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  • 1.
    Abe, Y
    et al.
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Hara, K
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Matsumoto, H
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Kobayashi-, J
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Sasada, H
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Ekwall, H
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Sweden.
    Sato, E
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Feasibility of a nylon-mesh holder for vitrification of bovine germinal vesicle oocytes in subsequent production of viable blastocysts2005In: Biology of Reproduction, ISSN 0006-3363, E-ISSN 1529-7268, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 1416-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the feasibility of nylon-mesh holder for vitrification of bovine cumulus-oocytes complexes (GV-COCs) having germinal vesicle, this study was conducted to demonstrate effects of sugars and protocol of exposure in vitrification on subsequent in vitro maturation, ultrastructural changes, and in vitro development in bovine immature oocytes after cryopreservation using nylon mesh. Before vitrification, GV-COCs were exposed to the cryoprotectant, which was composed of 40% (v/v) ethylene glycol, 18% (w/v) Ficoll-70, and 0.3 M sucrose (EFS40) or 0.3 M trehalose (EFT40), either by single step or in a stepwise way. The maturation rates in the stepwise exposure with EFS40 or EFT40 were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) compared with the corresponding rates in the single step. In the stepwise exposure, few abnormalities were observed compared with the single-step exposure, where most oocytes showed a highly vacuolated cytoplasm with many ruptured mitochondria. Cleavage rates in fertilized oocytes previously exposed stepwise to EFS40 or EFT40 were significantly higher than those exposed by the single-step procedure. The cleaved embryos derived from the stepwise exposure to EFS40 developed to blastocysts. After transfer of blastocysts derived from vitrified GV oocytes, a female calf was born. These results indicate that vitrification of large numbers of bovine GV-COCs using a nylon-mesh holder accompanied with stepwise exposure minimizes structural damage in organelles, resulting in yield of viable blastocysts following in vitro embryo production.

  • 2.
    Alkmin, Diego V.
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Perez-Patino, Cristina
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Barranco, Isabel
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Vazquez, Juan M.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate2014In: Cryobiology, ISSN 0011-2240, E-ISSN 1090-2392, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 203-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10 mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24 h at 15-17 degrees C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24 h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300 min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p less than0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p less than 0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p less than 0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24 h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF.

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  • 3.
    Al-Makhzoomi, A.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Lundeheim, N.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Haard, M.
    Svensk Avel Ek Ornsro, Sweden .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Sperm morphology and fertility of progeny-tested AI dairy bulls in Sweden2008In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 682-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of bull semen with high levels of sperm abnormalities, reflecting genital dysfunction, is not recommended for artificial insemination (AI) since it would most likely lead to subfertility. Sperm quality, including sperm morphology, may deteriorate with increasing age of the bull thus becoming a source of concern when using older, progeny-tested AI bull sires. Although a relationship between sperm morphology and fertility after AI in progeny-tested bull sires has been reported, it is yet unclear which sperm abnormalities are most critical. This constituted the core aim of a 22-month long retrospective study in proven (aged 60-84 months at the start of the study) AI sires of the Swedish Red (SR, n = 8) and Swedish Holstein (SLB, n = 4) breeds where their semen (107 freezing batches in total, built by a single ejaculate (n = 3) or pooling two consecutive ejaculates (n = 104) collected at 1-3 months interval), were subjected to detailed morphological examinations on wet- and dry, stained smears. Attention was paid to between- and within-bull variations with regard to presence and level of sperm abnormalities. Sperm morphology differed significantly between sires and ejaculates, with 6/12 sires having ejaculates containing greater than 10% of morphologically deviating sperm head shapes, a commonly used threshold for young At bulls in Sweden. However, with the exception of pear-shaped or narrow-at-the-base anomalies, the mean values for individual defects were always within the limits expected for a normal bull sire, and were therefore considered acceptable. The percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa was positively related to fertility, whose output differed significantly among bulls. Among sperm abnormalities, the proportion of morphologically deviating sperm head shapes were negatively correlated with fertility, pear-shaped sperm heads in particular. In conclusion, the relationship between sperm morphology and fertility after AI calls for frequent (2-3 months interval) detailed assessments of sperm morphology in AI stud bull sires. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Alminana, C
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Gil, MA
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Cuello, C
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Roca, J
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Vazquez, JM
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    SLU, Sweden; .
    Martinez, EA
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Adjustments in IVF system for individual boars: Value of additives and time of sperm-oocyte co-incubation2005In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 1783-1796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) in pigs is still considered sub-optimal, due to the variable occurrence of polyspermy, variability mainly related to sperm differences. The present study was conducted in an attempt to increase the efficiency of the in vitro production of porcine embryos by optimizing the in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol for individual males, with regard to the composition of the fertilization medium (experiments 1 and 2) and the length of gamete co-incubation time (experiment 3). A total of 5943 COCs were in vitro matured (IVM) and inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa froth 2 boars (A and B). Experiment 1 determined the effect of additives caffeine (2 mM), hyaluronic acid (HA; [0.5 mg/mL]) and adenosine (10 mu M), alone or in combination, to the IVF-medium during sperm-oocyte co-incubation. Experiment 2 tested the addition of various HA (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/ml) and adenosine (0, 10, 20 and 40 mu M) concentrations in the fertilization medium; while experiment 3 investigated the effect of two periods of sperm-oocyte co-incubation (10 thin or 6h). In the case of 10 min sperm-oocyte co-incubation, oocytes with attaching spermatozoa were further cultured in IVF-medium containing no spermatozoa until the 6 h of insemination was completed. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in embryo culture medium for 1215 h to assess fertilization parameters. In experiment 1, only caffeine significantly influenced the outcome of fertilization, albeit being a clearly boar-dependent effect. In experiment 2, similar boar differences were seen for HA supplementation while presence of exogenous adenosine did not influence fertilization parameters in either boar. The results of experiment 3 demonstrated that a short co-incubation time significantly (P less than 0.001) increased penetration rate and mean number of spermatozoa per oocyte (74.9 +/- 3.9% versus 62.7 +/- 3.9% and 1.5 +/- 3.2 versus 1.3 +/- 3.5 for 10 min or 6 h, respectively), but reduced monospermy (P less than 0.001, 57.9 +/- 2.5% versus 70.0 +/- 2.8%) when boar A was used. However, such effects were not seen with boar B, in which sperm-oocyte co-incubation time did not affect the efficiency of fertilization. In view of the present results, a preliminary screening for each individual male is required to select optimal conditions for IVF. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Surgery and Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet, Bangladesh.
    Venhoranta, Heli
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Helsinki, Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Saari, Finland.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Expression of Immune Regulatory Genes in the Porcine Internal Genital Tract Is Differentially Triggered by Spermatozoa and Seminal Plasma2019In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mating or cervical deposition of spermatozoa or seminal plasma (SP) modifies the expression of genes affecting local immune defense processes at the oviductal sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, frequently by down-regulation. Such responses may occur alongside sperm transport to or even beyond the reservoir. Here, immune-related gene expression was explored with cDNA microarrays on porcine cervix-to-infundibulum tissues, pre-/peri-ovulation. Samples were collected 24 h post-mating or cervical deposition of sperm-peak spermatozoa or SP (from the sperm-peak fraction or the whole ejaculate). All treatments of this interventional study affected gene expression. The concerted action of spermatozoa and SP down-regulated chemokine and cytokine (P00031), interferon-gamma signaling (P00035), and JAK/STAT (P00038) pathways in segments up to the sperm reservoir (utero-tubal junction (UTJ)/isthmus). Spermatozoa in the vanguard sperm-peak fraction (P1-AI), uniquely displayed an up-regulatory effect on these pathways in the ampulla and infundibulum. Sperm-free SP, on the other hand, did not lead to major effects on gene expression, despite the clinical notion that SP mitigates reactivity by the female immune system after mating or artificial insemination.

