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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Mohammed Metwally Gomaa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boshta, M.
    National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Farag, B. S.
    National Research Centre, Egypt.
    Osman, M. B. S.
    Ain Shams University, Egypt.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of precursor solutions on the structural and optical properties of sprayed NiO thin films2017In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 64, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel oxide thin films were deposited by a simple and low-cost spray pyrolysis technique using three different precursors: nickel nitrate, nickel chloride, and nickel acetate on corning glass substrates. X-ray diffraction show that the NiO films are polycrystalline and have a cubic crystal structure, although predominantly with a preferred 111-orientation in the growth direction and a random in-plane orientation. The deconvolution of the Ni 2p and O 1s core level X-ray photoelectron-spectra of nickel oxides produced by using different precursors indicates a shift of the binding energies. The sprayed NiO deposited from nickel nitrate has an optical transmittance in the range of 60-65% in the visible region. The optical band gap energies of the sprayed NiO films deposited from nickel nitrate, nickel chloride and nickel acetate are 3.5, 3.2 and 3.43 eV respectively. Also, the extinction coefficient and refractive index of NiO films have been calculated from transmittance and reflectance measurements. The average value of refractive index for sprayed films by nickel nitrate, nickel chloride and nickel acetate are 2.1, 1.6 and 1.85 respectively. It is revealed that the band gap and refractive index of NiO films by using nickel nitrate corresponds to the commonly reported values. We attribute the observed behavior in the optical band gap and optical constants as due to the change of the Ni/O ratio.

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  • 2.
    Backes, Claudia
    et al.
    Heidelberg Univ, Germany; Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland; Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Abdelkader, Amr M.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Alonso, Concepcion
    Autonomous Univ Madrid, Spain.
    Andrieux-Ledier, Amandine
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Arenal, Raul
    ARAID Fundat, Spain; Univ Zaragoza, Spain; Univ Zaragoza, Spain.
    Azpeitia, Jon
    CSIC, Spain.
    Balakrishnan, Nilanthy
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Banszerus, Luca
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany; Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Barjon, Julien
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Bartali, Ruben
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Bellani, Sebastiano
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Berger, Claire
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France; Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA.
    Berger, Reinhard
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Ortega, M. M. Bernal
    Politecn Torino, Italy.
    Bernard, Carlo
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Beton, Peter H.
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Beyer, Andre
    Bielefeld Univ, Germany.
    Bianco, Alberto
    Univ Strasbourg, France.
    Boggild, Peter
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Bonaccorso, Francesco
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; BeDimens Spa, Italy.
    Barin, Gabriela Borin
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Botas, Cristina
    CIC EnergiGUNE, Spain.
    Bueno, Rebeca A.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Carriazo, Daniel
    CIC EnergiGUNE, Spain; Basque Fdn Sci, Spain.
    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres
    CSIC, Spain.
    Christian, Meganne
    CNR, Italy.
    Ciesielski, Artur
    Univ Strasbourg, France.
    Ciuk, Tymoteusz
    Inst Technol Mat Elekt, Poland.
    Cole, Matthew T.
    Dept Elect and Elect Engn, England.
    Coleman, Jonathan
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland; Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Coletti, Camilla
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy; Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Crema, Luigi
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Cun, Huanyao
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Dasler, Daniela
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    De Fazio, Domenico
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Diez, Noel
    CIC EnergiGUNE, Spain.
    Drieschner, Simon
    Univ Munich, Germany.
    Duesberg, Georg S.
    Univ Bundeswehr Munchen, Germany.
    Fasel, Roman
    Empa, Switzerland; Univ Bern, Switzerland.
    Feng, Xinliang
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Fina, Alberto
    Politecn Torino, Italy.
    Forti, Stiven
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Galiotis, Costas
    Univ Patras, Greece; Fdn Res and Technol Hellas FORTH ICE HT, Greece.
    Garberoglio, Giovanni
    European Ctr Theoret Studies Nucl Phys and Related, Italy; INFN, Italy.
    Garcia, Jorge M.
    CSIC, Spain.
    Antonio Garrido, Jose
    Inst Catalan Nanotecnol ICN2, Spain.
    Gibertini, Marco
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Goelzhaeuser, Armin
    Bielefeld Univ, Germany.
    Gomez, Julio
    Avanzare Innovac Tecnol SL, Spain.
    Greber, Thomas
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hauke, Frank
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Hemmi, Adrian
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hernandez-Rodriguez, Irene
    CSIC, Spain.
    Hirsch, Andreas
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Hodge, Stephen A.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Huttel, Yves
    CSIC, Spain.
    Jepsen, Peter U.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Jimenez, Ignacio
    CSIC, Spain.
    Kaiser, Ute
    Univ Ulm, Germany.
    Kaplas, Tommi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kim, HoKwon
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Kis, Andras
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Papagelis, Konstantinos
    Fdn Res and Technol Hellas FORTH ICE HT, Greece; Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kostarelos, Kostas
    Univ Manchester, England.
    Krajewska, Aleksandra
    Inst Technol Mat Elekt, Poland; Polish Acad Sci, Poland.
    Lee, Kangho
    Univ Bundeswehr Munchen, Germany.
    Li, Changfeng
    Aalto Univ, Finland.
    Lipsanen, Harri
    Aalto Univ, Finland.
    Liscio, Andrea
    CNR, Italy.
    Lohe, Martin R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Loiseau, Annick
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Lombardi, Lucia
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Francisca Lopez, Maria
    CSIC, Spain.
    Martin, Oliver
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Martin, Cristina
    Univ Castilla La Mancha, Spain.
    Martinez, Lidia
    CSIC, Spain.
    Angel Martin-Gago, Jose
    CSIC, Spain.
    Ignacio Martinez, Jose
    CSIC, Spain.
    Marzari, Nicola
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland; Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Mayoral, Alvaro
    Univ Zaragoza, Spain; ShanghaiTech Univ, Peoples R China.
    McManus, John
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland; Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Melucci, Manuela
    CNR, Italy.
    Mendez, Javier
    CSIC, Spain.
    Merino, Cesar
    Grp Antolin Ingn SA, Spain.
    Merino, Pablo
    CSIC, Spain; CSIC, Spain.
    Meyer, Andreas P.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany; Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Miniussi, Elisa
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Miseikis, Vaidotas
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Mishra, Neeraj
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Morandi, Vittorio
    CNR, Italy.
    Munuera, Carmen
    CSIC, Spain.
    Munoz, Roberto
    CSIC, Spain.
    Nolan, Hugo
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland; Trinity Coll Dublin, Ireland.
    Ortolani, Luca
    CNR, Italy.
    Ott, Anna K.
    Univ Cambridge, England; Univ Exeter, England.
    Palacio, Irene
    CSIC, Spain.
    Palermo, Vincenzo
    CNR, Italy; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Parthenios, John
    Fdn Res and Technol Hellas FORTH ICE HT, Greece.
    Pasternak, Iwona
    Inst Technol Mat Elekt, Poland; Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Patane, Amalia
    Univ Nottingham, England.
    Prato, Maurizio
    Basque Fdn Sci, Spain; CIC BiomaGUNE, Spain; Univ Trieste, Italy.
    Prevost, Henri
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Prudkovskiy, Vladimir
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Pugno, Nicola
    Univ Trento, Italy; Edoardo Amaldi Foudat, Italy; Queen Mary Univ London, England.
    Rojo, Teofilo
    CIC EnergiGUNE, Spain; Univ Basque Country, Spain.
    Rossi, Antonio
    Ist Italiano Tecnol, Italy.
    Ruffieux, Pascal
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Samori, Paolo
    Univ Strasbourg, France.
    Schue, Leonard
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Setijadi, Eki
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Seyller, Thomas
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Germany.
    Speranza, Giorgio
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Stampfer, Christoph
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany; Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Stenger, Ingrid
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Strupinski, Wlodek
    Inst Technol Mat Elekt, Poland; Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Svirko, Yuri
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Taioli, Simone
    European Ctr Theoret Studies Nucl Phys and Related, Italy; INFN, Italy; Charles Univ Prague, Czech Republic.
    Teo, Kenneth B. K.
    Buckingway Business Pk, England.
    Testi, Matteo
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Tomarchio, Flavia
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Tortello, Mauro
    Politecn Torino, Italy.
    Treossi, Emanuele
    CNR, Italy.
    Turchanin, Andrey
    Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, Germany.
    Vazquez, Ester
    Univ Castilla La Mancha, Spain.
    Villaro, Elvira
    Interquimica, Spain.
    Whelan, Patrick R.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Xia, Zhenyuan
    CNR, Italy; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Sheng
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yim, Chanyoung
    Univ Bundeswehr Munchen, Germany.
    Yoon, Duhee
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Zhang, Xianghui
    Bielefeld Univ, Germany.
    Zhuang, Xiaodong
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany; Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Colombo, Luigi
    Univ Texas Dallas, TX 75080 USA.
    Ferrari, Andrea C.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Garcia-Hernandez, Mar
    CSIC, Spain.
