DESY, Germany.
    Bertram, Florian
    DESY, Germany.
    Hesser, Guenter
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Clark Scharber, Markus
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Nickel, Bert
    Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians University of Munchen, Germany; Nanosyst Initiat Munich, Germany.
    Bauer, Siegfried
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaltenbrunner, Martin
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; LIT, Austria.
    Confining metal-halide perovskites in nanoporous thin films2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 8, article id e1700738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling the size and shape of semiconducting nanocrystals advances nanoelectronics and photonics. Quantumconfined, inexpensive, solution-derived metal halide perovskites offer narrowband, color-pure emitters as integral parts of next-generation displays and optoelectronic devices. We use nanoporous silicon and alumina thin films as templates for the growth of perovskite nanocrystallites directly within device-relevant architectures without the use of colloidal stabilization. We find significantly blue-shifted photoluminescence emission by reducing the pore size; normally infrared-emitting materials become visibly red, and green-emitting materials become cyan and blue. Confining perovskite nanocrystals within porous oxide thin films drastically increases photoluminescence stability because the templates auspiciously serve as encapsulation. We quantify the template-induced size of the perovskite crystals in nanoporous silicon with microfocus high-energy x-ray depth profiling in transmission geometry, verifying the growth of perovskite nanocrystals throughout the entire thickness of the nanoporous films. Low-voltage electroluminescent diodes with narrow, blue-shifted emission fabricated from nanocrystalline perovskites grown in embedded nanoporous alumina thin films substantiate our general concept for next-generation photonic devices.

  • 4.
    Derek, Vedran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Micropatterning of organic electronic materials using a facile aqueous photolithographic process2018In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 105116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patterning organic semiconductors via traditional solution-based microfabrication techniques is precluded by undesired interactions between processing solvents and the organic material. Herein we show how to avoid these problems easily and introduce a simple lift-off method to pattern organic semiconductors. Positive tone resist is deposited on the substrate, followed by conventional exposure and development. After deposition of the organic semiconductor layer, the remaining photoresist is subjected to a flood exposure, rendering it developable. Lift-off is then performed using the same aqueous developer as before. We find that the aqueous developers do not compromise the integrity of the organic layer or alter its electronic performance. We utilize this technique to pattern four different organic electronic materials: epindo-lidione (EPI), a luminescent semiconductor, p-n photovoltaic bilayers of metal-free phthalocyanine and N, N-dimethyltetracarboxylic diimide, and finally the archetypical conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). The result of our efforts is a facile method making use of well-established techniques that can be added to the toolbox of research and industrial scientists developing organic electronics technology. (c) 2018 Author(s).

  • 5.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Markov, Aleksandr
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic heterojunction photocathodes for optimized photoelectrochemical hydrogen peroxide production2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 6, no 48, p. 24709-24716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar-to-chemical conversion of sunlight into hydrogen peroxide as a chemical fuel is an emerging carbon-free sustainable energy strategy. The process is based on the reduction of dissolved oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Only limited amounts of photoelectrode materials have been successfully explored for photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide. Herein we detail approaches to produce robust organic semiconductor photocathodes for peroxide evolution. They are based on evaporated donor-acceptor heterojunctions between phthalocyanine and tetracarboxylic perylenediimide, respectively. These small molecules form nanocrystalline films with good operational stability and high surface area. We discuss critical parameters which allow fabrication of efficient devices. These photocathodes can support continuous generation of high concentrations of peroxide with faradaic efficiency remaining at around 70%. We find that an advantage of the evaporated heterojunctions is that they can be readily vertically stacked to produce tandem cells which produce higher voltages. This feature is desirable for fabricating two-electrode photoelectrochemical cells. Overall, the photocathodes presented here have the highest performance reported to date in terms of photocurrent for peroxide production. These results offer a viable method for peroxide photosynthesis and provide a roadmap of strategies that can be used to produce photoelectrodes with even higher efficiency and productivity.