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  • 6.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Exosomes in specific fractions of the boar ejaculate contain CD44: A marker for epididymosomes?2019In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 140, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seminal plasma (SP) is a complex fluid containing proteins, peptides, enzymes, hormones as well as extracellular vesicles (EVs). The SP interacts with spermatozoa and the inner cell lining of the female genital tract, adsorbing proteins and exosomes that modulate sperm functions and female immune responsiveness. In the present study, boar sperm-free SP was studied using flow cytometry (FC) after membrane tetraspanins (CD9, CD63 and CD81) and membrane receptor CD44 marking of non-enriched (whole SP) or gradient fractions enriched through two-step discontinuous KBr-density-gradient ultracentrifugation, in whole ejaculate or in selected ejaculate fractions. The results, evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, confirmed the presence of exosomes in all fractions of the pig SP. Noteworthy, these pig SP-exosomes were CD44-bearing when analysed by FC, with bands detected by western blotting (WB) at the expected 85 kD size. The two-step discontinuous KBr-density-gradient ultracentrifugation enriched the population of exosomes in two specific gradient fractions, indicating exosomes (either prostasomes or epididymosomes) could be separated from low-density lipoprotein (LDL) but they co-sediment with the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bearing fraction. The findings pave for the selective isolation of exosomes in functional studies of their function when interacting with spermatozoa, the oocyte and/or the female genitalia, including hyaluronan-CD44 interplay. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • 7.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Lopez-Bejar, Manel
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The risk of using monoclonal or polyclonal commercial antibodies: controversial results on porcine sperm CD44 receptor identification2019In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 733-737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of the hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) receptor CD44 on spermatozoa has been difficult to pursue, mostly obeying to the use of different commercial mono- and/or polyclonal antibodies, often lacking proper controls. Here, we describe how the presence (Western blotting) and specific location (immunocytochemistry) of the CD44 receptor differs in ejaculated pig spermatozoa depending on the type of antibody and protocol used. While we were able to detect binding to spermatozoa and mark its presence in the sperm membrane, the use of blocking peptides clearly indicated that only the monoclonal antibody could confirm the specific presence and location of the CD44 receptor, whereas the polyclonal antibody was detecting multiple presumed CD44 isoforms or degraded proteins thus proving unspecific. These results call for strict protocols when attempting immunological determination of sperm membrane receptors.

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  • 8.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Martinez, Cristina A.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Does the Act of Copulation per se, without Considering Seminal Deposition, Change the Expression of Genes in the Porcine Female Genital Tract?2020In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 21, no 15, article id 5477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semen-through its specific sperm and seminal plasma (SP) constituents-induces changes of gene expression in the internal genital tract of pigs, particularly in the functional sperm reservoir at the utero-tubal junction (UTJ). Although seminal effects are similarly elicited by artificial insemination (AI), major changes in gene expression are registered after natural mating, a fact suggesting the act of copulation induces per se changes in genes that AI does not affect. The present study explored which pathways were solely influenced by copulation, affecting the differential expression of genes (DEGs) of the pre/peri-ovulatory genital tract (cervix, distal uterus, proximal uterus and UTJ) of estrus sows, 24 h after various procedures were performed to compare natural mating with AI of semen (control 1), sperm-free SP harvested from the sperm-peak fraction (control 2), sperm-free SP harvested from the whole ejaculate (control 3) or saline-extender BTS (control 4), using a microarray chip (GeneChip(R)porcine gene 1.0 st array). Genes related to neuroendocrine responses (ADRA1,ADRA2,GABRB2,CACNB2), smooth muscle contractility (WNT7A), angiogenesis and vascular remodeling (poFUT1,NTN4) were, among others, overrepresented with distal and proximal uterine segments exhibiting the highest number of DEGs. The findings provide novel evidence that relevant transcriptomic changes in the porcine female reproductive tract occur in direct response to the specific act of copulation, being semen-independent.