    Production and processing of graphene and related materials2020In: Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2211-3398, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 022001Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an overview of the main techniques for production and processing of graphene and related materials (GRMs), as well as the key characterization procedures. We adopt a hands-on approach, providing practical details and procedures as derived from literature as well as from the authors experience, in order to enable the reader to reproduce the results. Section I is devoted to bottom up approaches, whereby individual constituents are pieced together into more complex structures. We consider graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) produced either by solution processing or by on-surface synthesis in ultra high vacuum (UHV), as well carbon nanomembranes (CNM). Production of a variety of GNRs with tailored band gaps and edge shapes is now possible. CNMs can be tuned in terms of porosity, crystallinity and electronic behaviour. Section II covers top down techniques. These rely on breaking down of a layered precursor, in the graphene case usually natural crystals like graphite or artificially synthesized materials, such as highly oriented pyrolythic graphite, monolayers or few layers (FL) flakes. The main focus of this section is on various exfoliation techniques in a liquid media, either intercalation or liquid phase exfoliation (LPE). The choice of precursor, exfoliation method, medium as well as the control of parameters such as time or temperature are crucial. A definite choice of parameters and conditions yields a particular material with specific properties that makes it more suitable for a targeted application. We cover protocols for the graphitic precursors to graphene oxide (GO). This is an important material for a range of applications in biomedicine, energy storage, nanocomposites, etc. Hummers and modified Hummers methods are used to make GO that subsequently can be reduced to obtain reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with a variety of strategies. GO flakes are also employed to prepare three-dimensional (3d) low density structures, such as sponges, foams, hydro- or aerogels. The assembly of flakes into 3d structures can provide improved mechanical properties. Aerogels with a highly open structure, with interconnected hierarchical pores, can enhance the accessibility to the whole surface area, as relevant for a number of applications, such as energy storage. The main recipes to yield graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) are also discussed. GICs are suitable precursors for covalent functionalization of graphene, but can also be used for the synthesis of uncharged graphene in solution. Degradation of the molecules intercalated in GICs can be triggered by high temperature treatment or microwave irradiation, creating a gas pressure surge in graphite and exfoliation. Electrochemical exfoliation by applying a voltage in an electrolyte to a graphite electrode can be tuned by varying precursors, electrolytes and potential. Graphite electrodes can be either negatively or positively intercalated to obtain GICs that are subsequently exfoliated. We also discuss the materials that can be amenable to exfoliation, by employing a theoretical data-mining approach. The exfoliation of LMs usually results in a heterogeneous dispersion of flakes with different lateral size and thickness. This is a critical bottleneck for applications, and hinders the full exploitation of GRMs produced by solution processing. The establishment of procedures to control the morphological properties of exfoliated GRMs, which also need to be industrially scalable, is one of the key needs. Section III deals with the processing of flakes. (Ultra)centrifugation techniques have thus far been the most investigated to sort GRMs following ultrasonication, shear mixing, ball milling, microfluidization, and wet-jet milling. It allows sorting by size and thickness. Inks formulated from GRM dispersions can be printed using a number of processes, from inkjet to screen printing. Each technique has specific rheological requirements, as well as geometrical constraints. The solvent choice is critical, not only for the GRM stability, but also in terms of optimizing printing on different substrates, such as glass, Si, plastic, paper, etc, all with different surface energies. Chemical modifications of such substrates is also a key step. Sections IV-VII are devoted to the growth of GRMs on various substrates and their processing after growth to place them on the surface of choice for specific applications. The substrate for graphene growth is a key determinant of the nature and quality of the resultant film. The lattice mismatch between graphene and substrate influences the resulting crystallinity. Growth on insulators, such as SiO2, typically results in films with small crystallites, whereas growth on the close-packed surfaces of metals yields highly crystalline films. Section IV outlines the growth of graphene on SiC substrates. This satisfies the requirements for electronic applications, with well-defined graphene-substrate interface, low trapped impurities and no need for transfer. It also allows graphene structures and devices to be measured directly on the growth substrate. The flatness of the substrate results in graphene with minimal strain and ripples on large areas, allowing spectroscopies and surface science to be performed. We also discuss the surface engineering by intercalation of the resulting graphene, its integration with Si-wafers and the production of nanostructures with the desired shape, with no need for patterning. Section V deals with chemical vapour deposition (CVD) onto various transition metals and on insulators. Growth on Ni results in graphitized polycrystalline films. While the thickness of these films can be optimized by controlling the deposition parameters, such as the type of hydrocarbon precursor and temperature, it is difficult to attain single layer graphene (SLG) across large areas, owing to the simultaneous nucleation/growth and solution/precipitation mechanisms. The differing characteristics of polycrystalline Ni films facilitate the growth of graphitic layers at different rates, resulting in regions with differing numbers of graphitic layers. High-quality films can be grown on Cu. Cu is available in a variety of shapes and forms, such as foils, bulks, foams, thin films on other materials and powders, making it attractive for industrial production of large area graphene films. The push to use CVD graphene in applications has also triggered a research line for the direct growth on insulators. The quality of the resulting films is lower than possible to date on metals, but enough, in terms of transmittance and resistivity, for many applications as described in section V. Transfer technologies are the focus of section VI. CVD synthesis of graphene on metals and bottom up molecular approaches require SLG to be transferred to the final target substrates. To have technological impact, the advances in production of high-quality large-area CVD graphene must be commensurate with those on transfer and placement on the final substrates. This is a prerequisite for most applications, such as touch panels, anticorrosion coatings, transparent electrodes and gas sensors etc. New strategies have improved the transferred graphene quality, making CVD graphene a feasible option for CMOS foundries. Methods based on complete etching of the metal substrate in suitable etchants, typically iron chloride, ammonium persulfate, or hydrogen chloride although reliable, are time- and resource-consuming, with damage to graphene and production of metal and etchant residues. Electrochemical delamination in a low-concentration aqueous solution is an alternative. In this case metallic substrates can be reused. Dry transfer is less detrimental for the SLG quality, enabling a deterministic transfer. There is a large range of layered materials (LMs) beyond graphite. Only few of them have been already exfoliated and fully characterized. Section VII deals with the growth of some of these materials. Amongst them, h-BN, transition metal tri- and di-chalcogenides are of paramount importance. The growth of h-BN is at present considered essential for the development of graphene in (opto) electronic applications, as h-BN is ideal as capping layer or substrate. The interesting optical and electronic properties of TMDs also require the development of scalable methods for their production. Large scale growth using chemical/physical vapour deposition or thermal assisted conversion has been thus far limited to a small set, such as h-BN or some TMDs. Heterostructures could also be directly grown. Section VIII discusses advances in GRM functionalization. A broad range of organic molecules can be anchored to the sp(2) basal plane by reductive functionalization. Negatively charged graphene can be prepared in liquid phase (e.g. via intercalation chemistry or electrochemically) and can react with electrophiles. This can be achieved both in dispersion or on substrate. The functional groups of GO can be further derivatized. Graphene can also be noncovalently functionalized, in particular with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that assemble on the sp(2) carbon network by pi-pi stacking. In the liquid phase, this can enhance the colloidal stability of SLG/FLG. Approaches to achieve noncovalent on-substrate functionalization are also discussed, which can chemically dope graphene. Research efforts to derivatize CNMs are also summarized, as well as novel routes to selectively address defect sites. In dispersion, edges are the most dominant defects and can be covalently modified. This enhances colloidal stability without modifying the graphene basal plane. Basal plane point defects can also be modified, passivated and healed in ultra-high vacuum. The decoration of graphene with metal nanoparticles (NPs) has also received considerable attention, as it allows to exploit synergistic effects between NPs and graphene. Decoration can be either achieved chemically or in the gas phase. All LMs, can be functionalized and we summarize emerging approaches to covalently and noncovalently functionalize MoS2 both in the liquid and on substrate. Section IX describes some of the most popular characterization techniques, ranging from optical detection to the measurement of the electronic structure. Microscopies play an important role, although macroscopic techniques are also used for the measurement of the properties of these materials and their devices. Raman spectroscopy is paramount for GRMs, while PL is more adequate for non-graphene LMs (see section IX.2). Liquid based methods result in flakes with different thicknesses and dimensions. The qualification of size and thickness can be achieved using imaging techniques, like scanning probe microscopy (SPM) or transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or spectroscopic techniques. Optical microscopy enables the detection of flakes on suitable surfaces as well as the measurement of optical properties. Characterization of exfoliated materials is essential to improve the GRM metrology for applications and quality control. For grown GRMs, SPM can be used to probe morphological properties, as well as to study growth mechanisms and quality of transfer. More generally, SPM combined with smart measurement protocols in various modes allows one to get obtain information on mechanical properties, surface potential, work functions, electrical properties, or effectiveness of functionalization. Some of the techniques described are suitable for in situ characterization, and can be hosted within the growth chambers. If the diagnosis is made ex situ, consideration should be given to the preparation of the samples to avoid contamination. Occasionally cleaning methods have to be used prior to measurement.

