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  • 1.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvstvisten: om hur DNA-molekylen blev accepterad som bärare av genetisk information i Sverige och om ett uteblivet Nobelpris2009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first evidence of DNA as the carrier of genetic information was published in 1944 in a study led by Oswald T. Avery. This task had previously been attributed to proteins and the results were not immediately accepted. The transition to an acceptance of DNA as the carrier of genetic information has been likened to a paradigm shift which occurred about ten years later.

    This project is mainly based on interviews with Swedish scientists who were active in nucleic acid research from 1950 and onwards. The aim of the present study was to deepen and discuss the available knowledge concerning time and events of the paradigm shift in Sweden. Moreover, possible reasons for Avery not being awarded the Nobel Prize are discussed from different aspects. The results indicate that the debate on which molecule carries the genes mainly took place in USA. It was not as prominent in Sweden and the acceptance probably happened somewhat later there. That is likely to be explained by the organisation of the national nucleic acid research. Explanations as to why Avery was not awarded a Nobel Prize are discussed in the form of individuals, organisational factors as well as in overall structures.

  • 2.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluating Swedish newspapers’ communication on the scientific background to antibiotic resistance.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evolving germs – Antibiotic resistance and natural selection in education and public communication2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics threatens modern healthcare on a global scale. Several actors in society, including the general public, must become more involved if this development is to be countered. The conveyance of relevant information provided through education and media reports is therefore of high concern. Antibiotic resistance evolves through the mechanisms of natural selection; in this way, a sound understanding of these mechanisms underlies explanations of causes and the development of effective risk-reduction measures. In addition to natural selection functioning as an explanatory framework to antibiotic resistance, bacterial resistance as a context seems to possess a number of qualities that make it suitable for teaching natural selection – a subject that has been proven notoriously hard to teach and learn. A recently suggested approach for learning natural selection involves so-called threshold concepts, which encompass abstract and integrative ideas. The threshold concepts associated with natural selection include, among others, the notions of randomness as well as vast spatial and temporal scales. Illustrating complex relationships between concepts on different levels of organization is one, of several, areas where visualizations are efficient. Given the often-imperceptible nature of threshold concepts as well as the fact that natural selection processes occur on different organizational levels, visual accounts of natural selection have many potential benefits for learning.

    Against this background, the present dissertation explores information conveyed to the public regarding antibiotic resistance and natural selection, as well as investigates how these topics are presented together, by scrutinizing media including news reports, websites, educational textbooks and online videos. The principal method employed in the media studies was content analysis, which was complemented with various other analytical procedures. Moreover, a classroom study was performed, in which novice pupils worked with a series of animations explaining the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Data from individual written assignments, group questions and video-recorded discussions were collected and analyzed to empirically explore the potential of antibiotic resistance as a context for learning about evolution through natural selection.

    Among the findings are that certain information, that is crucial for the public to know, about antibiotic resistance was conveyed to a low extent through wide-reaching news reporting. Moreover, explanations based on natural selection were rarely included in accounts of antibiotic resistance in any of the examined media. Thus, it is highly likely that a large proportion of the population is never exposed to explanations for resistance development during education or through newspapers. Furthermore, the few examples that were encountered in newspapers or textbooks were hardly ever visualized, but presented only in textual form. With regard to videos purporting to explain natural selection, it was found that a majority lacked accounts of central key concepts. Additionally, explanations of how variation originates on the DNA-level were especially scarce. These and other findings coming from the content analyses are discussed through the lens of scientific literacy and could be used to inform and strengthen teaching and scientific curricula with regards to both antibiotic resistance and evolution. Furthermore, several factors of interest for using antibiotic resistance in the teaching of evolution were identified from the classroom study. These involve, among others, how learners’ perception of threshold concepts such as randomness and levels of organization in space and time are affected by the bacterial context

     

