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  • 1.
    Augier, Eric
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dulman, Russell S
    Center for Alcohol Research in Epigenetics, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
    Licheri, Valentina
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, 413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Augier, Gaëlle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Domi, Esi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barchiesi, Riccardo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Farris, Sean
    The Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
    Nätt, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mayfield, R Dayne
    The Waggoner Center for Alcohol and Addiction Research, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
    Adermark, Louise
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, 413 90 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    A molecular mechanism for choosing alcohol over an alternative reward.2018In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 360, no 6395, p. 1321-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol addiction leads to increased choice of alcohol over healthy rewards. We established an exclusive choice procedure in which ~15% of outbred rats chose alcohol over a high-value reward. These animals displayed addiction-like traits, including high motivation to obtain alcohol and pursuit of this drug despite adverse consequences. Expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-3 was selectively decreased within the amygdala of alcohol-choosing rats, whereas a knockdown of this transcript reversed choice preference of rats that originally chose a sweet solution over alcohol. GAT-3 expression was selectively decreased in the central amygdala of alcohol-dependent people compared to those who died of unrelated causes. Impaired GABA clearance within the amygdala contributes to alcohol addiction, appears to translate between species, and may offer targets for new pharmacotherapies for treating this disorder.

  • 2.
    Domi, Esi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Augier, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Augier, Gaëlle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gehlert, D.
    Cerecor, MD USA; Matrix Pharmaceut Consulting, CO USA.
    Barchiesi, Riccardo
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holm, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Psychiatry.
    Preclinical evaluation of the kappa-opioid receptor antagonist CERC-501 as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders2018In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 1805-1812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior work suggests a role of kappa-opioid signaling in the control of alcohol drinking, in particular when drinking is escalated due to alcohol-induced long-term neuroadaptations. Here, we examined the small molecule selective kappa antagonist CERC-501 in rat models of alcohol-related behaviors, with the objective to evaluate its potential as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders. We first tested the effect of CERC-501 on acute alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior. CERC-501 was then tested on basal as well as escalated alcohol self-administration induced by 20% alcohol intermittent access. Finally, we determined the effects of CERC-501 on relapse to alcohol seeking triggered by both stress and alcohol-associated cues. Control experiments were performed to confirm the specificity of CERC-501 effects on alcohol-related behaviors. CERC-501 reversed anxiety-like behavior induced by alcohol withdrawal. It did not affect basal alcohol self-administration but did dose-dependently suppress self-administration that had escalated following long-term intermittent access to alcohol. CERC-501 blocked relapse to alcohol seeking induced by stress, but not when relapse-like behavior was triggered by alcohol-associated cues. The effects of CERC-501 were observed in the absence of sedative side effects and were not due to effects on alcohol metabolism. Thus, in a broad battery of preclinical alcohol models, CERC-501 has an activity profile characteristic of anti-stress compounds. Combined with its demonstrated preclinical and clinical safety profile, these data support clinical development of CERC-501 for alcohol use disorders, in particular for patients with negatively reinforced, stress-driven alcohol seeking and use.