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  • 3.
    Bohnen, T.
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    van Dreumel, G W G
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Hageman, P R
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Vlieg, E.
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Algra, R E
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Verheijen, M A
    Philips Res Labs.
    Edgar, J H
    Kansas State University.
    ScAlN nanowires: A cathodoluminescence study2009In: JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, ISSN 0022-0248, Vol. 311, no 11, p. 3147-3151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wurtzite ScAlN nanowires, grown on a scandium nitride (ScN) thin film by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), were analyzed by energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX), CL, high resolution transmission electron spectroscopy (HRTEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The wires were grown along the [0 0 0 1] axis, had an average length of 1 mu m, a diameter between 50 and 150 run, and a ScAlN composition with a 95:5 Al:Sc ratio. Cathodoluminescence studies on the individual wires showed a sharp emission near 2.4 eV, originating from the Sc atoms in the aluminum nitride (AlN) matrix. The formation of such a semiconducting ScAlN alloy could present a new alternative to InAlN for optoelectronic applications operating in the 200-550 nm range.

  • 4.
    Gogova, Daniela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Central Laboratory of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shose 72, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kasic, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yazdi, Gholam Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aujol, E.
    LUMILOG, 2720, Chemin Saint Bernard, Les Moulins I, Vallauris F-06220, France.
    Frayssinet, E.
    LUMILOG, 2720, Chemin Saint Bernard, Les Moulins I, Vallauris F-06220, France.
    Faurie, J.-P.
    LUMILOG, 2720, Chemin Saint Bernard, Les Moulins I, Vallauris F-06220, France.
    Beaumont, B.
    LUMILOG, 2720, Chemin Saint Bernard, Les Moulins I, Vallauris F-06220, France.
    Gibart, P.
    LUMILOG, 2720, Chemin Saint Bernard, Les Moulins I, Vallauris F-06220, France.
    High-quality 2? bulk-like free-standing GaN grown by HydrideVapour phase epitaxy on a Si-doped metal organic vapour phase epitaxial GaN template with an ultra low dislocation density2005In: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-4922, E-ISSN 1347-4065, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 1181-1185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-quality 2? crack-free free-standing GaN has been attained by hydride vapour phase epitaxial growth on a Si-doped MOVPE GaN template with a low dislocation density and subsequent laser-induced lift-off process. A low value of dislocation density of ~2.0 × 107cm-2 on the Ga-polar face was determined from cathodoluminescence images. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) were exploited to investigate the structural and optical properties of the GaN material. The full width at half maximum value of XRD ?-scan of the free-standing GaN is 248 arcsec for the (1 0 1 4) reflection. The XRD and low-temperature PL mapping measurements consistently proved the high crystalline quality as well as the lateral homogeneity and the small residual stress of the material. Hence, the bulk-like free-standing GaN studied here is highly advantageous for being used as a lattice-constant and thermal-expansion-coefficient matched substrate for additional strain-free homoepitaxy of III-nitrides-based device heterostructures. The strain-free homoepitaxy will significantly reduce the defect density and thus, an improvement of the device performance and lifetime could be achieved. © 2005 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  • 5.
    Gomaa, M. M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Natl Res Ctr, Egypt.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodner, Marius
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boshta, M.
    Natl Res Ctr, Egypt.
    Osman, M. B. S.
    Ain Shams Univ, Egypt.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring NiO nanosize structures for ammonia sensing2018In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 29, no 14, p. 11870-11877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient ammonia gas sensor devices were fabricated based on nickel oxide (NiO) nanostructures films. Two chemical synthesis approaches were used: chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) and chemical bath deposition (CBD), aiming at obtaining highly developed surface area and high chemical reactivity of NiO. Crystal structure, morphology, and composition of NiO films and nanostructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. CSP method results in the synthesis of NiO films with pure cubic crystalline structure of preferred orientation along (111) direction. The type of the precursors used (nickel acetate, nickel chloride and nickel nitrate) affects the morphology and crystallites average size of the deposited films. CBD method consisted of two stages: (i) deposition of nickel hydroxide phase and (ii) thermal annealing of nickel hydroxide at 450 A degrees C in air for 4 h. Resulted structures were nanoflakes, vertically arranged in a "wall-like" morphology. Fabricated structures were found to be sensitive to ammonia differently, depending on the synthesis approach and material morphology. NiO films deposited by CBD demonstrated a stable response to ammonia with maximum magnitude at the operating temperature of 300 A degrees C. The highest average response for the CBD-NiO sample was 114.3-141.3% for 25 and 150 ppm NH3, respectively, whereas the response range observed for the film processed by spray pyrolysis using nickel chloride was 31.7-142.5% for 25 and 150 ppm NH3, respectively.

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  • 6.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Growth optimization and applicability of thick on-axis SiC layers using sublimation epitaxy in vacuum2016In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 448, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate growth of thick SiC layers (100–200 µm) on nominally on-axis hexagonal substrates using sublimation epitaxy in vacuum (10−5 mbar) at temperatures varying from 1700 to 1975 °C with growth rates up to 270 µm/h and 70 µm/h for 6H- and 4H–SiC, respectively. The stability of hexagonal polytypes are related to process growth parameters and temperature profile which can be engineered using different thermal insulation materials and adjustment of the induction coil position with respect to the graphite crucible. We show that there exists a range of growth rates for which single-hexagonal polytype free of foreign polytype inclusions can be maintained. Further on, foreign polytypes like 3C–SiC can be stabilized by moving out of the process window. The applicability of on-axis growth is demonstrated by growing a 200 µm thick homoepitaxial 6H–SiC layer co-doped with nitrogen and boron in a range of 1018 cm−3 at a growth rate of about 270 µm/h. Such layers are of interest as a near UV to visible light converters in a monolithic white light emitting diode concept, where subsequent nitride-stack growth benefits from the on-axis orientation of the SiC layer.

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  • 7.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yazdi, G. Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lateral Enlargement Growth Mechanism of 3C-SiC on Off-Oriented 4H-SiC Substrates2014In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 14, no 12, p. 6514-6520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce a 3C-SiC growth concept on off-oriented 4H-SiC substrates using a sublimation epitaxial method. A growth model of 3C-SiC layer development via a controlled cubic polytype nucleation on in situ formed on-axis area followed by a lateral enlargement of 3C-SiC domains along the step-flow direction is outlined. Growth process stability and reproducibility of high crystalline quality material are demonstrated in a series of 3C-SiC samples with a thickness of about 1 mm. The average values of full width at half-maximum of ω rocking curves on these samples vary from 34 to 48 arcsec indicating high crystalline quality compared to values found in the literature. The low temperature photoluminescence measurements also confirm a high crystalline quality of 3C-SiC and indicate that the residual nitrogen concentration is about 1–2 × 1016 cm–3. Such a 3C-SiC growth concept may be applied to produce substrates for homoepitaxial 3C-SiC growth or seeds which could be explored in bulk growth of 3C-SiC.

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  • 8.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholam Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Philipp, Schuh
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Wilhelm, Martin
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Single Domain 3C-SiC Growth on Off-Oriented 4H-SiC Substrates2015In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 2940-2947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the formation of structural defects in thick (∼1 mm) cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) layers grown on off-oriented 4H-SiC substrates via a lateral enlargement mechanism using different growth conditions. A two-step growth process based on this technique was developed, which provides a trade-off between the growth rate and the number of defects in the 3C-SiC layers. Moreover, we demonstrated that the two-step growth process combined with a geometrically controlled lateral enlargement mechanism allows the formation of a single 3C-SiC domain which enlarges and completely covers the substrate surface. High crystalline quality of the grown 3C-SiC layers is confirmed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence measurements.

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  • 9.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Niu, Yuran
    Max Lab, Lund University.
    Zakharov, Alexei
    Max Lab, Lund University.
    Lakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface engineering of SiC via sublimation etching2016In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 390, p. 816-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a technique for etching of SiC which is based on sublimation and can be used to modify the morphology and reconstruction of silicon carbide surface for subsequent epitaxial growth of various materials, for example graphene. The sublimation etching of 6H-, 4H- and 3C-SiC was explored in vacuum (10−5 mbar) and Ar (700 mbar) ambient using two different etching arrangements which can be considered as Si-C and Si-C-Ta chemical systems exhibiting different vapor phase stoichiometry at a given temperature. The surfaces of different polytypes etched under similar conditions are compared and the etching mechanism is discussed with an emphasis on the role of tantalum as a carbon getter. To demonstrate applicability of such etching process graphene nanoribbons were grown on a 4H-SiC surface that was pre-patterned using the thermal etching technique presented in this study.

  • 10.
    Kaushik, Priya Darshni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Aziz, Anver
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Siddiqui, Azher M.
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Interuniv Accelerator Centre, India.
    Avasthi, D. K.
    Interuniv Accelerator Centre, India; Amity Institute Nanotechnol, India.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modifications in structural, optical and electrical properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC due to 100 MeV silver ion irradiation2018In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 74, p. 122-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide (SiC) is a combination of two robust materials that are excellent candidates for post silicon electronics. In this work, we systematically investigate structural changes in SiC substrate as well as graphene on SiC and explore the potential for controlled applications due to 100 MeV silver swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Raman spectroscopy showed fluence dependent decrease in intensity of first and second order modes of SiC, along with decrease in Relative Raman Intensity upon ion irradiation. Similarly, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) showed fluence dependent decrease in Si-C bond intensity with presence of C = O, Si-O-Si, Si-Si and C-H bond showing introduction of vacancy, substitutional and sp(3) defects in both graphene and SiC. C1s spectra in XPS shows decrease in C = C graphitic peak and increase in interfacial layer following ion irradiation. Reduction in monolayer coverage of graphene after ion irradiation was observed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further, UV-Visible spectroscopy showed increase in absorbance of EG on SiC at increasing fluence. I-V characterization showed fluence dependent increase in resistance from 62.9 O in pristine sample to 480.1 Omega in sample irradiated at 6.6 x 10(12) ions/cm(2) fluence. The current study demonstrates how SHI irradiation can be used to tailor optoelectronic applicability of EG on SiC.

  • 11.
    Kaushik, Priya Darshni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Aziz, Anver
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Siddiqui, Azher M.
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Jawaharlal Nehru Univ, India.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structural and Optical Modification in 4H-SiC Following 30 keV Silver ion irradiation2018In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INVENTIVE RESEARCH IN MATERIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (ICIRMCT 2018), AMER INST PHYSICS , 2018, Vol. 1966, article id UNSP 020035-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market of high power, high frequency and high temperature based electronic devices is captured by SiC due to its superior properties like high thermal conductivity and high sublimation temperature and also due to the limitation of silicon based electronics in this area. There is a need to investigate effect of ion irradiation on SiC due to its application in outer space as outer space is surrounded both by low and high energy ion irradiations. In this work, effect of low energy ion irradiation on structural and optical property of 4H-SiC is investigated. ATR-FTIR is used to study structural modification and UV-Visible spectroscopy is used to study optical modifications in 4H-SiC following 30 keV Ag ion irradiation. FTIR showed decrease in bond density of SiC along the ion path (track) due to the creation of point defects. UV-Visible absorption spectra showed decrease in optical band gap from 3.26 eV to 2.9 eV. The study showed degradation of SiC crystallity and change in optical band gap following low energy ion irradiation and should be addressed while fabricationg devices based on SiC for outer space application. Additionally, this study provides a platform for introducing structural and optical modification in 4H-SiC using ion beam technology in a controlled manner.