  • 6.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sytnyk, Mykhailo
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Romanazzi, Giuseppe
    Politecn Bari, Italy.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heiss, Wolfgang
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    General Observation of Photocatalytic Oxygen Reduction to Hydrogen Peroxide by Organic Semiconductor Thin Films and Colloidal Crystals2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 16, p. 13253-13257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost semiconductor photocatalysts offer unique possibilities for industrial chemical transformations and energy conversion applications. We report that a range of organic semiconductors are capable of efficient photocatalytic oxygen reduction to H2O2 in aqueous conditions. These semiconductors, in the form of thin films, support a 2-electron/2-proton redox cycle involving photoreduction of dissolved O-2 to H2O2, with the concurrent photooxidation of organic substrates: formate, oxalate, and phenol. Photochemical oxygen reduction is observed in a pH range from 2 to 12. In cases where valence band energy of the semiconductor is energetically high, autoxidation competes with oxidation of the donors, and thus turnover numbers are low. Materials with deeper valence band energies afford higher stability and also oxidation of H2O to O-2. We found increased H2O2 evolution rate for surfactant-stabilized nanoparticles versus planar thin films. These results evidence that photochemical O-2 reduction may be a widespread feature of organic semiconductors, and open potential avenues for organic semiconductors for catalytic applications.

  • 7.
    Jakesova, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Tony
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brask, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schindl, Rainer
    Med Univ Graz, Austria.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optoelectronic control of single cells using organic photocapacitors2019In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, no 4, article id eaav5265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical control of the electrophysiology of single cells can be a powerful tool for biomedical research and technology. Here, we report organic electrolytic photocapacitors (OEPCs), devices that function as extracellular capacitive electrodes for stimulating cells. OEPCs consist of transparent conductor layers covered with a donor-acceptor bilayer of organic photoconductors. This device produces an open-circuit voltage in a physiological solution of 330 mV upon illumination using light in a tissue transparency window of 630 to 660 nm. We have performed electrophysiological recordings on Xenopus laevis oocytes, finding rapid (time constants, 50 mu s to 5 ms) photoinduced transient changes in the range of 20 to 110 mV. We measure photoinduced opening of potassium channels, conclusively proving that the OEPC effectively depolarizes the cell membrane. Our results demonstrate that the OEPC can be a versatile nongenetic technique for optical manipulation of electrophysiology and currently represents one of the simplest and most stable and efficient optical stimulation solutions.

  • 8.
    Jakešová, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arbring, Theresia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Đerek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Poxson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wireless organic electronic ion pumps driven by photovoltaics2019In: npj Flexible Electronics, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 14-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is an emerging bioelectronic technology for on-demand and local delivery of pharmacologically active species, especially targeting alkali ions, and neurotransmitters. While electrical control is advantageous for providing precise spatial, temporal, and quantitative delivery, traditionally, it necessitates wiring. This complicates implantation. Herein, we demonstrate integration of an OEIP with a photovoltaic driver on a flexible carrier, which can be addressed by red light within the tissue transparency window. Organic thin-film bilayer photovoltaic pixels are arranged in series and/or vertical tandem to provide the 2.5–4.5 V necessary for operating the high-resistance electrophoretic ion pumps. We demonstrate light-stimulated transport of cations, ranging in size from protons to acetylcholine. The device, laminated on top of the skin, can easily be driven with a red LED emitting through a 1.5-cm-thick finger. The end result of our work is a thin and flexible integrated wireless device platform.

  • 9.
    Kanbur, Yasin
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria; Karabuk Univ, Turkey.
    Coskun, Halime
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria.
    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai
    Joanneum Res Forschungsgesell mbH, Austria.
    Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria.
    Yumusak, Cigdem
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria.
    High temperature-stability of organic thin-film transistors based on quinacridone pigments2019In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 66, p. 53-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) with high temperature stability allow device integration with mass production methods like thermoforming and injection molding, and enable operation in extreme environment applications. Herein we elaborate a series of materials to make suitable gate dielectric and active semiconductor layers for high temperature stable OTFTs. We employ an anodized aluminum oxide layer passivated with cross-linked low-density polyethylene (LD-PE) to form a temperature-stable gate capacitor. As the semiconductor, we use quinacridone, an industrial organic colorant pigment produced on a mass scale. Evaporated MoOx/Ag source and drain electrodes complete the devices. Here we evaluate the performance of the OTFTs healing them in air from 100 degrees C in 25 degrees C increments up to 225 degrees C, holding each temperature for a period of 30 minutes. We find large differences in stability between quinacridone and its dimethylated derivative, with the former showing the best performance with only a factor of 2 decline in mobility after healing at 225 degrees C, and unaffected on/off ratio and threshold voltage. The approach presented here shows how industriallys calable fabrication of thermally robust OTFTs can be rationalized.