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  • 9.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Spanish Natl Inst Agr & Food Res & Technol INIA CS, Spain.
    Martinez Serrano, Cristina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Spanish Natl Inst Agr & Food Res & Technol INIA CS, Spain.
    Gardela, Jaume
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ctr Recerca Sanitat Anim CReSA, Spain.
    Nieto, Helena
    Spanish Natl Inst Agr & Food Res & Technol INIA CS, Spain.
    de Mercado, Eduardo
    Spanish Natl Inst Agr & Food Res & Technol INIA CS, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    MicroRNA expression in specific segments of the pig periovulatory internal genital tract is differentially regulated by semen or by seminal plasma2024In: Research in Veterinary Science, ISSN 0034-5288, E-ISSN 1532-2661, Vol. 168, article id 105134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    microRNAs play pivotal roles during mammalian reproduction, including the cross-talk between gametes, embryos and the maternal genital tract. Mating induces changes in the expression of mRNA transcripts in the female, but whether miRNAs are involved remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we mapped 181 miRNAs in the porcine peri-ovulatory female reproductive tract: Cervix (Cvx), distal and proximal uterus (Dist-Ut, ProxUt), Utero-tubal-junction (UTJ), isthmus (Isth), ampulla (Amp), and infundibulum (Inf) when exposed to semen (natural mating (NM) or artificial insemination (AI-P1)) or to infusions of sperm-free seminal plasma (SP): the first 10 mL of the sperm rich fraction (SP-P1) or the entire ejaculate (SP-E). Among the most interesting findings, NM decreased mir-671, implicated in uterine development and pregnancy loss prior to embryo implantation, in Cvx, Dist-UT, Prox-UT, Isth, and Inf, while it increased in Amp. NM and SP-E induced the downregulation of miRlet7A-1 (Dist-UT, Prox-UT), a regulator of immunity during pregnancy. miR-34C-1, a regulator of endometrial receptivity gene expression, was increased in Dist-UT, UTJ and Amp (NM), in Prox-UT (AI-P1), and in Amp (SPP1). miR-296, a modulator of the inflammatory response and apoptosis, was upregulated in the UTJ (all treatments). NM elicited the highest miRNA activity in the sperm reservoir (UTJ), suggesting that key-regulators such as miR-34c or miR-296 may modulate the metabolic processes linked to the adequate preparation for gamete encounter in the oviduct. Our results suggest that SP should be maintained in AI to warrant miRNA regulation within the female genital tract for reproductive success.

  • 10.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Martinez Serrano, Cristina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    mRNA expression of oxidative-reductive proteins in boars with documented different fertility can identify relevant prognostic biomarkers2021In: Research in Veterinary Science, ISSN 0034-5288, E-ISSN 1532-2661, Vol. 141, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress unbalance is a major factor causing impairment of sperm function and, ultimately, sperm death. In this study, we identified transcriptomic and proteomic markers for oxidative-related protectors from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in spermatozoa from breeding boars with documented high- or lowfertility. Particular attention was paid to glutathione peroxidases, and to transcripts related to DNA stabilization and compaction, as protamine and transition proteins. mRNA cargo analysis was performed using porcinespecific micro-arrays (GeneChip (R) miRNA 4.0 and GeneChip (R) Porcine Gene 1.0 ST) and qPCR validation. Differences between fertility-classed boars were ample among biomarkers; some upregulated only at protein level (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and glutathione proteins), or only at the mRNA level (ATOX1, Antioxidant Protein 1). In addition, protamines 2 and 3, essential for sperm DNA condensation and also transition proteins 1 and 2 (TNP1 and TNP2), required during histone-to-protamine replacement, were overexpressed in spermatozoa from high-fertile boars. This up-regulation seems concerted to reduce DNA accessibility to ROS attack, protecting the DNA. The upregulated intracellular phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4), in high-fertile boars at mRNA level, can be considered a most relevant biomarker for fertility disclosure during sperm evaluation.

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  • 11.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Martinez-Serrano, Cristina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barranco, Isabel
    Univ Girona, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Transcriptome of Pig Spermatozoa, and Its Role in Fertility2020In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol. 21, no 5, article id 1572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study presented here we identified transcriptomic markers for fertility in the cargo of pig ejaculated spermatozoa using porcine-specific micro-arrays (GeneChip((R)) miRNA 4.0 and GeneChip((R)) Porcine Gene 1.0 ST). We report (i) the relative abundance of the ssc-miR-1285, miR-16, miR-4332, miR-92a, miR-671-5p, miR-4334-5p, miR-425-5p, miR-191, miR-92b-5p and miR-15b miRNAs, and (ii) the presence of 347 up-regulated and 174 down-regulated RNA transcripts in high-fertility breeding boars, based on differences of farrowing rate (FS) and litter size (LS), relative to low-fertility boars in the (Artificial Insemination) AI program. An overrepresentation analysis of the protein class (PANTHER) identified significant fold-increases for C-C chemokine binding (GO:0019957): CCR7, which activates B- and T-lymphocytes, 8-fold increase), XCR1 and CXCR4 (with ubiquitin as a natural ligand, 1.24-fold increase), cytokine receptor activity (GO:0005126): IL23R receptor of the IL23 protein, associated to JAK2 and STAT3, 3.4-fold increase), the TGF-receptor (PC00035) genes ACVR1C and ACVR2B (12-fold increase). Moreover, two micro-RNAs (miR-221 and mir-621) were down- and up-regulated, respectively, in high-fertility males. In conclusion, boars with different fertility performance possess a wide variety of differentially expressed RNA present in spermatozoa that would be attractive targets as non-invasive molecular markers for predicting fertility.