  • 12.
    Kaushik, Priya Darshni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lin, Pin-Cheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kaur, Gurpreet
    University of Delhi, India.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Interuniv Accelerator Centre, India.
    Avasthi, D. K.
    Interuniv Accelerator Centre, India; Amity Institute Nanotechnol, India.
    Gupta, Vinay
    University of Delhi, India.
    Aziz, Anver
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Siddiqui, Azher M.
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 403, p. 707-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 x 10(13) ions/cm(2)). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and spintronic applications. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 13.
    Kaushik, Priya Darshni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Rodner, Marius
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Jawaharlal Nehru Univ, India.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solanki, Pratima
    Jawaharlal Nehru Univ, India.
    Aziz, Anver
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Siddiqui, Azher M.
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene using ion implantation for sensing and optical applications2020In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 157, p. 169-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface functionalization has been shown to allow tailoring of graphene lattice thus making it suitable for different applications like sensing, supercapacitance devices, drug delivery system and memory devices. In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC (EG/SiC) was done by ion beam technology (30 keV Ag- ions at fluences ranging from 5 x 10(12) ions/cm(2) to 5 x 10(14) ions/cm(2)), which is one of the most precise techniques for introducing modifications in materials. Atomic force microscopy showed presence of nanostructures in ion implanted samples and Photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that these are probably silicon oxy carbide. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed decoupling of buffer layer from SiC substrate at many places in ion implanted samples. Further, HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy showed amorphization of both graphene and SiC at highest fluence. Fluence dependent increase in absorbance and resistance was observed. Gas sensors fabricated on pristine and ion implanted samples were able to respond to low concentration (50 ppb) of NO2 and NH3 gases. Detecting NH3 gas at low concentration further provides a simple platform for fabricating highly sensitive urea biosensor. We observed response inversion with increasing fluence along with presence of an optimal fluence, which maximized gas sensitivity of EG/SiC. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Kaushik, Priya Darshni
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lakshmi, Garimella Bhaskara Venkata Subba
    Jawaharlal Nehru Univ, India.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Structural Modifications in Epitaxial Graphene on SiC Following 10 keV Nitrogen Ion Implantation2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 4013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modification of epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (EG/SiC) was explored by ion implantation using 10 keV nitrogen ions. Fragments of monolayer graphene along with nanostructures were observed following nitrogen ion implantation. At the initial fluence, sp(3) defects appeared in EG; higher fluences resulted in vacancy defects as well as in an increased defect density. The increased fluence created a decrease in the intensity of the prominent peak of SiC as well as of the overall relative Raman intensity. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed a reduction of the peak intensity of graphitic carbon and silicon carbide as a result of ion implantation. The dopant concentration and level of defects could be controlled both in EG and SiC by the fluence. This provided an opportunity to explore EG/SiC as a platform using ion implantation to control defects, and to be applied for fabricating sensitive sensors and nanoelectronics devices with high performance.

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  • 15.
    Kazemi, Amin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Damghan Univ, Iran.
    Rodner, Marius
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fadavieslam, M. R.
    Damghan Univ, Iran.
    Kaushik, Priya Darshni
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The effect of Cl- and N-doped MoS2 and WS2 coated on epitaxial graphene in gas-sensing applications2021In: SURFACES AND INTERFACES, ISSN 2468-0230, Vol. 25, article id 101200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, epitaxial graphene (EG) was grown on a 6H-SiC (0001) substrate via the thermal decomposition of SiC. Undoped and Cl- or N-doped molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) ultrathin films were spin-coated on the graphene surface. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and topological atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed good distribution of thin MoS2 and WS2 flakes on the EG surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of Mo-related peaks of 3d(5/2) and 3d(3/2) at similar to 232.2 eV and 235.1 eV, respectively. It also represented peaks of W 4f(7/2) and 5p(5/2) at around 36.1 eV and 37.9 eV, respectively. Moreover, XPS results showed peaks at around 167.4 eV and 168.4 eV corresponding to S 2p for MoS2 and WS2, respectively. The XPS results also confirmed the presence of dopant elements in MoS2 and WS2 flakes. We fabricated sensors using undoped and chlorine- or nitrogen-doped MoS2 and WS2 ultrathin films for gas-sensing applications. These sensors were surveyed for ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas sensing. As in NO2, both undoped sensors react with a decrease in relative sensor responses to NH3, hence showing n-type behavior. Doping MoS2 and WS2 with chlorine led to a higher response vis-a-vis the nitrogendoped sensors. The absolute relative response of Cl-doped WS2 and MoS2 was about 3.5 and 1.8 times more than that of their undoped counterparts toward NH3. A change of direction with a slightly smaller response (approximately x 0.8), however, could also be observed in the doping of MoS2 and WS2 with nitrogen. When exposed to NO2, the Cl-doped WS2 sensor response was 1.2 more than the N-doped one, while for MoS2 these values changed in the range of 1.2 - 1.6 for different flows of gas.

  • 16.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tsiaoussis, I
    Aristotle University Thessaloniki.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heteroepitaxial ZnO nano hexagons on p-type SiC2010In: JOURNAL OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, ISSN 0022-0248, Vol. 312, no 2, p. 327-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO single crystal nanohexagons have been grown heteroepitaxially on p-type Si-face 4H-SiC substrates with 8 degrees miscut from to [0 0 0 1] by catalyst-free atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as energy disperse x-ray and cathodoluminescence analyses. The as-grown ZnO nanohexagons have a pillar shape terminated by a and c plane facets, and are aligned along the growth direction with the epitaxial relation [0 0 0 1](ZnO) parallel to[0 0 0 1](4H-SiC) and [1 0 (1) over bar 0](ZnO) parallel to[1 0 (1) over bar 0](4H-SiC). The ZnO nanohexagons demonstrate intense UV emission (lambda(NBE)=376 nm) and negligible defect-related luminescence.

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  • 17.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Larsson, Arvid
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Hussain, S
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Growth and characterization of ZnO nanostructured material2008In: Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, ISSN 1454-4164, E-ISSN 1841-7132, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 2969-2975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO is a wide band gap (3.37 eV) semiconductor material with a high exciton binding energy (60 meV) at room temperature, which is a prerequisite for realization of efficient and stable optoelectronic systems. We demonstrated the APMOCVD growth of nanostructured ZnO material on Si and SiC with advanced emitting properties. The comparison of the properties of nanostructured polycrystalline layers with spatially disconnected ZnO nanocrystals clearly showed the advantage of the latter structures. Such structures distinctively luminesce in the UV range of the spectrum due to excitonic emission, while the contribution of the defect related luminescence is negligible. The significant improvement of the PL properties can be related to the decreased number of non-radiative recombination centers in the nanocrystals of high structural quality.

  • 18.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Lashkarev, G.
    Inst Problems Mat Sci, UA-03680 Kiev, Ukraine.
    Ulyashin, A.
    Inst Energy Technol, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Investigation of ZnO as a perspective material for photonics2008In: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 205, no 1, p. 144-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissive properties of ZnO are of great interests in terms of the UV LED device design. The persistent "green" luminescence due to deep defect is an obstacle for obtaining an intense UV emission, expected from ZnO. We report the positive role of thermally diffused H toward quenching the defect emission in ZnO. It is suggested that hydrogen passivates defects responsible for DLE, resulting in efficient near band edge luminescence. As-grown ZnO/SiNx :H/Si films, deposited at 350 degrees C demonstrate intense narrow peaks of UV emission at 380 nm and a ratio of emission intensities, NBE/DLE approximate to 42. [GRAPHICS]

  • 19.
    Noor-Ul-Ain,
    et al.
    Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    Eriksson, Martin O
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Asghar, M.
    Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
    Lin, Pin-Cheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tuning the Emission Energy of Chemically Doped Graphene Quantum Dots2016In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuning the emission energy of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and understanding the reason of tunability is essential for the GOD function in optoelectronic devices. Besides material-based challenges, the way to realize chemical doping and band gap tuning also pose a serious challenge. In this study, we tuned the emission energy of GQDs by substitutional doping using chlorine, nitrogen, boron, sodium, and potassium dopants in solution form. Photoluminescence data obtained from (Cl- and N-doped) GQDs and (B-, Na-, and K-doped) GQDs, respectively exhibited red- and blue-shift with respect to the photoluminescence of the undoped GQDs. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that oxygen functional groups were attached to GQDs. We qualitatively correlate red-shift of the photoluminescence with the oxygen functional groups using literature references which demonstrates that more oxygen containing groups leads to the formation of more defect states and is the reason of observed red-shift of luminescence in GQDs. Further on, time resolved photoluminescence measurements of Cl- and N-GQDs demonstrated that Cl substitution in GQDs has effective role in radiative transition whereas in N-GQDs leads to photoluminescence (PL) quenching with non-radiative transition to ground state. Presumably oxidation or reduction processes cause a change of effective size and the bandgap.

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  • 20.
    Petoral, Rodrigo Jr
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organosilane-functionalized wide band gap semiconductor surfaces2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface functionalization of wide band gap semiconductors, SiC, ZnO, and GaN, with organosilane is reported. Formation of self-assembled monolayers of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane is confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The molecules are adsorbed on the surfaces through the silane groups with the free thiol groups molecularly oriented away from the surface. Moreover, chemisorption via the thiolate is observed for the ZnO surface. Immobilization of a model biomolecule to the functionalized surface is demonstrated. An amino acid derivative, i.e., phosphotyrosine derived thiol, is linked on the functionalized ZnO and GaN surfaces via formation of disulfide bridges. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  • 21.
    Petoral, Rodrigo Jr
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Vahlberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Surface Functionalization of SiC for Biosensor Applications2007In: ECSCRM 2006,2006, Material Science Forum, vol 556-557: Trans Tech Publications , 2007, p. 957-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Shi, Yuchen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höjer, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu W.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A comparative study of high-quality C-face and Si-face 3C-SiC(1 1 1) grown on off-oriented 4H-SiC substrates2019In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 52, no 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a comparative study of the C-face and Si-face of 3C-SiC(111) grown on off-oriented 4H-SiC substrates by the sublimation epitaxy. By the lateral enlargement method, we demonstrate that the high-quality bulk-like C-face 3C-SiC with thickness of ~1 mm can be grown over a large single domain without double positioning boundaries (DPBs), which are known to have a strongly negative impact on the electronic properties of the material. Moreover, the C-face sample exhibits a smoother surface with one unit cell height steps while the surface of the Si-face sample exhibits steps twice as high as on the C-face due to step-bunching. High-resolution XRD and low temperature photoluminescence measurements show that C-face 3C-SiC can reach the same high crystalline quality as the Si-face 3C-SiC. Furthermore, cross-section studies of the C- and Si-face 3C-SiC demonstrate that in both cases an initial homoepitaxial 4H-SiC layer followed by a polytype transition layer are formed prior to the formation and lateral expansion of 3C-SiC layer. However, the transition layer in the C-face sample is extending along the step-flow direction less than that on the Si-face sample, giving rise to a more fairly consistent crystalline quality 3C-SiC epilayer over the whole sample compared to the Si-face 3C-SiC where more defects appeared on the surface at the edge. This facilitates the lateral enlargement of 3C-SiC growth on hexagonal SiC substrates.

