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  • 1.
    Busse, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palmert, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjodin, B.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Almroth, P.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, D.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evaluation of the crystallographic fatigue crack growth rate in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy2019In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 127, p. 259-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cracks in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys have been observed to switch cracking mode from Mode I to crystallographic cracking. The crack propagation rate is usually higher on the crystallographic planes compared to Mode I, which is important to account for in crack growth life predictions. In this paper, a method to evaluate the crystallographic fatigue crack growth rate, based on a previously developed crystallographic crack driving force parameter, is presented. The crystallographic crack growth rate was determined by evaluating heat tints on the fracture surfaces of the test specimens from the experiments. Complicated crack geometries including multiple crystallographic crack fronts were modelled in a three dimensional finite element context, The data points of the crystallographic fatigue crack growth rate collapse on a narrow scatter band for the crystallographic cracks indicating a correlation with the previously developed crystallographic crack driving force.

  • 2.
    Busse, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palmert, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sjodin, B.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Almroth, P.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, D.
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Kjell
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Prediction of crystallographic cracking planes in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys2018In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 196, p. 206-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inherent anisotropy of single-crystal nickel-base superalloys brings many difficulties in terms of modelling, evaluation and prediction of fatigue crack growth. Two models to predict on which crystallographic plane cracking will occur is presented. The models are based on anisotropic stress intensity factors resolved on crystallographic slip planes calculated in a three-dimensional finite-element context. The developed models have been compared to experiments on two different test specimen geometries. The results show that a correct prediction of the crystallographic cracking plane can be achieved. This knowledge is of great interest for the industry and academia to better understand and predict crack growth in single-crystal materials.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-05-05 15:21
  • 3.
    Busse, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palmert, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Wawrzynek, Paul
    Fracture Anal Consultants Inc, NY USA.
    Sjodin, Bjorn
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, David
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Leidermark, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crystallographic crack propagation rate in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys2018In: 12TH INTERNATIONAL FATIGUE CONGRESS (FATIGUE 2018), E D P SCIENCES , 2018, Vol. 165, article id 13012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystal nickel-base superalloys are often used in the hot sections of gas turbines due to their good mechanical properties at high temperatures such as enhanced creep resistance. However, the anisotropic material properties of these materials bring many difficulties in terms of modelling and crack growth prediction. Cracks tend to switch cracking mode from Mode I cracking to crystallographic cracking. Crystallographic crack growth is often associated with a decrease in crack propagation life compared to Mode I cracking and this must be taken into account for reliable component lifing. In this paper a method to evaluate the crystallographic crack propagation rate related to a crystallographic crack driving force parameter is presented. The crystallographic crack growth rate is determined by an evaluation of heat tints on the fracture surface of a specimen subjected to fatigue loading. The complicated crack geometry including two crystallographic crack fronts is modelled in a three dimensional finite element context. The crack driving force parameter is determined by calculating anisotropic stress intensity factors along the two crystallographic crack fronts by finite-element simulations and post-processing the data in a fracture mechanics tool that resolves the stress intensity factors on the crystallographic slip planes in the slip directions. The evaluated crack propagation rate shows a good correlation for both considered crystallographic cracks fronts.

  • 4.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Jinming
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering,Lunds University, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    M'Saoubi, R
    Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, David
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Palmert, Frans
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Plastic Deformation and Residual Stress in High Speed Turning of AD730™ Nickel-based Superalloy with PCBN and WC Tools2018In: Procedia CIRP 71 (2018) pp 440-445, Elsevier, 2018, Vol. 71, p. 440-445Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A higher gas turbine efficiency can be achieved by increasing the operating temperature in hot sections. AD730™ is a recently-developed wrought/cast nickel-based superalloy which can maintain excellent mechanical properties above 700 ℃. However, machining of AD730™ could be a difficult task like other nickel-based superalloys. Therefore, studies are needed with respect to the machinability of this new alloy.