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  • 12.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ntzouni, Maria
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Core Facility.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khan, Kabirul Islam
    Chattogram Vet and Anim Sci Univ, Bangladesh.
    Lopez-Bejar, Manel
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain.
    Martinez-Serrano, Cristina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Chicken seminal fluid lacks CD9-and CD44-bearing extracellular vesicles2020In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 293-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The avian seminal fluid (SF) is a protein-rich fluid, derived from the testis, the rudimentary epididymis and, finally, from the cloacal gland. The SF interacts with spermatozoa and the inner cell lining of the female genital tract, to modulate sperm functions and female immune responsiveness. Its complex proteome might either be free or linked to extracellular vesicles (EVs) as it is the case in mammals, where EVs depict the tetraspanin CD9; and where those EVs derived from the epididymis (epididymosomes) also present the receptor CD44. In the present study, sperm-free SF from Red Jungle Fowl, White Leghorn and an advanced intercross (AIL, 12th generation) were studied using flow cytometry of the membrane marker tetraspanin CD9, Western blotting of the membrane receptor CD44 and electron microscopy in non-enriched (whole SF) or enriched fractions obtained by precipitation using a commercial kit (Total Exosome Precipitation Solution). Neither CD9- nor CD44 could be detected, and the ultrastructure confirmed the relative absence of EVs, raising the possibility that avian SF interacts differently with the female genitalia as compared to the seminal plasma of mammals.

  • 13.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. CSIC, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mating modifies the expression of crucial oxidative-reductive transcripts in the pig oviductal sperm reservoir: is the female ensuring sperm survival?2023In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 14, article id 1042176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMating induces large changes in the female genital tract, warranting female homeostasis and immune preparation for pregnancy, including the preservation of crucial oxidative status among its pathways. Being highly susceptible to oxidative stress, sperm survival and preserved function depend on the seminal plasma, a protection that is removed during sperm handling but also after mating when spermatozoa enter the oviduct. Therefore, it is pertinent to consider that the female sperm reservoir takes up this protection, providing a suitable environment for sperm viability. These aspects have not been explored despite the increasing strategies in modulating the female status through diet control and nutritional supplementation. AimsTo test the hypothesis that mating modifies the expression of crucial oxidative-reductive transcripts across the entire pig female genital tract (cervix to infundibulum) and, particularly in the sperm reservoir at the utero-tubal junction, before ovulation, a period dominated by estrogen stimulation of ovarian as well as of seminal origin. MethodsThe differential expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors and of 59 oxidative-reductive transcripts were studied using a species-specific microarray platform, in specific segments of the peri-ovulatory sow reproductive tract in response to mating. ResultsMating induced changes along the entire tract, with a conspicuous downregulation of both ER and PR and an upregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), glutaredoxin (GLRX3), and peroxiredoxin 1 and 3 (PRDX1, PRDX3), among other NADH Dehydrogenase Ubiquinone Flavoproteins, in the distal uterus segment. These changes perhaps helped prevent oxidative stress in the area adjacent to the sperm reservoir at the utero-tubal junction. Concomitantly, there were a downregulation of catalase (CAT) and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) oxidoreductases 1 beta subcomplex, subunit 1 (NDUFB1) in the utero-tubal junction alongside an overall downregulation of CAT, SOD1, and PRDX3 in the ampullar and infundibulum segments. ConclusionsNatural mating is an inducer of changes in the expression of female genes commanding antioxidant enzymes relevant for sperm survival during sperm transport, under predominant estrogen influence through the bloodstream and semen. The findings could contribute to the design of new therapeutics for the female to improve oxidative-reductive balance.

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  • 14.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Evidensia Valla Djursjukhus Linkoping, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hyaluronan improves neither the long-term storage nor the cryosurvival of liquid-stored CD44-bearing Al boar spermatozoa2018In: Journal of reproduction and development, ISSN 0916-8818, E-ISSN 1348-4400, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 351-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) apparently improves sperm survival in vitro and in vivo (oviduct), maintaining sperm motility and inducing capacitation, but not acrosome exocytosis, either by direct action as a macromolecule or via CD44 membrane receptors. This study explored ejaculated, liquid-extended pig spermatozoa to ascertain (i) the presence (Western blotting) and specific location (immunocytochemistry) of the CD44 receptor, using a specific monoclonal commercial antibody; (ii) whether the CD44 receptor changed location when exposed to bicarbonate, a capacitating trigger, in vitro; and (iii) whether the addition of HA, of molecular size comparable to that produced in the oviduct sperm reservoir (0.0625 to 2.0 mg/ml; 0 HA: control), to semen extenders would improve sperm liquid storage in vitro or cryosurvival post freezing. Variables tested were sperm velocity and progressive motility (Qualisperm (TM)), sperm viability and acrosome status, membrane integrity and early destabilization, mitochondrial activation, and superoxide production (flow cytometry). The CD44 receptor presence in ejaculated, liquid-stored AI boar spermatozoa, as confirmed by a porcine-specific monoclonal antibody, maintained its membrane location under in vitro capacitation-inducing conditions. HA exposure to 24-, 48-, or 72-h liquid-stored (17-20 degrees C) spermatozoa lowered sperm velocity in membrane-intact spermatozoa, but increased mitochondrial superoxide production. Finally, HA addition during cooling did not improve cryosurvival but did increase mitochondrial activation and membrane destabilization in surviving cells. These results confirm the existence of a CD44 receptor in pig spermatozoa, but the usefulness of adding HA for long-term storage or cryopreservation of liquid-stored, extended boar semen remains in question, thereby warranting further non-empirical analyses of HA-sperm membrane interactions.