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  • 23.
    Shi, Yuchen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    MAX IV Lab, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vinogradov, Nikolay A.
    MAX IV Lab, Sweden.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A patterning-free approach for growth of free-standing graphene nanoribbons using step-bunched facets of off-oriented 4H-SiC(0001) epilayers2020In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 53, no 11, article id 115102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tunable electronic structure of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) has attracted much attention due to the great potential in nanoscale electronic applications. Most methods to produce GNRs rely on the lithographic process, which suffers from the process-induced disorder in the graphene and scalability issues. Here, we demonstrate a novel approach to directly grow free-standing GNRs on step-bunched facets of off-oriented 4H-SiC epilayers without any patterning or lithography. First, the 4H-SiC epilayers with well-defined bunched steps were intentionally grown on 4 degree off-axis 4H-SiC substrates by the sublimation epitaxy technique. As a result, periodic step facets in-between SiC terraces were obtained. Then, graphene layers were grown on such step-structured 4H-SiC epilayers by thermal decomposition of SiC. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies reveal that the inclined step facets are about 13-15 nm high and 30-35 nm wide, which gives an incline angle of 23-25 degrees. LEEM and LEED results showed that the terraces are mainly covered by monolayer graphene and the buffer layer underneath it. STM images and the analysis of their Fourier transform patterns suggest that on the facets, in-between terraces, graphene is strongly buckled and appears to be largely decoupled from the surface.

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  • 24.
    Shi, Yuchen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    MAXIV Laboratory, Lund, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elimination of step bunching in the growth of large-area monolayer and multilayer graphene on off-axis 3CSiC (111)2018In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 140, p. 533-542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilayer graphene has exhibited distinct electronic properties such as the tunable bandgap for optoelectronic applications. Among all graphene growth techniques, thermal decomposition of SiC is regarded as a promising method for production of device-quality graphene. However, it is still very challenging to grow uniform graphene over a large-area, especially multilayer graphene. One of the main obstacles is the occurrence of step bunching on the SiC surface, which significantly influences the formation process and the uniformity of the multilayer graphene. In this work, we have systematically studied the growth of monolayer and multilayer graphene on off-axis 3CSiC(111). Taking advantage of the synergistic effect of periodic SiC step edges as graphene nucleation sites and the unique thermal decomposition energy of 3CSiC steps, we demonstrate that the step bunching can be fully eliminated during graphene growth and large-area monolayer, bilayer, and four-layer graphene can be controllably obtained on high-quality off-axis 3CSiC(111) surface. The low energy electron microscopy results demonstrate that a uniform four-layer graphene has been grown over areas of tens of square micrometers, which opens the possibility to tune the bandgap for optoelectronic devices. Furthermore, a model for graphene growth along with the step bunching elimination is proposed.

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  • 25.
    Shi, Yuchen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zakharov, Alexei A.
    MAX IV Lab, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Epitaxial Graphene Growth on the Step-Structured Surface of Off-Axis C-Face 3C-SiC(1 over bar 1 over bar 1 over bar )2020In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 257, no 6, article id 1900718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene layers grown on the C-face SiC exhibit quite different structural and electronic properties compared with those grown on the Si-face SiC. Herein, the growth and structural properties of graphene on the off-axis C-face 3C-SiC(1 over bar 1 over bar 1 over bar ) are studied. The as-grown 4 degrees off-axis 3C-SiC(1 over bar 1 over bar 1 over bar ) exhibits highly periodic steps with step height of approximate to 0.75 nm and terrace width of approximate to 50 nm. After annealing at 1800 degrees C under 850 mbar argon atmosphere, relatively uniform large graphene domains can be grown. The low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) results demonstrate that one monolayer (ML) to four-ML graphene domains are grown over several micrometers square, which enables us to measure micro low-energy electron diffraction (mu-LEED) on the single graphene domain. The mu-LEED pattern collected on the monolayer domain mainly exhibits four sets of graphene (1 x 1) spots, indicating the presence of graphene grains with different azimuthal orientations in the same graphene sheet. Raman spectra collected on the graphene domains show rather small D peaks, indicating the presence of less defects and higher crystalline quality of the graphene layers grown on the C-face off-axis 3C-SiC(1 over bar 1 over bar 1 over bar ).

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  • 26.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan I.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. NASU, Ukraine.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lead (Pb) interfacing with epitaxial graphene2018In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 20, no 25, p. 17105-17116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report the electrochemical deposition of lead (Pb) as a model metal on epitaxial graphene fabricated on silicon carbide (Gr/SiC). The kinetics of electrodeposition and morphological characteristics of the deposits were evaluated by complementary electrochemical, physical and computational methods. The use of Gr/SiC as an electrode allowed the tracking of lead-associated redox conversions. The analysis of current transients passed during the deposition revealed an instantaneous nucleation mechanism controlled by convergent mass transport on the nuclei locally randomly distributed on epitaxial graphene. This key observation of the deposit topology was confirmed by low values of the experimentally-estimated apparent diffusion coefficient, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. First principles calculations showed that the nucleation of Pb clusters on the graphene surface leads to weakening of the interaction strength of the metal-graphene complex, and only spatially separated Pb adatoms adsorbed on bridge and/or edge-plane sites can affect the vibrational properties of graphene. We expect that the lead adatoms can merge in large metallic clusters only at defect sites that reinforce the metal-graphene interactions. Our findings provide valuable insights into both heavy metal ion electrochemical analysis and metal electroplating on graphene interfaces that are important for designing effective detectors of toxic heavy metals.

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  • 27.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jian, Jing-Xin
    Shantou Univ, Peoples R China.
    Pliatsikas, Nikolaos
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Schiliro, Emanuela
    CNR IMM, Italy.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Giannazzo, Filippo
    CNR IMM, Italy.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Univ Helsinki, Finland; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electrochemical performance of gold-decorated graphene electrodes integrated with SiC2023In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 278, article id 112042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we investigate the interface properties of gold (Au) decorated graphenized surfaces of 4H-SiC intended for electrochemical electrodes. These are fabricated using a two-step process: discontinuous Au layers with a nominal thickness of 2 nm are sputter-deposited onto 4H-SiC substrates with different graphenization extent-zero-layer graphene (ZLG) and monolayer epitaxial graphene) -followed by thermal annealing. By performing combined morphometric analysis, Raman mapping analysis, conductive atomic force microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, we shed light on the relationship between physical processes (Au intercalation, particle re-shaping, and de-wetting) caused by thermal annealing and the intrinsic properties of graphenized SiC (vertical electron transport, charge-transfer properties, vibrational properties, and catalytic activity). We find that the impedance spectra of all considered structures exhibit two semicircles in the high and low frequency regions, which may be attributed to the graphene/ZLG/SiC (or Au/graphene/ZLG/SiC) and SiC/ZLG/graphene/electrolyte (or SiC/ZLG//Au/electrolyte) interfaces, respectively. An equivalent circuit model is proposed to estimate the interface carrier transfer parameters. This work provides an in-depth comprehension of the way by which the Au/2D carbon/SiC interaction strength influences the interface properties of heterostructures, which can be helpful for developing high performance catalytic and sensing devices.

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  • 28.
    Sun, Jianwu W.
    et al.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mexis, M.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France .
    Eriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tsiaoussis, I.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peyre, H.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France.
    Camassel, J.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparative micro-photoluminescence investigation of ZnO hexagonal nanopillars and the seeding layer grown on 4H-SiC2012In: Journal of Luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, E-ISSN 1872-7883, Vol. 132, no 1, p. 122-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a comparative micro-photoluminescence investigation of ZnO hexagonal nanopillars (HNPs) and the seeding layer grown on the off-axis 4H-SiC substrate. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results establish that a thin seeding layer continuously covers the terraces of 4H-SiC prior to the growth of ZnO HNPs. Low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) shows that ZnO HNPs are only dominated by strong donor bound exciton emissions without any deep level emissions. Micro-LTPL mapping demonstrates that this is specific also for the seeding layer. To further understand the recombination mechanisms, time-resolved micro-PL spectra (micro-TRPL) have been collected at 5 K and identical bi-exponential decays have been found on both the HNPs and seeding layer. Temperature-dependent TRPL indicates that the decay time of donor bound exciton is mainly determined by the contributions of non-radiative recombinations. This could be explained by the TEM observation of the non-radiative defects in both the seeding layer and HNPs, like domain boundaries and dislocations, generated at the ZnO/SiC interface due to biaxial strain.

  • 29.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ciechonski, Rafal R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast epitaxy by PVT of SiC in hydrogen atmosphere2005In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 275, no 1-2, p. e1103-e1107 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth in hydrogen atmosphere has been studied in relation to sublimation epitaxial growth. A new type of features with a hexagonal shape are observed in the layers grown in hydrogen atmosphere. The morphological details of the features have been studied with optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. An interactive relation of the defect appearance with the step flow growth mode seems to be present. The results are compared with growth in vacuum, argon, and helium conditions. The possible influence of thermal component to a reactive one in hydrogen etching is discussed.