  • 3.
    Domi, Esi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Camerino, Italy.
    Caputi, Francesca Felicia
    Alma Mater Studiorum Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Romualdi, Patrizia
    Alma Mater Studiorum Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Domi, Ana
    Univ Camerino, Italy.
    Scuppa, Giulia
    Univ Camerino, Italy.
    Candeletti, Sanzio
    Alma Mater Studiorum Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Atkins, Alison Lynn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Demopulos, Gregory
    Omeros Corp, WA 98101 USA.
    Gaitanaris, George
    Omeros Corp, WA 98101 USA.
    Ciccocioppo, Roberto
    Univ Camerino, Italy.
    Ubaldi, Massimo
    Univ Camerino, Italy.
    Activation of PPAR gamma Attenuates the Expression of Physical and Affective Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms through Mechanisms Involving Amygdala and Hippocampus Neurotransmission2019In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 39, no 49, p. 9864-9875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An isoform of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PPAR gamma, is the receptor for the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic medications including pioglitazone. Neuroanatomical data indicate PPAR gamma localization in brain areas involved in drug addiction. Preclinical and clinical data have shown that pioglitazone reduces alcohol and opioid self-administration, relapse to drug seeking, and plays a role in emotional responses. Here, we investigated the behavioral effect of PPAR gamma manipulation on nicotine withdrawal in male Wistar rats and in male mice with neuron-specific PPAR gamma deletion (PPAR gamma(()(+/+)())) and their littermate wild-type (PPAR gamma((-/-))) controls. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and RNAscope in situ hybridization assays were used for assessing the levels of expression and cell-type localization of PPAR gamma function, Memory, Mortality, Older subjects, Structural brain abnormalities during nicotine withdrawal. Brain site-specific microinjections of the PPAR gamma agonist pioglitazone were performed to explore the role of this system on nicotine withdrawal at a neurocircuitry level. Results showed that activation of PPAR gamma by pioglitazone abolished the expression of somatic and affective nicotine withdrawal signs in rats and in (PPAR gamma(()(+/+)())) mice. This effect was blocked by the PPAR gamma antagonist GW9662. During early withdrawal and protracted abstinence, the expression of PPAR gamma increased in GABAergic and glutamatergic cells of the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Hippocampal microinjections of pioglitazone reduced the expression of the physical signs of withdrawal, whereas excessive anxiety associated with protracted abstinence was prevented by pioglitazone microinjection into the amygdala. Our results demonstrate the implication of the neuronal PPAR gamma in nicotine withdrawal and indicates that activation of PPAR gamma may offer an interesting strategy for smoking cessation.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Anita C.
    et al.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Koopmann, Anne
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Uhrig, Stefanie
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Buhler, Sina
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Domi, Esi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Camerino, Italy.
    Kiessling, Eva
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Ciccocioppo, Roberto
    Univ Camerino, Italy.
    Froemke, Robert C.
    NYU, NY USA.
    Grinevich, Valery
    German Canc Res Ctr, Germany.
    Kiefer, Falk
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Sommer, Wolfgang H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany; Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Vollstaedt-Klein, Sabine
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Spanagel, Rainer
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Oxytocin Reduces Alcohol Cue-Reactivity in Alcohol-Dependent Rats and Humans2018In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1235-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approved pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder are limited in their effectiveness, and new drugs that can easily be translated into the clinic are warranted. One of those candidates is oxytocin because of its interaction with several alcohol-induced effects. Alcoholdependent rats as well as post-mortem brains of human alcoholics and controls were analyzed for the expression of the oxytocin system by qRT-PCR, in situ hybridizaton, receptor autoradiography ([(125)l]OVTA binding), and immunohistochemistry. Alcohol self administration and cue-induced reinstatement behavior was measured after intracerebroventicular injection of 10 nM oxytocin in dependent rats. Here we show a pronounced upregulation of oxytocin receptors in brain tissues of alcohol dependent rats and deceased alcoholics, primarily in frontal and striatal areas. This upregulation stems most likely from reduced oxytocin expression in hypothalamic nuclei. Pharmacological validaton showed that oxytocin reduced cue-induced reinstatement response in dependent rats-an effect that was not observed in nondependent rats. Finally, a clinical pilot study (German clinical trial number DRKS00009253) using functional magnetic resonance imaging in heavy social male drinkers showed that intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) decreased neural cue-reactivity in brain networks similar to those detected in dependent rats and humans with increased oxytocin receptor expression. These studies suggest that oxytocin might be used as an anticraving medication and thus may positvely affect treatment outcomes in alcoholics.

  • 5.
    Johnstone, Andrea L.
    et al.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA; Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA; EpiCypher Inc, NC USA.
    Andrade, Nadja S.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Barbier, Estelle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Khomtchouk, Bohdan B.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA; Univ Chicago, IL 60637 USA.
    Rienas, Christopher A.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Lowe, Kenneth
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Van Booven, Derek J.
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Domi, Esi
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Esanov, Rustam
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Vilca, Samara
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Tapocik, Jenica D.
    NIAAA, MD USA.
    Rodriguez, Keli
    EpiCypher Inc, NC USA.
    Maryanski, Danielle
    EpiCypher Inc, NC USA.
    Keogh, Michael Christopher
    EpiCypher Inc, NC USA.
    Meinhardt, Marcus W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Sommer, Wolfgang H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken inkl beroendekliniken.
    Zeier, Zane
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Wahlestedt, Claes
    Univ Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Dysregulation of the histone demethylase KDM6B in alcohol dependence is associated with epigenetic regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways2019In: Addiction Biology, ISSN 1355-6215, E-ISSN 1369-1600, article id UNSP e12816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetic enzymes oversee long-term changes in gene expression by integrating genetic and environmental cues. While there are hundreds of enzymes that control histone and DNA modifications, their potential roles in substance abuse and alcohol dependence remain underexplored. A few recent studies have suggested that epigenetic processes could underlie transcriptomic and behavioral hallmarks of alcohol addiction. In the present study, we sought to identify epigenetic enzymes in the brain that are dysregulated during protracted abstinence as a consequence of chronic and intermittent alcohol exposure. Through quantitative mRNA expression analysis of over 100 epigenetic enzymes, we identified 11 that are significantly altered in alcohol-dependent rats compared with controls. Follow-up studies of one of these enzymes, the histone demethylase KDM6B, showed that this enzyme exhibits region-specific dysregulation in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of alcohol-dependent rats. KDM6B was also upregulated in the human alcoholic brain. Upregulation of KDM6B protein in alcohol-dependent rats was accompanied by a decrease of trimethylation levels at histone H3, lysine 27 (H3K27me3), consistent with the known demethylase specificity of KDM6B. Subsequent epigenetic (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP]-sequencing) analysis showed that alcohol-induced changes in H3K27me3 were significantly enriched at genes in the IL-6 signaling pathway, consistent with the well-characterized role of KDM6B in modulation of inflammatory responses. Knockdown of KDM6B in cultured microglial cells diminished IL-6 induction in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Our findings implicate a novel KDM6B-mediated epigenetic signaling pathway integrated with inflammatory signaling pathways that are known to underlie the development of alcohol addiction.

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