  • 15.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Exogenous Individual Lecithin-Phospholipids (Phosphatidylcholine and Phosphatidylglycerol) Cannot Prevent the Oxidative Stress Imposed by Cryopreservation of Boar Sperm.2017In: Journal of veterinary medicine and surgery, ISSN 2574-2868, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Despite the use of high proportions of the chemically undefined lipoprotein/phospholipid-rich egg-yolk in extenders, boar sperm are highly sensitive to cooling, which induces ROS generation and disrupts the plasma membrane.

    Here, we studied whether replacement of hen egg-yolk by commercially defined lecithin phospholipids, derived from egg (LPGE: phosphatidyl glycerol, LPCE: phosphatidyl choline) or soybean (LPCS: phosphatidyl choline), could individually ameliorate such oxidative effects during cryopreservation of ejaculated (sperm rich fraction, SRF) or of cauda-epididymal sperm, retrieved post-mortem from the same males.

    Methods: A conventional extender (lactose buffer, with 20% egg-yolk, 0.5% OEP and 3% glycerol) was used as control. Cryodamage was assessed as loss of sperm motility, membrane and acrosome intactness, early membrane destabilization changes, mitochondrial potential, superoxide and ROS production, to finally determine lipid peroxidation (LPO) using specific probes.

    Results and conclusion: In general, the exogenous phospholipids assayed were unable of maintaining neither sperm motility nor viability post-thaw compared to controls, owing to increased ROS production and lipid peroxidation. In our study, mitochondrial superoxide production resulted in very high levels for all groups, whereas both ROS production and lipid peroxidation were reduced in the control group, containing emulsified hen egg yolk. Further studies using various dosage and combination of LPCS should be followed for their eventual protective effect.

    Keywords: Cryodamage; Sperm; Boar; Mitochondrial activation; Mitochondrial superoxide; ROS production; Lipid peroxidation

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  • 16.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Carrillo, Alejandro Vicente
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johnsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Conserved gene expression in sperm reservoirs between birds and mammals in response to mating.2017In: BMC Genomics, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 18, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa are stored in the oviductal functional sperm reservoir in animals with internal fertilization, including zoologically distant classes such as pigs or poultry. They are held fertile in the reservoir for times ranging from a couple of days (in pigs), to several weeks (in chickens), before they are gradually released to fertilize the newly ovulated eggs. It is currently unknown whether females from these species share conserved mechanisms to tolerate such a lengthy presence of immunologically-foreign spermatozoa. Therefore, global gene expression was assessed using cDNA microarrays on tissue collected from the avian utero-vaginal junction (UVJ), and the porcine utero-tubal junction (UTJ) to determine expression changes after mating (entire semen deposition) or in vivo cloacal/cervical infusion of sperm-free seminal fluid (SF)/seminal plasma (SP).

    RESULTS: In chickens, mating changed the expression of 303 genes and SF-infusion changed the expression of 931 genes, as compared to controls, with 68 genes being common to both treatments. In pigs, mating or SP-infusion changed the expressions of 1,722 and 1,148 genes, respectively, as compared to controls, while 592 genes were common to both treatments. The differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched for GO categories related to immune system functions (35.72-fold enrichment). The top 200 differentially expressed genes of each treatment in each animal class were analysed for gene ontology. In both pig and chicken, an excess of genes affecting local immune defence were activated, though frequently these were down-regulated. Similar genes were found in both the chicken and pig, either involved in pH-regulation (SLC16A2, SLC4A9, SLC13A1, SLC35F1, ATP8B3, ATP13A3) or immune-modulation (IFIT5, IFI16, MMP27, ADAMTS3, MMP3, MMP12).

    CONCLUSION: Despite being phylogenetically distant, chicken and pig appear to share some gene functions for the preservation of viable spermatozoa in the female reservoirs.

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  • 17.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johnsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Correction: Conserved gene expression in sperm reservoirs between birds and mammals in response to mating (vol 18, 98, 2017)2017In: BMC Genomics, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 18, article id 563Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 18.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bhai Mehta, Ratnesh
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Fogelholm, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mating induces the expression of immune- and pH-regulatory genes in the utero-vaginal junction containing mucosal sperm-storage tubuli of hens2015In: Reproduction, Vol. 150, no 6, p. 473-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The female chicken, as with other species with internal fertilization, can tolerate the presence of spermatozoa within specialized sperm-storage tubuli (SST) located in the mucosa of the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) for days or weeks, without eliciting an immune response. To determine if the oviduct alters its gene expression in response to sperm entry, segments from the oviduct (UVJ, uterus, isthmus, magnum and infundibulum) of mated and unmated (control) hens, derived from an advanced inter-cross line between Red Junglefowl and White Leghorn, were explored 24 h after mating using cDNA microarray analysis. Mating shifted the expression of fifteen genes in the UVJ (53.33% immune-modulatory and 20.00% pH-regulatory) and seven genes in the uterus, none of the genes in the latter segment overlapping the former (with the differentially expressed genes themselves being less related to immune-modulatory function). The other oviductal segments did not show any significant changes. These findings suggest sperm deposition causes a shift in expression in the UVJ (containing mucosal SST) and the uterus for genes involved in immune-modulatory and pH-regulatory functions, both relevant for sperm survival in the hen's oviduct.