  • 30.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    A surface study of wet etched AlGaN epilayers grown by hot-wall MOCVD2007In: Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 300, 2007, Vol. 300, no 1, p. 242-245Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial layers of AlGaN were grown by hot-wall MOCVD and their surfaces wet chemically etched with phosphorous acid. The as-grown surfaces and the development of the etched surfaces after 10 and 20 min of etching were studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and CL. In the as-grown layers growth features may be resolved while the RMS is as low as 1.4 Å in a scan area of 2×2 μm. Surfaces etched for 10 min had developed etch pits and a low RMS roughness of 7 Å indicating a uniform quality of the layers. Micrometer scale hexagonal features were observed after 20 min of etching. In some cases a deep hexagonal etch pit is observed in the centre of the hexagonal feature with a 30° rotation to each other, suggesting that the origin is substrate-induced defects. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 31.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nasi, L.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Salviati, G.
    Izadifard, Morteza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Formation of ferromagnetic SiC: Mn phases2005In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 483-485, 2005, Vol. 483-485, p. 241-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferromagnetic phases in as-grown SiC have been studied. An interpretation about the formation based on details of the phase appearance in the layers from optical microscopy, AFM, and TEM investigations is related to the growth. Some phases were found to have a nucleation at the edge of the phase and detailed TEM investigations show that the phases have an increased grain density at the edge while the main part of the phase is monocrystalline.

  • 32.
    Tereshchenko, Alla
    et al.
    Vilnius Univ, Lithuania.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Konup, Igor
    Odessa Natl II Mechnikov Univ, Ukraine.
    Smyntyna, Valentyn
    Odesa Natl II Mechnikov Univ, Ukraine.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ramanavicius, Arunas
    Vilnius Univ, Lithuania.
    Application of ZnO Nanorods Based Whispering Gallery Mode Resonator in Optical Immunosensors2020In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 191, article id 110999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator based on vertically oriented ZnO nanorods, which were formed on silicon surface (silicon/ZnO-NRs), has been applied in the design of optical immunosensor that was dedicated for the determination of grapevine virus A-type (GVA) proteins. Vertically oriented ZnO-NRs were grown on silicon substrates by atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD) and the silicon/ZnO-NRs structures formed were characterized by structural and optical methods. Optical characterization demonstrates that silicon/ZnO-NRs-based structures can act as whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator where quasi-whispering gallery modes (quasi-WGMs) are generated. These quasi-WGMs were experimentally observed in the visible and infrared ranges of the photoluminescence spectra. In order to design an immuno-sensing system the anti-GVA antibodies were immobilized on the surface of silicon/ZnO-NRs and in this way silicon/ZnO-NRs/anti-GVA structure was formed. The immobilization of anti-GVA antibodies and then the interaction of silicon/ZnO-NRs/anti-GVA structure with GVA proteins (GVA-antigens) resulted in an opposite shifts of the WGMs peaks in the visible range of the photoluminescence spectra observed as a defect-related photoluminescence emission of ZnO-NRs. Here designed silicon/ZnO-NRs/anti-GVA immuno-sensing structure demonstrates the sensitivity towards GVA-antigens in the concentration range of 1-200 ng/ml. Bioanalytical applicability of the silicon/ZnO-NRs-based structures in the WGMs registration mode is discussed.

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  • 33.
    Trivedi, Maitrayee
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Pandit Deendayal Petr Univ, India.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanth P., Chandra
    Pandit Deendayal Petr Univ, India.
    Pandey, Manoj Kumar
    Pandit Deendayal Petr Univ, India.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Study of Cucurbit[7]uril nanocoating on epitaxial graphene to design a versatile sensing platform2021In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 563, article id 150096Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present study aimed to develop nanocoating of cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) on surfaces of silicon and epitaxial graphene using drop casting and spin coating techniques. Here, we report a systematic study for the influence of sonication, probe sonication, and centrifugation time on the dispersion of CB[7] in aqueous solutions for the preparation of high-quality CB[7] nanocoating. Spin speed, spin time, and spin acceleration have been optimised to attain uniform films with minimum rms. Atomic force microscopy is used to study morphology, rms, and height of CB[7] nanocoating under different parameters. The presence of CB[7] on the nanocoating and its binding nature was determined by Infrared absorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The present method of CB[7] nanocoating preparation is easy, versatile, scalable, and does not need the addition of electrolyte additives. Prepared CB[7] films are high-quality, uniform, and could be used as a novel sensing platform to tether required functional groups.

  • 34.
    Vahlberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Yazdi, Gholam Reza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Khranovskyy, V.
    Petoral, Rodrigo Jr
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor Science and Molecular Physics .
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Surface engineering of functional materials for biosensors2006In: IEEE SENSORS 2005,2005, Proceedings IEEE SENSORS: ieee.org , 2006, p. 504-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zakharov, A.
    MaxLab, Sweden .
    Boosalis, A.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA .
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA .
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Morphological and electronic properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC2014In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 439, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the structural and electronic properties of graphene grown on SiC by high-temperature sublimation. We have studied thickness uniformity of graphene grown on 4H-SiC (0 0 0 1), 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1), and 3C-SiC (1 1 1) substrates and investigated in detail graphene surface morphology and electronic properties. Differences in the thickness uniformity of the graphene layers on different SiC polytypes is related mainly to the minimization of the terrace surface energy during the step bunching process. It is also shown that a lower substrate surface roughness results in more uniform step bunching and consequently better quality of the grown graphene. We have compared the three SiC polytypes with a clear conclusion in favor of 3C-SiC. Localized lateral variations in the Fermi energy of graphene are mapped by scanning Kelvin probe microscopy It is found that the overall single-layer graphene coverage depends strongly on the surface terrace width, where a more homogeneous coverage is favored by wider terraces, It is observed that the step distance is a dominating, factor in determining the unintentional doping of graphene from the SiC substrate. Microfocal spectroscopic ellipsometry mapping of the electronic properties and thickness of epitaxial graphene on 3C-SiC (1 1 1) is also reported. Growth of one monolayer graphene is demonstrated on both Si- and C-polarity of the 3C-SiC substrates and it is shown that large area homogeneous single monolayer graphene can be achieved on the Si-face substrates. Correlations between the number of graphene monolayers on one hand and the main transition associated with an exciton enhanced van Hove singularity at similar to 4.5 eV and the free-charge carrier scattering time, on the other are established It is shown that the interface structure on the Si- and C-polarity of the 3C-SiC (1 1 1) differs and has a determining role for the thickness and electronic properties homogeneity of the epitaxial graphene.

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  • 36.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui K.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sublimation growth of AlN crystals: Growth mode and structure evolution2005In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 281, no 1, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to realize growth conditions suitable for seeded sublimation growth of AlN and to understand the relationship between external growth parameters and the initial stages of growth with respect to growth mode and structure evolution. Close space sublimation growth geometry has been used in a RF-heated furnace employing high-purity graphite coated by TaC with a possibility to change the growth environment from C- to Ta-rich. Influence of certain impurities on the initially formed crystallites with respect to their shape, size and population has been considered. It is shown that some impurity containing vapor molecules may act as transport agents and suppliers of nitrogen for the AlN growth. SiC seeds, both bare and with MOCVD AlN buffer, have been employed. By varying the process conditions we have grown crystals with different habits, e.g. from needles, columnar- and plate-like, to freestanding quasi-bulk material. The growth temperature ranged 1600–2000 °C whereas the optimal external nitrogen pressure varied from 200 to 700 mbar. There is a narrow parameter window in the relationship temperature–pressure for the evolution of different structural forms. Growth modes with respect to process conditions are discussed.

  • 37.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Petoral, Rodrigo Jr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Vahlberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface functionalization and biomedical applications based on SiC2007In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 40, no 20, p. 6435-6442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for materials and systems, capable of operating long term under physiological conditions, has been a strategy for many research groups during the past years. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a material, which can meet the demands due to its high biocompatibility, high inertness to biological tissues and to aggressive environment, and the possibility to make all types of electronic devices. This paper reviews progress in biomedical and biosensor related research on SiC. For example, less biofouling and platelet aggregation when exposed to blood is taken advantage of in a variety of medical implantable materials while the robust semiconducting properties can be explored in surface functionalized bioelectronic devices. © 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 38.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Steinhoff, Georg
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Petoral, Rodrigo Jr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vahlberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics.
    Novel material concepts of transducers for chemical and biosensors2007In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 2780-2785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this work are to contribute to the knowledge about physical and chemical properties of WBG semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN towards development of advanced bio- and chemical sensors. For the semiconductors, growth techniques typically yielding single crystal material are applied. Thin epitaxial quality films of ZnO and GaN are fabricated on SiC or sapphire substrates. An emphasis is given to ZnO due to the interesting combination of the semiconductor and oxide properties. Surface bio-functionalization of ZnO is performed by APTES, MPA or MP-TMS molecules. We have compared some of the results to (hydroxylated) GaN surfaces functionalized by MP-TMS. The covalent attachment of the self-assembled biomolecular layers has been proven by XPS analysis. For complementary electrical characterization impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed. The results are intended to serve the realization of bioelectronic transducer devices based on SiC or GaN transistors with a ZnO gate layer. To take advantage of the catalytic properties of ZnO, initial prototypes of chemical sensors for gas sensing are processed on ZnO deposited either on SiC or on sapphire and they are further tested for the response to reducing or oxidizing gas ambient. The sensor devices show sensitivity to oxygen in the surface resistivity mode while a Pt Schottky contact ZnO/SiC device responds to reducing gases. These results are compared to published results on Pt/GaN Schottky diodes. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Yazdi, Gholam Reza
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Sun, S.
    Tompa, G.
    Kuznetsov, A.
    Svensson, B.
    Optical and Morphological Features of Bulk and Homoepitaxial ZnO2006In: Superlattices and Microstructures, ISSN 0749-6036, E-ISSN 1096-3677, Vol. 39, p. 247-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZnO substrate crystals from two different sources, and epitaxial layers have been studied by SEM, AFM, photoluminescence (T=2-135K) and EPR. Although fabricated by the same growth principle, i.e. the hydrothermal technique, the substrates differ in terms of purity and structural quality. In the PL spectra of all samples the dominating emission originates from the donor bound exciton (BE) recombination positioned at about 3361 meV. The temperature dependence of the spectra confirms the assignment of the free exciton emission in the purest sample, the line at 3376 meV evolves into a broad peak at higher temperatures, probably including both A and B excitons. Another FE-related emission appears as a shoulder on the high-energy side of FEA,B above 40 K. It is expected and associated with the crystal-field split-off counterpart of the valence band. Free-exciton related emission in the less pure sample can only be seen if the temperature is above 45 K. At T=135K all bound excitons are quenched and the spectrum in both samples consists of the free exciton no-phonon lines and their replicas. However, the emission from the pure samples is several orders of magnitude stronger than that from the other sample, which indicates strong non-radiative quenching of the excitons in the latter sample. The EPR measurements reveal a possible scenario of impurity re-arrangement, e.g. annealing at 950 °C may dissociate existing complexes and release Fe as isolated ions. The AFM and SEM investigations of an epilayer grown by MOCVD on one of the studied substrates have indicated growth instabilities and structural irregularities, thus pointing to the need for substrate quality and epitaxial process optimization.