  • 10.
    Liewald, C.
    et al.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munchen, Germany; NIM, Germany.
    Strohmair, S.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munchen, Germany.
    Hecht, H.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munchen, Germany.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nickel, B.
    Ludwig Maximilian Univ Munchen, Germany; NIM, Germany.
    Scanning photocurrent microscopy of electrons and holes in the pigment semiconductor epindolidione2018In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 60, p. 51-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photocurrent microscopy is used to characterize the kinetics of electrons and holes in organic field-effect transistors (FETs) with the hydrogen-bonded pigment epindolidione as active layer. The method relies on electrons and holes, generated on local illumination, which are provided after exciton splitting, to probe charge trapping. In the dark, hole conduction is observed for negative gate voltage while no electron conduction is observed for positive gate voltage. However, under illumination, a fast displacement current with 60 mu s onset time and 1 ms exponential decay occurs for positive gate voltage, which can be explained by exciton splitting underneath the semitransparent top contact followed by subsequent electron trapping and hole extraction. Afterward, trapped electrons hop via further trap states within the film to the insulator into interface traps (13 ms exponential decay) which induce a positive threshold voltage shift in the FET transfer curves for hole transport. Photocurrent microscopy confirms that the displacement current occurs only for illumination under and near the semitransparent source/drain contacts, which act here as metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes. For negative gate voltage instead, the photocurrent comprises an enhanced hole current in the FET channel between the contacts. In the channel region, the detrapping of holes at the interface with the insulator (3 ms time constant) enhances the transistor current at low frequencies amp;lt; 1 kHz, whereas the displacement current between the contacts and the gate is observed only at frequencies amp;gt; 10 kHz. Thus, we show here that photocurrent microscopy allows to identify the kinetics of electrons and holes in traps close to the contacts and in the FET channel of pigment transistors.

  • 11.
    Miglbauer, Eva
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Demitri, Nicola
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Himmelsbach, Markus
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Monkowius, Uwe
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Sariciftci, Niyazi S.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Oppelt, Kerstin T.
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Synthesis and Investigation of N,N-benzylated Epindolidione Derivatives as Organic Semiconductors2016In: CHEMISTRYSELECT, ISSN 2365-6549, Vol. 1, no 20, p. 6349-6355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report how the N, N-disubstitution of epindolidione with a benzyl group surprisingly leads to irreversibility of oxidation and thus to only n-type transport in a material with otherwise quasi-reversible reduction and oxidation and charge transport ambipolarity. Cyclic voltammetry, bulk electrolysis and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods were applied to elucidate the electrochemical reaction pathway leading to oxidative degradation and conclude that the same product that can be produced electrochemically is also found in the solid-state device. The chemical substitution of hydrogen-bonded acridone-based semiconductors can lead to substantial changes in their electrical properties, and more broadly, the electrochemistry of organic semiconductors in solution can be closely related to their solid-state charge transport phenomena.

  • 12.
    Miglbauer, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Graz Univ Technol, Austria.
    Wojcik, Pawel Jerzy
    Redox Me AB, Sweden.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Single-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) cathodes2018In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 84, p. 11873-11876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells have recently emerged as a promising energy conversion platform since H2O2 is a high energy-density liquid that functions as both fuel and oxidizer. Finding suitable electrocatalysts is challenging since most metallic electrodes also catalyze the disproportionation reaction of H2O2 into H2O and O-2, representing a significant loss mechanism in peroxide fuel cells. Herein we demonstrate that the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, is a versatile electrocatalyst for peroxide fuel cells without generating losses due to disproportionation. We find that PEDOT is a cathodic catalyst for reduction of peroxide to water, performing at a level on par with the best reported inorganic catalysts. Using PEDOT as the cathode and nickel as the anode material, open circuit potentials in the range of 0.5-0.6 V are possible, with power densities of 0.20-0.30 mW cm(-2). We provide evidence to understand mechanistically how PEDOT functions as a catalyst for hydrogen peroxide reduction to water. The result of our efforts is a scalable hydrogen peroxide fuel cell cathode, which serves to demonstrate also the capabilities of organic semiconducting materials as electrocatalysts.

  • 13.
    Migliaccio, Ludovico
    et al.
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatia.
    Pezzella, Alessandro
    Univ Naples Federico II, Italy; CNR, Italy; Natl Interuniv Consortium Mat Sci and Technol INSTM, Italy.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aqueous photo(electro)catalysis with eumelanin thin films2018In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 984-990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report that eumelanin, the ubiquitous natural pigment found in most living organisms, is a photocatalytic material. Though the photoconductivity of eumelanin and its photochemical reactions with oxygen have been known for some time, eumelanins have not been regarded as photofaradaic materials. We find that eumelanin shows photocathodic behavior for both the oxygen reduction reaction and the hydrogen evolution reaction. Eumelanin films irradiated in aqueous solutions at pH 2 or 7 with simulated solar light photochemically reduce oxygen to hydrogen peroxide with accompanying oxidation of sacrificial oxalate, formate, or phenol. Autooxidation of the eumelanin competes with the oxidation of donors. Deposition of thin films on electrodes yields photoelectrodes with higher photocatalytic stability compared with the case of pure photocatalysis, implicating the successful extraction of positive charges from the eumelanin layer. These results open up new potential applications for eumelanin as a photocatalytically-active biomaterial, and inform the growing fundamental body of knowledge about the physical chemistry of eumelanins.