    List of papers
    1. Is it my responsibility or theirs? Risk communication about antibiotic resistance in the Swedish daily press
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is it my responsibility or theirs? Risk communication about antibiotic resistance in the Swedish daily press
    2014 (English)In: JCOM - Journal of Science Communication, ISSN 1824-2049, E-ISSN 1824-2049, Vol. 13, no 3:A02Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global threat involving many actors, including the general public. We present findings from a content analysis of the coverage of antibiotic resistance in the Swedish print media with respect to the risk communication factors cause, magnitude and countermeasures. The most commonly reported cause of development and spread of resistance was unnecessary prescription of antibiotics. Risk magnitudes were mostly reported qualitatively rather than using quantitative figures. Risk-reduction measures were analyzed using a framework that distinguishes between personal and societal efficacy. Measures at the societal level were more commonly reported compared to the individual level.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trieste, Italy: Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (S I S S A), 2014
    Keywords
    Health communication, risk communication, science and media
    National Category
    Didactics Communication Studies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107568 (URN)2-s2.0-84907409349 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    EvoVis
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, VR 2008-5077; 2012-5344
    Available from: 2014-06-16 Created: 2014-06-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Evolutionary Explanations for Antibiotic Resistance in Daily Press, Online Websites and Biology Textbooks in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary Explanations for Antibiotic Resistance in Daily Press, Online Websites and Biology Textbooks in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: International Journal of Science Education, Part B Communication and Public Engagement, ISSN 2154-8455, E-ISSN 2154-8463, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 319-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the extent and precision of evolutionary explanations for antibiotic resistance in communication directed toward the Swedish public. Bacterial resistance develops through evolutionary mechanisms and knowledge of these helps to explain causes underlying the growing prevalence of resistant strains, as well as important countermeasures to address the problem. A content analysis based on key evolutionary concepts underpinning resistance development was conducted on three different data sources: print newspapers, online websites and biology textbooks. The results revealed that evolutionary mechanisms are seldom included in accounts of antibiotic resistance provided by these sources. One of the included textbooks (n = 6) but none of the newspaper articles (n = 221) or websites (n = 19) covered all six concepts considered in the analysis. A cluster of four concepts regarded as most important for understanding the evolution of resistance development was only included in one news article, one textbook and two websites. Moreover, explanations were seldom supported visually and only two accompanying illustrations were found during the analysis. The results indicated that a large proportion of the Swedish public might never encounter an explanation of antibiotic resistance in evolutionary terms. This could be problematic since increased public awareness and understanding is crucial to counter the issue of bacterial resistance. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Routledge, 2015
    Keywords
    Antibiotic resistance, Evolution, Textbook analysis, Content analysis, News media
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111959 (URN)10.1080/21548455.2014.978411 (DOI)
    Projects
    EvoVis
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
    Available from: 2014-11-11 Created: 2014-11-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. A conceptual characterization of online videos explaining natural selection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A conceptual characterization of online videos explaining natural selection
    2017 (English)In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 7-9, p. 975-999Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Educational videos on the Internet comprise a vast and highly diverse source of information. Online search engines facilitate access to numerous videos claiming to explain natural selection, but little is known about the degree to which the video content match key evolutionary content identified as important in evolution education research. In this study, we therefore analyzed the content of 60 videos accessed through the Internet, using a criteria catalog with 38 operationalized variables derived from research literature. The variables were sorted into four categories: (a) key concepts (e.g. limited resources and inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (abstract concepts with a transforming and integrative function), (c) misconceptions (e.g. that evolution is driven by need), and (d) organismal context (e.g. animal or plant). The results indicate that some concepts are frequently communicated, and certain taxa are commonly used to illustrate concepts, while others are seldom included. In addition, evolutionary phenomena at small temporal and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, are rarely covered. Rather, the focus is on population-level events over time scales spanning years or longer. This is consistent with an observed lack of explanations regarding how randomly occurring mutations provide the basis for variation (and thus natural selection). The findings imply, among other things, that some components of natural selection warrant far more attention in biology teaching and science education research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2017
    Keywords
    natural selection, evolution, threshold concepts, visualizations, misconceptions, content analysis, videos, key concepts
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143411 (URN)10.1007/s11191-017-9938-7 (DOI)000418390100011 ()
    Projects
    EvoVis
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
    Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-01-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Insights from introducing natural selection to novices using animations of antibiotic resistance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insights from introducing natural selection to novices using animations of antibiotic resistance
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance is typically used to justify education about evolution, as evolutionary reasoning improves our understanding of causes of resistance and possible countermeasures. It has also been promoted as a useful context for teaching natural selection, because its potency as a selection factor, in combination with the very short generation times of bacteria, allows observation of rapid selection. It is also amenable to animations, which have potential for promoting conceptual inferences. Thus, we have explored the potential benefits of introducing antibiotic resistance as a first example of natural selection, in animations, to novice pupils (aged 13–14 years). We created a series of animations that pupils interacted with in groups of 3–5 (total n = 32). Data were collected at individual (pre-/post- test) and group (collaborative group questions) levels. In addition, the exercise was video-recorded and the full transcripts were analysed inductively. The results show that most of the pupils successfully applied basic evolutionary reasoning to predict antibiotic resistance development in tasks during and after the exercise, suggesting that this may be an effective approach. Pedagogical contributions include the identification of certain characteristics of the bacterial context for evolution teaching, including common misunderstandings, and factors to consider when designing animations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2018
    Keywords
    natural selection, antibiotic resistance, animation, mutations, lower secondary education
    National Category
    Didactics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140024 (URN)10.1080/00219266.2017.1368687 (DOI)000438131600009 ()2-s2.0-85028536269 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    EvoVis
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council, 2012-5344
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsradet) [2012-5344]

    Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2018-07-27Bibliographically approved
  • 4.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Department of Biology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    NTA-Digital – Tema Kroppen2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tema Kroppen är ett nytt digitalt tema inom NTA (Naturvetenskap och Teknik för Alla) som erbjuds årskurs 4-7 i alla anslutna skolor och kommuner. Det sjösätts tillsammans med ett nyproducerat tema om rymden under 2016 efter ett utvecklingsarbete som pågått sedan 2013. Sedan temat öppnade i slutet av våren har drygt 8 000 konton skapats. Projektledningen gav ”Visuellt lärande och kommunikation” (vid LiU och Norrköpings Visualiseringscenter) i uppdrag att, under ledning av Lena Tibell och Marie Rådbo, utforma en web-plattform samt innehåll och struktur för de två temana. Projektet har möjliggjorts genom ekonomiskt stöd från Marcus och Amalia Wallenbergs minnesfond.

    I tema Kroppen arbetar eleverna sig framåt i en historia genom att lösa uppgifter kopplade till ett antal av kroppens fysiologiska system (cirkulations-systemet, andning, matspjälkning, hormoner och nervsystemet). Till sin hjälp har de en interaktiv tredimensionell modell av människokroppen med integrerat faktamaterial och ett flertal simulatorer. För att lösa uppdragen krävs en kombination av arbete inne i portalen och fysiska laborationer som de utför i klassrummet. Utöver detta finns en inbyggd digital infrastruktur inom vilken eleverna lämnar in svar på uppgifter och kan kommunicera med sin lärare.

    Utvecklingsarbetet har utgått från tanken att kroppens system inte är isolerade från varandra utan står i ständig samverkan och påverkan. Ett flertal didaktiska hänsyn och frågeställningar har präglat arbetet; däribland lärande med modeller och representationer, att röra sig mellan olika skalnivåer, begreppssvårigheter och skildring av dynamiska förlopp.

    Vi kommer både visa upp exempel på hur temat och modellerna fungerar samt diskutera lärdomar och svårigheter som uppstått i utvecklingsarbetet. 

  • 5.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evolving germs – Introducing novice pupils to the evolution of bacterial resistance to antibiotics2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a dual relationship between antibiotic resistance and biological evolution. Antibiotic resistance is typically used as a motivation for why we need an efficient evolution education given that evolutionary reasoning improves our understanding of causes and suggested countermeasures. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance has also been suggested as a useful context in which evolution can be taught, based primarily but not solely on the quick generation times of bacteria. In the present study, we explore the potential benefits with using antibiotic resistance as an example when introducing evolution to novice pupils (aged 13-14). We created a series of animations that pupils interacted with in groups of 3-5 (total n=32). Data was collected on both individual (pre-posttest) and group (collaborative group questions) level. In addition, the exercise was video-taped and the full transcripts were analyzed inductively. The results show that a majority of the pupils succeeded in applying basic evolutionary reasoning to make predictions on antibiotic resistance during and after the exercise, suggesting that this may be a successful approach. Cautions to be aware of include pupils’ use of teleological and antropomorphic reasoning, especially in discussions on submicroscopical phenomena such as genetic processes. Implications for teaching include both lessons from the design of animations as well as the identification of common misunderstandings. The analysis also identifies and points toward several possible future research endeavours.