  • 40.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yazdi, Gholam Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sritirawisarn, N.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structure Evolution of 3C-SiC on Cubic and Hexagonal Substrates2006In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 527-529, 2006, Vol. 527-529, p. 283-286Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges of Graphene Growth on Silicon Carbide2013In: ECS Transactions, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main challenges in the fabrication of device quality graphene is the achievement of large area monolayer graphene that is processing compatible. Here, the impact of the substrate properties on the thickness uniformity and electronic characteristics for epitaxial graphene on SiC produced by high temperature sublimation has been evidenced and discussed. Several powerful techniques have been used to collect data, among them large scale ellipsometry mapping has been demonstrated for the first time. The study is covering all three SiC polytype, e.g. 4H-, 6H- and 3C-SiC in order to reveal eventual peculiarities that have to be controlled during graphene growth. The advantage of the cubic polytype is unambiguously demonstrated.

  • 42.
    Yazdi, G. Reza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zakharov, A.
    Maxlab, Lund University, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Risitza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth of quality graphene on cubic silicon carbideManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of epitaxial graphene was performed on the Si-face of 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 3C-SiC substrates by Si sublimation of SiC in Ar atmosphere at a temperature of 2000oC. Graphene surface morphology and thickness have been evaluated using low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM)  and  atomic  force  microscopy   (AFM).  Large  homogeneous   areas  of  graphene monolayers (over 50x50 μm2) have been successfully grown on 3C-SiC substrates. Differences in the morphology of graphene layers, grown on different SiC polytypes, are related to a large extent to minimization of the terrace surface energy during the step bunching process. The uniformity  of  Si  sublimation  is  a  decisive  factor  for  obtaining  large  area  homogeneous graphene. It is also shown that better quality graphene is grown on 3C-SiC substrates with smoother  surface,  because of less pronounced  step bunching  and lower distribution  of step heights on polished surface.

  • 43. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and Characterization of AlN: From Nano Structures to Bulk Material2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) exhibits a large direct band gap, 6.2 eV, and is thus suitable forsolid state white-light-emitting devices. It is capable in spintronics because of its high Curietemperature if doped with transition metals. AlN can also be used as a buffer layer for growth ofdevice-grade GaN as well as for application in sensors, surface acoustic wave devices, and hightemperatureelectronics. AlN shows excellent field-emission performance in vacuummicroelectronic devices due to its small electron affinity value, which is from negative to 0.6 eV.In this sense, nanostructured AlN, such as AlN nanowires and nanorods, is important forextending our knowledge on the potential of nanodevice applications. For growth of bulk AlN thesublimation- recondensation (a kind of physical vapor transport growth) method is the mostsuccessful and promising crystal growth technique.

    In thesis the physical vapor transport (PVT) principle has been implemented for synthesisof AlN on 4H-SiC in sublimation epitaxy close space configuration. It has been shown that theAlN crystal morphology is responsive to the growth conditions given by temperature (1650-1900oC) and nitrogen pressure (200-800 mbar) and each morphology kind (platelet-like, needles, columnar structure, continuous layers, and free-standing quasi bulk material) occurs within anarrow window of growth parameters. Controlled operation conditions for PVT growth of wellaligned perfectly oriented arrays of AlN highly symmetric hexagonal microrods have beenelaborated and the mechanism of microrod formation has been elucidated. Special patterned SiCsubstrates have been created which act as templates for the AlN selective area growth. Themicrorods revealed an excellent feature of boundary free coalescence with growth time,eventually forming ~120 μm thick AlN layer which can be easily detached from the SiC substratedue to a remarkable performance of structural evolution. It was discovered that the locally grownAlN microrods emerge from sharp tipped hexagonal pyramids, which consist of the rare 2H-SiCpolytype and a thin AlN layer on the surface. Two unique consequences appear from the finding,the first is that the 2H-SiC polytype facilitates the nucleation of wurtzite AlN, and the second isthat the bond between the low angle apex of the pyramids and the AlN layer is very week, thusallowing an easy separation to yield free standing wafers. AlN nanowires with an aspect ratioas high as 600 have been grown with a high growth rate. Again, they have perfect alignmentalong the c-axis of the wurtzite structure with small tilt given by the orientation of the SiCsubstrate. The nanowires possess a single crystal structure with high perfection, since neitherdislocations nor stacking faults were revealed.

    The proposed growth concept can be further explored to enlarge the free standing AlNwafers up to a size provided by commercially available SiC four inch wafers. Also, AlN wafersfabricated by the present method may be used as seeds for large boule growth. AlN nanowires, asobtained in this study, can be used for creating a piezoelectric generator and field emitters withhigh efficiency.

    List of papers
    1. Sublimation growth of AlN crystals: Growth mode and structure evolution
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sublimation growth of AlN crystals: Growth mode and structure evolution
    Show others...
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 281, no 1, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to realize growth conditions suitable for seeded sublimation growth of AlN and to understand the relationship between external growth parameters and the initial stages of growth with respect to growth mode and structure evolution. Close space sublimation growth geometry has been used in a RF-heated furnace employing high-purity graphite coated by TaC with a possibility to change the growth environment from C- to Ta-rich. Influence of certain impurities on the initially formed crystallites with respect to their shape, size and population has been considered. It is shown that some impurity containing vapor molecules may act as transport agents and suppliers of nitrogen for the AlN growth. SiC seeds, both bare and with MOCVD AlN buffer, have been employed. By varying the process conditions we have grown crystals with different habits, e.g. from needles, columnar- and plate-like, to freestanding quasi-bulk material. The growth temperature ranged 1600–2000 °C whereas the optimal external nitrogen pressure varied from 200 to 700 mbar. There is a narrow parameter window in the relationship temperature–pressure for the evolution of different structural forms. Growth modes with respect to process conditions are discussed.

    Keywords
    A1. Crystal morphology and structure, A2. Growth from vapor, A3. Sublimation epitaxy, B1. Aluminium nitride
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14801 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.03.015 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2024-03-01
    2. Fast epitaxy by PVT of SiC in hydrogen atmosphere
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast epitaxy by PVT of SiC in hydrogen atmosphere
    2005 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 275, no 1-2, p. e1103-e1107 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth in hydrogen atmosphere has been studied in relation to sublimation epitaxial growth. A new type of features with a hexagonal shape are observed in the layers grown in hydrogen atmosphere. The morphological details of the features have been studied with optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. An interactive relation of the defect appearance with the step flow growth mode seems to be present. The results are compared with growth in vacuum, argon, and helium conditions. The possible influence of thermal component to a reactive one in hydrogen etching is discussed.

    Keywords
    A1. Defects, A1. Nucleation, A3. Physical vapor deposition processes
    National Category
    Other Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14802 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.11.129 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    3. Growth and morphology of AlN crystals
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth and morphology of AlN crystals
    2006 (English)In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. T126, p. 127-130Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on growth dependencies, morphological forms and initial nucleation of aluminium nitride (AlN) crystals. Epitaxial layers of AlN have been grown on 4H-SiC substrates by sublimation recondensation in a radio frequency (RF) heated graphite furnace. Both AlN nuclei size and growth rate increased as temperature was increased and decreased as the pressure was increased. The results of these effects are different kinds of surface morphology. We have observed three modes of AlN single crystals: plate-like, columnar and needle-like. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the crystal surface morphology. Cathodoluminescence (CL) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were applied to determine crystal quality and crystallographic orientation of the grown crystals.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14803 (URN)10.1088/0031-8949/2006/T126/028 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    4. Aligned AlN nanowires and microrods by self-patterning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aligned AlN nanowires and microrods by self-patterning
    2007 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 12, p. 123103-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Self-patterned AlN microrods and nanowires were grown on 4H-SiC substrate by a physical vapor transport method. AlN hexagonal pyramids were found to be nucleation sites for the evolution of the observed morphological forms. The average diameter and length of the nanowires are about 200  nm and 90  µm, respectively. The density of microrods corresponds to the concentration of the pyramids, while the nanowires are less compact. Low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectra of microrods show band gap emission of AlN at 208  nm, which confirms that they are AlN single crystals. A formation mechanism of the AlN structures is suggested.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14805 (URN)10.1063/1.2715129 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    5. Formation of needle-like and columnar structures of AlN
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation of needle-like and columnar structures of AlN
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 300, no 1, p. 130-135 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focused on understanding the formation of needle-like and columnar structures by investigating the initial nucleation of aluminium nitride (AlN) on SiC substrates with SEM, AFM, and XRD. The grown AlN consisted of high concentration (8×104 cm−2) hexagonal hillocks (HHs) that originate from threading dislocations in the substrate. The KOH etching technique has been used to examine the origin and formation process of HHs and defect reduction in the grown AlN crystals. A model is introduced to explain the AlN HH formation. The SEM result shows that the AlN columnar structure was formed by merging of needles, which are grown exactly on completed AlN HHs, followed by a lateral growth.

    Keywords
    A1. Nucleation; A2. Growth from vapor; A2. Single crystal growth; B1. Nitride; B2. Semiconducting III–V material
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14806 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2006.11.005 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    6. Fabrication of free-standing AlN crystals by controlled microrod growth
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of free-standing AlN crystals by controlled microrod growth
    2008 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 300, no 5, p. 935-939 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to propose a growth procedure for preparation of crack-free thick aluminum nitride (AlN) layers that can be easily separated from the substrate. The overall process is based on the physical vapor transport method employing a seed and a source material. In this case, the substrate is an epitaxial 4H-SiC layer and the growth of AlN is initiated at etch pits formed during the ramp up time prior to establishing growth temperature. Development of hexagonal pyramids on which arrays of microrods are formed is the core of the growth procedure. Free-standing wafers having 10 mm diameter and about 120 μm thick have been fabricated.