  • 14.
    Rand, David
    et al.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Israel; Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lubin, Gur
    Tel Aviv Univ, Israel; Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Vebraite, Ieva
    Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Israel.
    David-Pur, Moshe
    Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatia.
    Cramer, Tobias
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria.
    Hanein, Yael
    Tel Aviv Univ, Israel.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Direct Electrical Neurostimulation with Organic Pigment Photocapacitors2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 25, article id 1707292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient nanoscale semiconducting optoelectronic system is reported, which is optimized for neuronal stimulation: the organic electrolytic photocapacitor. The devices comprise a thin (80 nm) trilayer of metal and p-n semiconducting organic nanocrystals. When illuminated in physiological solution, these metal-semiconductor devices charge up, transducing light pulses into localized displacement currents that are strong enough to electrically stimulate neurons with safe light intensities. The devices are freestanding, requiring no wiring or external bias, and are stable in physiological conditions. The semiconductor layers are made using ubiquitous and nontoxic commercial pigments via simple and scalable deposition techniques. It is described how, in physiological media, photovoltage and charging behavior depend on device geometry. To test cell viability and capability of neural stimulation, photostimulation of primary neurons cultured for three weeks on photocapacitor films is shown. Finally, the efficacy of the device is demonstrated by achieving direct optoelectronic stimulation of light-insensitive retinas, proving the potential of this device platform for retinal implant technologies and for stimulation of electrogenic tissues in general. These results substantiate the conclusion that these devices are the first non-Si optoelectronic platform capable of sufficiently large photovoltages and displacement currents to enable true capacitive stimulation of excitable cells.

  • 15.
    Reitboeck, Cornelia
    et al.
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stifter, David
    Johannes Kepler Univ Linz, Austria.
    Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Investigations of Phosphonic Acids on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Films2018In: Applied Spectroscopy, ISSN 0003-7028, E-ISSN 1943-3530, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 725-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled monolayers of alkyl phosphonic acids on anodic aluminum oxide (AlOx) surfaces are important as dielectric layers in thin film electronic devices. Assessing the properties and quality of these monolayers on amorphous AlOx is limited to a few surface-sensitive methods. In this work, we study using nonlinear optical measurements the molecular ordering in n-alkyl phosphonic acids with various alkyl chain lengths (6 to 18 carbons) deposited on AlOx and show the influence of temperature on stability and conformational order. The results demonstrate that the octadecylphosphonic acid has fewest defects in the chain orientation. A detailed comparison of the longest and the shortest alkyl chain revealed different behavior in conformational ordering upon annealing.

  • 16.
    Rybakiewicz, Renata
    et al.
    Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University, Poland; Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Skorka, Lukasz
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Pluczyk, Sandra
    Silesian Technical University, Poland.
    Zassowski, Pawel
    Silesian Technical University, Poland.
    Hazar Apaydin, Dogukan
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Lapkowski, Mieczyslaw
    Silesian Technical University, Poland; Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Zagorska, Malgorzata
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Pron, Adam
    Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.
    Low and High Molecular Mass Dithienopyrrole-Naphthalene Bisimide Donor-Acceptor Compounds: Synthesis, Electrochemical and Spectroelectrochemical Behaviour2017In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 2839-2851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two low molecular weight electroactive donor-acceptor- donor (DAD)-type molecules are reported, namely naphthalene bisimide (NBI) symmetrically core-functionalized with dithienopyrrole (NBI-(DTP)(2)) and an asymmetric corefunctionalized naphthalene bisimide with dithienopyrrole (DTP) substituent on one side and 2-ethylhexylamine on the other side (NBI-DTP-NHEtHex). Both compounds are characterized by low optical bandgaps (1.52 and 1.65 eV, respectively). NBI-(DTP)(2) undergoes oxidative electropolymeriza-tion giving the electroactive polymer of ambipolar character. Its two-step reversible reduction and oxidation is corroborated by complementary EPR and UV/Vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical investigations. The polymer turned out to be electrochemically active not only in aprotic solvents but also in aqueous electrolytes, showing a distinct photocathodic current attributed to proton reduction. Additionally, poly(NBI-(DTP)(2)) was successfully tested as a photodiode material.