  • 6.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A conceptual characterization of online videos explaining natural selection2017In: Science & Education, ISSN 0926-7220, E-ISSN 1573-1901, Vol. 26, no 7-9, p. 975-999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Educational videos on the Internet comprise a vast and highly diverse source of information. Online search engines facilitate access to numerous videos claiming to explain natural selection, but little is known about the degree to which the video content match key evolutionary content identified as important in evolution education research. In this study, we therefore analyzed the content of 60 videos accessed through the Internet, using a criteria catalog with 38 operationalized variables derived from research literature. The variables were sorted into four categories: (a) key concepts (e.g. limited resources and inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (abstract concepts with a transforming and integrative function), (c) misconceptions (e.g. that evolution is driven by need), and (d) organismal context (e.g. animal or plant). The results indicate that some concepts are frequently communicated, and certain taxa are commonly used to illustrate concepts, while others are seldom included. In addition, evolutionary phenomena at small temporal and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, are rarely covered. Rather, the focus is on population-level events over time scales spanning years or longer. This is consistent with an observed lack of explanations regarding how randomly occurring mutations provide the basis for variation (and thus natural selection). The findings imply, among other things, that some components of natural selection warrant far more attention in biology teaching and science education research.

  • 7.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Insights from introducing natural selection to novices using animations of antibiotic resistance2018In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 314-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance is typically used to justify education about evolution, as evolutionary reasoning improves our understanding of causes of resistance and possible countermeasures. It has also been promoted as a useful context for teaching natural selection, because its potency as a selection factor, in combination with the very short generation times of bacteria, allows observation of rapid selection. It is also amenable to animations, which have potential for promoting conceptual inferences. Thus, we have explored the potential benefits of introducing antibiotic resistance as a first example of natural selection, in animations, to novice pupils (aged 13–14 years). We created a series of animations that pupils interacted with in groups of 3–5 (total n = 32). Data were collected at individual (pre-/post- test) and group (collaborative group questions) levels. In addition, the exercise was video-recorded and the full transcripts were analysed inductively. The results show that most of the pupils successfully applied basic evolutionary reasoning to predict antibiotic resistance development in tasks during and after the exercise, suggesting that this may be an effective approach. Pedagogical contributions include the identification of certain characteristics of the bacterial context for evolution teaching, including common misunderstandings, and factors to consider when designing animations.

  • 8.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Diverse use of threshold concepts - A content analysis of online dynamic visualizations describing evolution.2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an abundance of dynamic visualizations (animations, videos and simulations) that claim to explain evolution available on the Internet. The present study explores what aspects of evolution that are represented in these potential learning tools. A criteria catalogue covering 40 operationalized variables was used as a content analysis grid in the analysis of 71 dynamic visualizations. The concepts, derived from research literature, were operationalized into variables sorted into four different categories: (a) content-specific concepts (such as limited resources or inherited variation), (b) threshold concepts (core concepts that transform and integrate understanding within a subject), (c) alternative conceptions (such as teleological explanations or anthropomorphism), and (d) model organism. The results indicate that some concepts are dominantly communicated while others are seldom or never included in online visualizations. Regarding the proposed threshold concepts, evolutionary events happening on small time- and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, were seldom observed. Rather, the focus was on events happening at a population level in time scales spanning from years and longer. This echoes with an observed lack of explanations regarding randomly occurring mutations providing the basis for variation. Implications include that there are components of evolution that would benefit from being addressed with an increased focus in biology teaching and science education research. The results may also serve as a useful toolkit in the design of new educational material.