    In this paper, high-speed turning was performed on AD730™ using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tools and coated tungsten carbide (WC) tools at varied cutting speeds. The surface integrity was assessed in two important aspects, i.e., surface and sub-surface plastic deformation and residual stresses. The PCBN tools generally showed better performance compared with the WC tools since it led to reduced machining time without largely compromising the surface integrity achieved. The optimal cutting speed was identified in the range of 200-250 m/min when using the PCBN tools, which gives rise to a good combination of machining efficiency and surface integrity. The further increase of the cutting speed to 300 m/min resulted in severe and deep plastic deformation. Meanwhile, a continuous white layer was formed at the machined surface. When turning with the WC tools, the increased cutting speed from 80 m/min to 100 m/min showed very little effect with respect to the plastic deformation on the machined surface. It was found that tensile residual stresses were developed on all machined surfaces no matter when the PCBN or WC tools were used, and the surface tension was generally increased with increasing cutting speed. The tensile layer might need to be modified by e.g., post-machining surface treatments such as shot peening, if taking good fatigue performance into consideration.

  • 5.
    Palmert, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crack growth in single crystal nickel base superalloys under isothermal and thermomechanical fatigue2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work concerns the fatigue crack growth behaviour of nickel base single crystal superalloys. The main industrial application of this class of materials is in gas turbine blades, where the ability to withstand severe mechanical loading in combination with high temperatures is required. In order to ensure the structural integrity of gas turbine blades, knowledge of the fatigue crack growth behaviour under service-like conditions is of utmost importance. The aim of the present work is both to improve the understanding of the crack growth behaviour of single crystal superalloys and also to improve the testing and evaluation methodology for crack propagation under thermomechanical fatigue loading conditions. Single crystal superalloys have anisotropic mechanical properties and are prone to localization of inelastic deformation along the close-packed planes of the crystal lattice. Under some conditions, crystallographic crack growth occurs along these planes and this is a complicating factor throughout the whole chain of crack propagation life simulation; from material data generation to component calculation. Fatigue crack growth testing has been performed, both using conventional isothermal testing methods and also using thermomechanical fatigue crack growth testing. Experimental observations regarding crystallographic crack growth have been made and its dependence on crystal orientation and testing temperature has been investigated. Quantitative crack growth data are however only presented for the case of Mode I crack growth under isothermal as well as thermomechanical fatigue conditions. Microstructural investigations have been undertaken to investigate the deformation mechanisms governing the crack growth behaviour. A compliance based method for the evaluation of crack opening force under thermomechanical fatigue conditions was developed, in order to enable a detailed analysis of the test data. The crack opening force evaluation proved to be of key importance in the understanding of the crack driving force under different testing conditions.

    List of papers
    1. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of an alternative single crystal nickel base superalloy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue crack growth behaviour of an alternative single crystal nickel base superalloy
    2018 (English)In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 109, p. 166-181Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The fatigue crack growth behaviour of a single crystal nickel base superalloy was studied at three different temperatures (20 degrees C, 500 degrees C and 750 degrees C) and three different crystallographic orientations. At the highest testing temperature, the influence of hold time at maximum load was also evaluated. Under some of the testing conditions, crystallographic crack growth occurred along {1 1 1} planes, which were non-perpendicular to the loading direction. The propensity for crystallographic cracking was observed to be strongly temperature dependent with a maximum occurring at the intermediate testing temperature of 500 degrees C. During non-crystallographic, Mode I crack growth the crack tended to avoid the gamma particles and propagated preferentially through the gamma matrix.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2018
    Keywords
    Single crystal superalloy; Fatigue; Crack growth; Crystallographic crack growth; Temperature dependence; Orientation dependence; Hold time influence
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145431 (URN)10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2017.12.003 (DOI)000425073100017 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Finspang, Sweden; Swedish Energy Agency, via the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-702]

    Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2019-09-23
    2. Thermomechanical fatigue crack growth in a single crystal nickel base superalloy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermomechanical fatigue crack growth in a single crystal nickel base superalloy
    2019 (English)In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 122, p. 184-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Thermomechanical fatigue crack growth in a single crystal nickel base superalloy was studied. Tests were performed on single edge notched specimens, using in phase and out of phase thermomechanical fatigue cycling with temperature ranges of 100-750°C and 100-850°C and hold times at maximum temperature ranging from 10s to 6h. Isothermal testing at 100°C, 750°C and 850°C was also performed using the same test setup. A compliance-based method is proposed to experimentally evaluate the crack opening stress and thereby estimate the effective stress intensity factor range ΔKeff for both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. For in phase thermomechanical fatigue, the crack growth rate is increased if a hold time is applied at the maximum temperature. By using the compliance-based crack opening evaluation, this increase in crack growth rate was explained by an increase in the effective stress intensity factor range which accelerated the cycle dependent crack growth. No significant difference in crack growth rate vs ΔKeff was observed between in phase thermomechanical fatigue tests and isothermal tests at the maximum temperature. For out of phase thermomechanical fatigue, the crack growth rate was insensitive to the maximum temperature and also to the length of hold time at maximum temperature. The crack growth rate vs ΔKeff during out of phase thermomechanical fatigue was significantly higher than during isothermal fatigue at the minimum temperature, even though the advancement of the crack presumably occurs at the same temperature. Dissolution of γ′ precipitates and recrystallization at the crack tip during out of phase thermomechanical fatigue is suggested as a likely explanation for this difference in crack growth rate.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2019
    Keywords
    single crystal superalloy, thermomechanical fatigue, crack growth, crack closure
    National Category
    Materials Engineering Applied Mechanics Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Infrastructure Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154074 (URN)10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2019.01.014 (DOI)000462110100017 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Finspang, Sweden; Swedish Energy Agency, via the Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-702]

    Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-04-08
  • 6.
    Palmert, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fatigue Crack Growth in a Single Crystal Nickel Base Superalloy2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Palmert, Frans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermomechanical fatigue crack growth in a single crystal nickel base superalloy2019In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 122, p. 184-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermomechanical fatigue crack growth in a single crystal nickel base superalloy was studied. Tests were performed on single edge notched specimens, using in phase and out of phase thermomechanical fatigue cycling with temperature ranges of 100-750°C and 100-850°C and hold times at maximum temperature ranging from 10s to 6h. Isothermal testing at 100°C, 750°C and 850°C was also performed using the same test setup. A compliance-based method is proposed to experimentally evaluate the crack opening stress and thereby estimate the effective stress intensity factor range ΔKeff for both isothermal and nonisothermal conditions. For in phase thermomechanical fatigue, the crack growth rate is increased if a hold time is applied at the maximum temperature. By using the compliance-based crack opening evaluation, this increase in crack growth rate was explained by an increase in the effective stress intensity factor range which accelerated the cycle dependent crack growth. No significant difference in crack growth rate vs ΔKeff was observed between in phase thermomechanical fatigue tests and isothermal tests at the maximum temperature. For out of phase thermomechanical fatigue, the crack growth rate was insensitive to the maximum temperature and also to the length of hold time at maximum temperature. The crack growth rate vs ΔKeff during out of phase thermomechanical fatigue was significantly higher than during isothermal fatigue at the minimum temperature, even though the advancement of the crack presumably occurs at the same temperature. Dissolution of γ′ precipitates and recrystallization at the crack tip during out of phase thermomechanical fatigue is suggested as a likely explanation for this difference in crack growth rate.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-25 17:11
  • 8.
    Palmert, Frans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, David
    Siemens Ind Turbomachinery AB, Sweden.
    Busse, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fatigue crack growth behaviour of an alternative single crystal nickel base superalloy2018In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 109, p. 166-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fatigue crack growth behaviour of a single crystal nickel base superalloy was studied at three different temperatures (20 degrees C, 500 degrees C and 750 degrees C) and three different crystallographic orientations. At the highest testing temperature, the influence of hold time at maximum load was also evaluated. Under some of the testing conditions, crystallographic crack growth occurred along {1 1 1} planes, which were non-perpendicular to the loading direction. The propensity for crystallographic cracking was observed to be strongly temperature dependent with a maximum occurring at the intermediate testing temperature of 500 degrees C. During non-crystallographic, Mode I crack growth the crack tended to avoid the gamma particles and propagated preferentially through the gamma matrix.

1 - 8 of 8
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