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  • 19.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sanz, Libia
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain.
    Pla, Davinia
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rubér, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calvete, Juan J.
    Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia, CSIC, Valencia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Selection for higher fertility reflects in the seminal fluid proteome of modern domestic chicken2017In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics, ISSN 1744-117X, E-ISSN 1878-0407, Vol. 21, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high egg-laying capacity of the modern domestic chicken (i.e. White Leghorn, WL) has arisen from the low egg-laying ancestor Red Junglefowl (RJF) via continuous trait selection and breeding. To investigate whether this long-term selection impacted the seminal fluid (SF)-proteome, 2DE electrophoresis-based proteomic analyses and immunoassays were conducted to map SF-proteins/cytokines in RJF, WL and a 9th generation Advanced Intercross Line (AIL) of RJF/WL-L13, including individual SF (n = 4, from each RJF, WL and AIL groups) and pools of the SF from 15 males of each group, analyzed by 2DE to determine their degree of intra-group (AIL, WL, and RJF) variability using Principal Component Analysis (PCA); respectively an inter-breed comparative analysis of intergroup fold change of specific SF protein spots intensity between breeds. The PCA clearly highlighted a clear intra-group similarity among individual roosters as well as a clear inter-group variability (e.g. between RJF, WL and AIL) validating the use of pools to minimize confounding individual variation. Protein expression varied considerably for processes related to sperm motility, nutrition, transport and survival in the female, including signaling towards immunomodulation. The major conserved SF-proteins were serum albumin and ovotransferrin. Aspartate aminotransferase, annexin A5, arginosuccinate synthase, glutathione S-transferase 2 and l-lactate dehydrogenase-A were RJF-specific. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase appeared specific to the WL-SF while angiotensin-converting enzyme, γ-enolase, coagulation factor IX, fibrinogen α-chain, hemoglobin subunit α-D, lysozyme C, phosphoglycerate kinase, Src-substrate protein p85, tubulins and thioredoxin were AIL-specific. The RJF-SF contained fewer immune system process proteins and lower amounts of the anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory TGF-β2 compared to WL and AIL, which had low levels- or lacked pro-inflammatory CXCL10 compared to RJF. The seminal fluid proteome differs between ancestor and modern chicken, with a clear enrichment of proteins and peptides related to immune-modulation for sperm survival in the female and fertility.

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  • 20.
    Awasthi, H.
    et al.
    SLU, Sweden .
    Saravia, F.
    SLU, Sweden .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    SLU, Sweden .
    Bage, R.
    SLU, Sweden .
    Do Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets Accumulate in Immature Oocytes from Over-Conditioned Repeat Breeder Dairy Heifers?2010In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 45, no 5, p. E194-E198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main sources of repeat breeding in dairy cattle, caused by fertilization failure or early embryonic death, is metabolic stress during lactation. Nutrition seems also to play a role when the condition is seen in heifers, where oocyte cytoplasmic maturation is impaired. To determine whether over conditioning affects oocyte morphology, immature oocytes were collected by ovum pick-up (OPU) twice weekly during 5 weeks from three over-conditioned repeat breeder dairy heifers (RBH) and two normal virgin heifers (VH, controls) of the Swedish Red breed, monitored by body weight and condition. Oocyte quality was assessed under stereomicroscope and further examined by transmission electron microscope for accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid deposits. After OPU, the RBH yielded more low quality oocytes (60% vs 52% for VH, p = 0.14). The relative occupancy of osmophilic lipid droplets in the cytoplasm was higher in oocytes of bad quality compared with good ones, especially in RBH (p = 0.08) but also in VH (p = 0.11). Moreover, the oocytes from over-conditioned RBH showed higher amounts of cytoplasmic lipid deposits both in good (p = 0.14) and, even more prominent, in bad quality oocytes (p = 0.06). Such accumulation of lipid droplets may imply increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, hinder cytoplasmic maturation and lead to subfertility, as accounted in over-conditioned repeat breeders of the Swedish Red breed.

  • 21.
    Balao da Silva, C. M.
    et al.
    University of Extremadura, Spain.
    Ortega Ferrusola, C.
    University of Extremadura, Spain.
    Gallardo Bolanos, J. M.
    University of Extremadura, Spain.
    Plaza Davila, M.
    University of Extremadura, Spain.
    Martin-Munoz, P.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Morrell, J. M.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pena, F. J.
    University of Extremadura, Spain.
    Effect of Overnight Staining on the Quality of Flow Cytometric Sorted Stallion Sperm: Comparison with Tradtitional Protocols2014In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 1021-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow cytometry is considered the only reliable method for the separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa in equines. The MoFlo SX DP sorter is highly efficient, allowing the production of foals of the desired sex. However, to achieve acceptable pregnancy rates the currently used protocol requires working with fresh semen obtained close to, or at, the sorting facility. An alternative protocol was tested during two consecutive breeding seasons. Fresh stallion semen was cooled for 20 h, during which staining with Hoechst 33342 took place. On the following day, this sample was flow sorted and compared with spermatozoa from the same ejaculate that had been sexed on the previous day. All sperm parameters evaluated remained unchanged when fresh sorted and refrigerated sorted semen were compared. Pre-sorting storage at 5 degrees C did not alter sperm velocities nor kinetics, viability or membrane permeability, production of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential or DNA fragmentation index of the sorted sample. The findings open for the possibility of using semen from stallions housed far from the sorting facilities. Processed and stained sperm could be shipped refrigerated on the previous day, sorted and inseminated on the next day.