  • 9.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Göransson, Andreas C.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evolution on the set – A conceptual characterization of online dynamic visualizations.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its recognized importance, the theory of evolution presents severe problems to learners. A common approach in science education research involves the division of evolution in conceptual constructs, lately also including the role of threshold concepts. These are seminal ideas that open up new ways of thinking about and interpreting previously known processes. For understanding of evolution, threshold concepts consist of, for example, randomness, probability and wide-stretched spatio-temporal scales. An abundance of dynamic visualizations (animations, videos and simulations), attempting to explain evolution, are available on the Internet. The aim with our study was to map what aspects of evolution that are represented in these visualizations. A criteria catalogue covering 42 operationalized variables was used as a content analysis grid in the analysis of a sample selection including 71 dynamic visualizations. The variables include evolution content concepts (such as limited resources and differential survival) and proposed threshold concepts (such as explicit mentioning of factors influenced by randomness or level of organization in space and time, including connections between submicro- and macro aspects). Furthermore, it includes common alternative conceptions (such as anthropomorphism or that evolution is driven by need). Two raters conducted the analysis with an overlapping reliability sample covering 23 visualizations. Intercoder reliability was calculated using Krippendorff’s alpha. The results indicate that some concepts are dominantly communicated while others are seldom or never included in online visualizations. Regarding the proposed threshold concepts, evolutionary events happening on small time- and spatial scales, such as subcellular processes, were seldom observed. Rather, the focus was on events happening at a population level in time scales spanning from years and longer. Implications include that there are components of evolution that would benefit from being addressed more explicit. The results may also serve as a useful toolkit in the design of new educational material.

  • 10.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Härting, Jennifer
    IPN- Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik.
    Harms, Ute
    IPN- Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik.
    Tibell, Lena A. E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Criteria Catalogue Covering Multiple Evolutionary Aspects Including Threshold Concepts for Assessment of Animations Explaining Evolution2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evolutionary Explanations for Antibiotic Resistance in Daily Press, Online Websites and Biology Textbooks in Sweden2015In: International Journal of Science Education, Part B Communication and Public Engagement, ISSN 2154-8455, E-ISSN 2154-8463, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 319-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the extent and precision of evolutionary explanations for antibiotic resistance in communication directed toward the Swedish public. Bacterial resistance develops through evolutionary mechanisms and knowledge of these helps to explain causes underlying the growing prevalence of resistant strains, as well as important countermeasures to address the problem. A content analysis based on key evolutionary concepts underpinning resistance development was conducted on three different data sources: print newspapers, online websites and biology textbooks. The results revealed that evolutionary mechanisms are seldom included in accounts of antibiotic resistance provided by these sources. One of the included textbooks (n = 6) but none of the newspaper articles (n = 221) or websites (n = 19) covered all six concepts considered in the analysis. A cluster of four concepts regarded as most important for understanding the evolution of resistance development was only included in one news article, one textbook and two websites. Moreover, explanations were seldom supported visually and only two accompanying illustrations were found during the analysis. The results indicated that a large proportion of the Swedish public might never encounter an explanation of antibiotic resistance in evolutionary terms. This could be problematic since increased public awareness and understanding is crucial to counter the issue of bacterial resistance. 

  • 12.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Is it my responsibility or theirs? Risk communication about antibiotic resistance in the Swedish daily press2014In: JCOM - Journal of Science Communication, ISSN 1824-2049, E-ISSN 1824-2049, Vol. 13, no 3:A02Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance is an increasing global threat involving many actors, including the general public. We present findings from a content analysis of the coverage of antibiotic resistance in the Swedish print media with respect to the risk communication factors cause, magnitude and countermeasures. The most commonly reported cause of development and spread of resistance was unnecessary prescription of antibiotics. Risk magnitudes were mostly reported qualitatively rather than using quantitative figures. Risk-reduction measures were analyzed using a framework that distinguishes between personal and societal efficacy. Measures at the societal level were more commonly reported compared to the individual level.

  • 13.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engines of creationism? Intelligent design, machine metaphors and visual rhetoric2015In: Leonardo: Journal of the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology, ISSN 0024-094X, E-ISSN 1530-9282, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 80-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine metaphors are ubiquitous in the molecular sciences. In addition to their use by scientists, educators and popularizers of science, they have been promoted intensively by the Intelligent Design (ID) movement in arguments for the necessity of a god-like designer to account for the complexities of life at the molecular level. The authors have investigated the visual rhetoric employed in a movie by ID proponents, with particular emphasis on machine metaphors. The authors provide examples and argue that science communicators could reduce the persuasive impact of ID visual rhetoric based on machine metaphors by emphasizing that self-assembly is fundamental to molecular complexes.

  • 14.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    When there are no eyewitnesses - visual rhetoric in pseudoscientific representations of molecular phenomena2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höst, Gunnar E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schönborn, Konrad J.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bohlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Att inSe - Om visualisering i biologiundervisningen2012In: Bi-lagan, ISSN 2000-8139, no 3, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 15 of 15
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