    Keywords
    A1. X-ray topography; A2. Growth from vapor; A2. Single-crystal growth; B2. Semiconducting III–V materials
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14807 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2007.11.124 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    7. Employing discontinuous and continuous growth modes for preparation of AlN nanostructures on SiC substrates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employing discontinuous and continuous growth modes for preparation of AlN nanostructures on SiC substrates
    2007 (English)In: ECSCRM 2006, Newcastle, UK: Materials Science Forum Vols. 556-557, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland , 2007, Vol. 556-557, p. 1031-1034Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we present results on growth and characterization of AlN wires and thinfilms on SiC substrates. We have employed PVT technique in close space geometry for AlNdeposition on SiC off oriented substrates, most of which were prepared to have scratch-free smoothas-grown surface by SiC sublimation epitaxy. By manipulating the surface kinetics we have beenable to determine growth conditions yielding discontinuous or continuous morphologiescorresponding to nanowires and thin films, respectively. A particular feature of the latterexperiments is the fast temperature ramp up at the growth initiation. The AlN surface morphologywas characterized by optical, AFM and XRD tools, which showed good crystal quality independentof the growth mode.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, 2007
    Keywords
    AlN, Nanowires, Thin films, PVT, Structural
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14808 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.556-557.1031 (DOI)
    Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2009-05-19
    8. Freestanding AlN single crystals enabled by self-organization of 2H-SiC pyramids on 4H-SiC substrates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Freestanding AlN single crystals enabled by self-organization of 2H-SiC pyramids on 4H-SiC substrates
    Show others...
    2009 (English)In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 94, no 8, p. 082109-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    A sublimation-recondensation process is presented for high quality AlN (0001) crystals at a high growth rate by employing 4H-SiC substrates with a predeposited epilayer. It is based on the coalescence of well oriented AlN microrods, which evolve from the apex of 2H-SiC pyramids grown out of hexagonal pits formed by thermal etching of the substrate during a temperature ramp up. This process yields stress-free 120-mu m-thick AlN single crystals with a dislocation density as low as 2x10(6) cm(-2).

    Keywords
    aluminium compounds, condensation, crystal growth from vapour, dislocation density, etching, III-V semiconductors, semiconductor growth, silicon compounds, sublimation, wide band gap semiconductors
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17388 (URN)10.1063/1.3085958 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-03-21 Created: 2009-03-21 Last updated: 2016-08-31
    9. Defect-free Single Crystal AlN Nanowires by Physical Vapor Transport Growth
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defect-free Single Crystal AlN Nanowires by Physical Vapor Transport Growth
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth by vapor-solid mechanism of AlN nanowires with a diameter in the range of 40-500nm and a length reaching 100 μm, resulting in a max aspect ratio of 600, is reported. Theobjects are obtained at 1750 oC and 850 mbar nitrogen pressure on 4H-SiC patternedsubstrates by sublimation epitaxy, which is a version of the physical vapor transport techniqueand provides a high growth rate. The nanowires are hexagonally shaped and perfectly alignedalong the 0001 direction with a small tilt given by the substrate vicinality. It is observed thatunder nitrogen excess a preferential growth along the c-axis of the wurtzite structure takesplace, and switches to lateral growth below some critical value of nitrogen pressure.Investigations by SEM, TEM, CL and Raman spectroscopy measurements were carried out. Itis shown that the nanowires consist of wurtzitic AlN with defect free crystal structure.Possible applications have been depicted.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14812 (URN)
    Available from: 2008-09-24 Created: 2008-09-24 Last updated: 2016-08-31
    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 44.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza R.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gogova, Daniela
    Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth, 12 489 Berlin, Germany.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rosita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Defect-free Single Crystal AlN Nanowires by Physical Vapor Transport GrowthManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth by vapor-solid mechanism of AlN nanowires with a diameter in the range of 40-500nm and a length reaching 100 μm, resulting in a max aspect ratio of 600, is reported. Theobjects are obtained at 1750 oC and 850 mbar nitrogen pressure on 4H-SiC patternedsubstrates by sublimation epitaxy, which is a version of the physical vapor transport techniqueand provides a high growth rate. The nanowires are hexagonally shaped and perfectly alignedalong the 0001 direction with a small tilt given by the substrate vicinality. It is observed thatunder nitrogen excess a preferential growth along the c-axis of the wurtzite structure takesplace, and switches to lateral growth below some critical value of nitrogen pressure.Investigations by SEM, TEM, CL and Raman spectroscopy measurements were carried out. Itis shown that the nanowires consist of wurtzitic AlN with defect free crystal structure.Possible applications have been depicted.

  • 45.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Akhtar, Fatima
    IHP, Germany.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Susann
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zakharov, Alexei
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of epitaxial graphene morphology on adsorption of ambient species2019In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 486, p. 239-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work illustrates the impact of atmospheric gases on the surface of epitaxial graphene. The different rate of adsorption on different parts of graphene samples provides a concrete evidence that the surface morphology of graphene plays a significant role in this process. The uneven adsorption occurs only on the surface of the monolayer graphene and not on bilayer graphene. The second monolayer is distinguished and verified by the phase contrast mode of atomic force microscopy and the low energy electron microscopy, respectively. Raman spectroscopy is used to study the strain on the surface of graphene; results indicate that monolayer and bilayer graphene exhibit different types of strain. The bilayer is under more compressive strain in comparison with monolayer graphene that hinders the process of adsorption. However, the wrinkles and edges of steps of the bilayer are under tensile strain, hence, facilitate adsorption. Samples were subjected to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which confirms that the adsorbates on the epitaxial graphene are carbon clusters with nitrogen and oxygen contamination. For reversing the adsorption process the samples are annealed and a method for the removal of these adsorbates is proposed.

  • 46.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Freestanding AlN single crystals enabled by self-organization of 2H-SiC pyramids on 4H-SiC substrates2009In: APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, ISSN 0003-6951, Vol. 94, no 8, p. 082109-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sublimation-recondensation process is presented for high quality AlN (0001) crystals at a high growth rate by employing 4H-SiC substrates with a predeposited epilayer. It is based on the coalescence of well oriented AlN microrods, which evolve from the apex of 2H-SiC pyramids grown out of hexagonal pits formed by thermal etching of the substrate during a temperature ramp up. This process yields stress-free 120-mu m-thick AlN single crystals with a dislocation density as low as 2x10(6) cm(-2).

  • 47.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Epitaxial Graphene on SiC: A Review of Growth and Characterization2016In: Crystals, ISSN 2073-4352, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 53Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review is devoted to one of the most promising two-dimensional (2D) materials, graphene. Graphene can be prepared by different methods and the one discussed here is fabricated by the thermal decomposition of SiC. The aim of the paper is to overview the fabrication aspects, growth mechanisms, and structural and electronic properties of graphene on SiC and the means of their assessment. Starting from historical aspects, it is shown that the most optimal conditions resulting in a large area of one ML graphene comprise high temperature and argon ambience, which allow better controllability and reproducibility of the graphene quality. Elemental intercalation as a means to overcome the problem of substrate influence on graphene carrier mobility has been described. The most common characterization techniques used are low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM), angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) in different modes, Hall measurements, etc. The main results point to the applicability of graphene on SiC in quantum metrology, and the understanding of new physics and growth phenomena of 2D materials and devices.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gogova, D
    Leibniz Institute Crystal Growth.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aligned AlN nanowires by self-organized vapor-solid growth2009In: NANOTECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0957-4484, Vol. 20, no 49, p. 495304-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly oriented AlN single crystal nanowires with aspect ratio up to 600, diameter in the range of 40-500 nm, and 100 mu m lengths, have been synthesized via a vapor-solid growth mechanism. The results were obtained at 1750 degrees C and 850 mbar nitrogen pressure on vicinal SiC substrates pretreated by SiC sublimation epitaxy in order to attain distinguishable terraces. It was found that the nanowires change in thickness after they have reached a critical length, and this fact contributes to an understanding of the growth mechanism of AlN nanowires. The nanowires are hexagonally shaped and perfectly aligned along the [0001] direction with a small tilt given by the substrate vicinality. Under nitrogen excess a preferential growth along the c-axis of the wurtzite structure takes place while below some critical value of nitrogen pressure the growth mode switches to lateral. The AlN nanowires are shown to have a dislocation free wurtzite crystal structure. Some possible applications are discussed.

  • 49.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Employing discontinuous and continuous growth modes for preparation of AlN nanostructures on SiC substrates2007In: ECSCRM 2006, Newcastle, UK: Materials Science Forum Vols. 556-557, Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland , 2007, Vol. 556-557, p. 1031-1034Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we present results on growth and characterization of AlN wires and thinfilms on SiC substrates. We have employed PVT technique in close space geometry for AlNdeposition on SiC off oriented substrates, most of which were prepared to have scratch-free smoothas-grown surface by SiC sublimation epitaxy. By manipulating the surface kinetics we have beenable to determine growth conditions yielding discontinuous or continuous morphologiescorresponding to nanowires and thin films, respectively. A particular feature of the latterexperiments is the fast temperature ramp up at the growth initiation. The AlN surface morphologywas characterized by optical, AFM and XRD tools, which showed good crystal quality independentof the growth mode.

  • 50.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aligned AlN nanowires and microrods by self-patterning2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 12, p. 123103-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-patterned AlN microrods and nanowires were grown on 4H-SiC substrate by a physical vapor transport method. AlN hexagonal pyramids were found to be nucleation sites for the evolution of the observed morphological forms. The average diameter and length of the nanowires are about 200  nm and 90  µm, respectively. The density of microrods corresponds to the concentration of the pyramids, while the nanowires are less compact. Low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectra of microrods show band gap emission of AlN at 208  nm, which confirms that they are AlN single crystals. A formation mechanism of the AlN structures is suggested.

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