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  • 22.
    Balao da Silva, C M.
    et al.
    University of Extremadura Caceres, Spain .
    Ortega Ferrusola, C
    University of Extremadura Caceres, Spain .
    Morillo Rodriguez, A
    University of Extremadura Caceres, Spain .
    Gallardo Bolanos, J M.
    University of Extremadura Caceres, Spain .
    Plaza Davila, M
    University of Extremadura Caceres, Spain .
    Morrell, J M.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Rodriguez Martinez, H
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tapia, J A.
    University of Extremadura Caceres, Spain .
    Aparicio, I M.
    University of Extremadura Caceres, Spain .
    Pena, F -j.
    University of Extremadura Caceres, Spain .
    Sex sorting increases the permeability of the membrane of stallion spermatozoa2013In: Animal Reproduction Science, ISSN 0378-4320, E-ISSN 1873-2232, Vol. 138, no 3-4, p. 241-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the only repeatable means of selecting the sex of offspring is the Beltsville semen sorting technology using flow cytometry (FC). This technology has reached commercial status in the bovine industry and substantial advances have occurred recently in swine and ovine species. In the equine species, however, the technology is not as well developed. To better understand the changes induced in stallion spermatozoa during the sorting procedure, pooled sperm samples were sorted: sperm motility and kinematics were assessed using computer assisted sperm analysis, sperm membrane integrity was assessed using the YoPro-1 assay, while plasmalemmal stability and lipid architecture were assessed using Merocyanine 540/SYTOX green and Annexin-V, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was also investigated with the probe Bodipy(581/591)-C11. All assays were performed shortly after collection, after incubation and after sex sorting using FC. In order to characterize potential molecular mechanisms implicated in sperm damage, an apoptosis protein antibody dot plot array analysis was performed before and after sorting. While the percentage of total motile sperm remained unchanged, sex sorting reduced the percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa and of rapid spermatozoa as well as curvilinear velocity (VCL). Sperm membranes responded to sorting with an increase in the percentage of YoPro-1 positive cells, suggesting the sorted spermatozoa had a reduced energy status that was confirmed by measuring intracellular ATP content.

  • 23.
    Balao da Silva, C. M.
    et al.
    Vet Teaching Hospital, Spain.
    Ortega-Ferrusola, C.
    Vet Teaching Hospital, Spain.
    Morrell, J. M.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Pena, F. J.
    Vet Teaching Hospital, Spain.
    Flow Cytometric Chromosomal Sex Sorting of Stallion Spermatozoa Induces Oxidative Stress on Mitochondria and Genomic DNA2016In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, the only repeatable method to select spermatozoa for chromosomal sex is the Beltsville sorting technology using flow cytometry. Improvement of this technology in the equine species requires increasing awareness of the modifications that the sorting procedure induces on sperm intactness. Oxidative stress is regarded as the major damaging phenomenon, and increasing evidence regards handling of spermatozoa - including sex sorting - as basic ground for oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to disclose whether the flow cytometric sorting procedure increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and to identify if ROS production relates to DNA damage in sorted spermatozoa using specific flow cytometry-based assays. After sorting, oxidative stress increased from 26% to 33% in pre-and post-incubation controls, to 46% after sex sorting (p < 0.05). Proportions of DNA fragmentation index post-sorting were approximately 10% higher (31.3%); an effect apparently conduced via oxidative DNA damage as revealed by the oxyDNA assay. The probable origin of this increased oxidative stress owes the removal of enough seminal plasma due to the unphysiological sperm extension, alongside a deleterious effect of high pressure on mitochondria during the sorting procedure.

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  • 24.
    Balao da Silva, C
    et al.
    University of Extremadura.
    Ortega, C
    University of Extremadura.
    Macias, B
    University of Extremadura.
    Morillo, A
    University of Extremadura.
    Gallardo, J
    University of Extremadura.
    Aparicio, I
    University of Extremadura.
    Tapia, J
    University of Extremadura.
    Morrell, J
    SLU.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pena, J F
    University of Extremadura.
    Effect of hoechst 33342 on stallion spermatozoa incubated in KMT or modified INRA96-tyrode in REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, vol 46, issue SI, pp 88-882011In: REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Blackwell Publishing , 2011, Vol. 46, no SI, p. 88-88Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 25.
    Balao da Silva, C
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ortega-Ferrusola, C
    University of Extremadura, Spain .
    Effect of Hoechst 33342 on stallion spermatozoa incubated in KMT or Tyrodes modified INRA962012In: Animal Reproduction Science, ISSN 0378-4320, E-ISSN 1873-2232, Vol. 131, no 3-4, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The only known means of effectively separating populations of X and Y bearing sperms is the Beltsville sexing technology. The technology implies that each individual sperm is interrogated for DNA content, measuring the intensity of the fluorescence after staining the spermatozoa with Hoechst 33342. Because there are no data regarding the effect of the staining on stallion sperm, ejaculates were incubated up to 90 min in presence of 0, 4.5, 9, 22.5, 31.5, 45, 54, 67.5, 76.5 and 90 mu M of Hoechst 33342, in two media, KMT or INRA-Tyrodes. After 40 and 90 min of incubation, motility (CASA) and membrane integrity (flow cytometry after YoPro-1/Eth staining) were evaluated. In KMT extender sperm motility significantly decreased after 45 min of incubation when sperm were incubated in the presence of concentrations of Hoechst of 45 mu M or greater (P andlt; 0.05). When incubated in modified INRA96, stallion spermatozoa tolerated greater concentrations of Hoechst, because sperm motility only decreased when incubated in presence of 90 mu M (P andlt; 0.05) and membrane integrity was not affected. After 90 min of incubation the same effect was observed, but in this case at concentrations over 45 mu M the percentage of total motile sperm was also reduced although only in samples incubated in KMT. To produce this effect in samples incubated in Tyrodes modified INRA 96, Hoechst had to be present at concentrations over 67.5 mu M. Apparently, the detrimental effect of Hoechst to stallion spermatozoa varies depending on the media, and INRA modified extender may be an alternative to KMT.