  • 17.
    Sytnyk, Mykhailo
    et al.
    Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Litvinukova, Monika
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Mashkov, Oleksandr
    Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Kriegner, Dominik
    Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic.
    Stangl, Julian
    University of Linz, Austria.
    Nebesarova, Jana
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Fecher, Frank W.
    Bayer Zentrum Angew Energieforsch ZAE Bayern, Germany.
    Schoefberger, Wolfgang
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Serdar Sariciftci, Niyazi
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Schindl, Rainer
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria; Medical University of Graz, Austria.
    Heiss, Wolfgang
    Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Energie Campus Nurnberg EnCN, Germany.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Cellular interfaces with hydrogen-bonded organic semiconductor hierarchical nanocrystals2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, article id 91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful formation of electronic interfaces between living cells and semiconductors hinges on being able to obtain an extremely close and high surface-area contact, which preserves both cell viability and semiconductor performance. To accomplish this, we introduce organic semiconductor assemblies consisting of a hierarchical arrangement of nanocrystals. These are synthesised via a colloidal chemical route that transforms the nontoxic commercial pigment quinacridone into various biomimetic three-dimensional arrangements of nanocrystals. Through a tuning of parameters such as precursor concentration, ligands and additives, we obtain complex size and shape control at room temperature. We elaborate hedgehog-shaped crystals comprising nanoscale needles or daggers that form intimate interfaces with the cell membrane, minimising the cleft with single cells without apparent detriment to viability. Excitation of such interfaces with light leads to effective cellular photostimulation. We find reversible light-induced conductance changes in ion-selective or temperature-gated channels.

  • 18.
    Warczak, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatia.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Correction: Organic semiconductor perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide (vol 54, pg 1960, 2018)2018In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 20, p. 2566-2566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correction for Organic semiconductor perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide by Magdalena Warczak et al., Chem. Commun., 2018, DOI: ; Web: 10.1039/c7cc08471d.

  • 19.
    Warczak, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatia.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic semiconductor perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide2018In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 16, p. 1960-1963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen peroxide is one of the most important industrial chemicals and there is great demand for the production of H2O2 usingmore sustainable and environmentally benign methods. We show electrochemical production of H2O2 by the reduction of O-2, enabled by an organic semiconductor catalyst, N,N-dimethyl perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI). We make PTCDI cathodes that are capable of stable and reusable operation in aqueous electrolytes in a pH range of 1-13 with a catalytic figure of merit as high as 26 kg H2O2 per g catalyst per h. These performance and stability open new avenues for organic small molecule semiconductors as electrocatalysts.

  • 20.
    Warczak, Magdalena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gryszel, Maciej
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Derek, Vedran
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rudjer Boskovic Inst, Croatia.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic semiconductor perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide (vol 54, pg 1960, 2018)2018In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 54, no 94, p. 13287-13287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correction for Organic semiconductor perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) electrodes for electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide by Magdalena Warczak et al., Chem. Commun., 2018, 54, 1960-1963.

  • 21.
    Weclawski, Marek K.
    et al.
    Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Jakesova, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Charyton, Martyna
    Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Demitri, Nicola
    Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.
    Koszarna, Beata
    Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Oppelt, Kerstin
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Sariciftci, Serdar
    Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria.
    Gryko, Daniel T.
    Polish Academic Science, Poland.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biscoumarin-containing acenes as stable organic semiconductors for photocatalytic oxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 39, p. 20780-20788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversion of solar energy into chemical energy in the form of hydrogen peroxide and other reactive oxygen species has been predicted to be an efficient strategy, yet few organic materials systems support these types of photochemical conversion reactions. Herein we report a simple synthetic route to yield biscoumarin-containing acenes, semiconducting small molecules with exceptional stability and tunable electrochemical and electrical properties. We find that these semiconductors are photo(electro) catalysts capable of reducing oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Visible light irradiation of thin films on insulating substrates in pure water results in H2O2 photogeneration with water as the sacrificial electron donor. Thin films on conducting substrates are robust catalytic photocathodes for producing H2O2. These semiconductor photoelectrodes retain their catalytic properties in a pH range from 2-13. Photocatalytic or photoelectrocatalytic deployment of biscoumarin-containing acenes does not lead to measurable degradation. This work demonstrates a strategy to synthesize stable organic semiconductors not only suitable for thin-film electronic devices but also next-generation photocatalytic concepts.

1 - 21 of 21
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