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  • 26.
    Ballester, J.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Johannisson, A.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Saravia, F.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Haard, M.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Gustafsson, H.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Bajramovic, D.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Post-thaw viability of bull AI-doses with low-sperm numbers2007In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 934-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of AI-doses containing low-sperm numbers are increasingly been used to optimise use of elite bulls as well as to accommodate an eventual wider application of sex-sorted semen. Since spermatozoa might, however, suffer from high extension rates, thus compromising fertility, this study evaluated the post-thaw sperm quality of semen from commercial progeny-tested, high-ranked AI-sires whose semen was within acceptable limits of normality, frozen in a split-design to 15 (control, 15M) or 2 x 106 total spermatozoa (treatment, 2M) per straw. Assessment post-thaw included computer-evaluated sperm motility (CASA), membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), membrane stability (Annexin-V/Pl), acrosome integrity (Carboxy-SNARF-1/PI/ FITC-PSA), and chromatin integrity (AO of in situ acid-induced DNA denaturation). High extension did not affect the proportions of linearly motile spermatozoa, of membrane integrity or stability nor chromatin integrity, immediately post-thaw. However, high extension clearly affected linear sperm motility following incubation at 38 degrees C for 30 min, sperm viability when assessed by SNARF and, particularly, acrosome integrity of the otherwise viable spermatozoa. Individual sire variation was evident. Fertility was preliminarily evaluated for one of the less affected bulls in a blind field trial. A total of 109 dairy cows were randomly inseminated with 15M or 2M-straws without differences in pregnancy rate between them (47% versus 43%). This similarity in fertility rates, confirmed the in vitro methods used were appropriate for identifying cryosurvival and further suggested the site of sperm deposition was not crucial for the fertility of low-sperm AI-numbers for this particular sire. However, the inter-bull variation seen calls for caution when cryopreserving low concentrations of bull spermatozoa with conventional freezing protocols. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Barranco, I.
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Perez-Patino, C.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Alkmin, D. V.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Ceron, J. J.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, E. A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, J.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    The activity of paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1) in boar seminal plasma and its relationship with sperm quality, functionality, and in vivo fertility2015In: Andrology, ISSN 2047-2919, E-ISSN 2047-2927, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) is a hydrolytic enzyme present in body fluids, capable of protecting cells against oxidative stress. The hypothesis was hereby to test that PON-1, present in seminal plasma (SP), acts protecting boar spermatozoa when showing a reasonable high activity in the ejaculate. SP-PON-1 activity differed (pless than0.001) among boars (from 0.10 to 0.29IU/mL). Intra-boar variability was also observed (pless than0.05), but only in two of the 15 boars. SP-PON-1 activity differed among ejaculate portions, showing the spermatozoa-peak portion of spermatozoa-rich ejaculate fraction the highest levels (0.35 +/- 0.03IU/mL, ranging from 0.12 to 0.69) and the post-sperm ejaculate fraction the lowest levels (0.12 +/- 0.01IU/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 0.21). SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with rapid and progressive movement (pless than0.01) and negatively correlated with the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (pless than0.01) in semen samples after 72h of liquid storage. SP-PON-1 activity was highest (pless than0.01) in boars with highest farrowing rates. In conclusion, SP-PON-1 activity differed among boars and ejaculate fractions/portions. SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with sperm quality and functionality of liquid-stored semen samples and it evidenced a positive association with in vivo fertility.

  • 28.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Padilla, Lorena
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez-Serrano, Cristina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Lucas, Xiomara
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Ferreira-Dias, Graça
    University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Yeste, Marc
    University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Seminal Plasma Modulates miRNA Expression by Sow Genital Tract Lining Explants2020In: Biomolecules, E-ISSN 2218-273X, Vol. 10, no 6, article id E933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The seminal plasma (SP) modulates the female reproductive immune environment after mating, and microRNAs (miRNAs) could participate in the process. Considering that the boar ejaculate is built by fractions differing in SP-composition, this study evaluated whether exposure of mucosal explants of the sow internal genital tract (uterus, utero-tubal junction and isthmus) to different SP-fractions changed the profile of explant-secreted miRNAs. Mucosal explants retrieved from oestrus sows (n = 3) were in vitro exposed to: Medium 199 (M199, Control) or M199 supplemented (1:40 v/v) with SP from the sperm-rich fraction (SRF), the post-SRF or the entire recomposed ejaculate, for 16 h. After, the explants were cultured in M199 for 24 h to finally collect the media for miRNA analyses using GeneChip miRNA 4.0 Array (Affymetrix). Fifteen differentially expressed (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05 and Fold-change ≥ 2) miRNAs (11 down- versus 4 up-regulated) were identified (the most in the media of uterine explants incubated with SP from post-SRF). Bioinformatics analysis identified that predicted target genes of dysregulated miRNAs, mainly miR-34b, miR-205, miR-4776-3p and miR-574-5p, were involved in functions and pathways related to immune response. In conclusion, SP is able to elicit changes in the miRNAs profile secreted by female genital tract, ultimately depending SP-composition.

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  • 29.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Padilla, Lorena
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Perez-Patino, Cristina
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Pena, Fernando J.
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Extracellular vesicles isolated from porcine seminal plasma exhibit different tetraspanin expression profiles2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 11584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seminal extracellular vesicles (EVs) include exosomes (phi 40-120 nm) and microvesicles (MVs, phi 120-1000 nm), which would be involved in multiple functional reproductive roles. The study aimed to establish which EV subtypes are present in pig semen, using a high-resolution flow cytometer to explore differences in their tetraspanin expression profile. The EVs were isolated from 12 pig ejaculates using serial ultracentrifugation and characterized by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy for size and morphology as well as for tetraspanin expression using flow cytometry with Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) and antibodies against CD9, CD63 and CD81. Pig semen contained a heterogeneous EV-population regarding size and morphology. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the proportion of EVs expressing CD63 and CD9 was higher in MVs (P amp;lt; 0.001 and P amp;lt; 0.05, respectively) than in exosomes, while the opposite was true for CD81; higher (P amp;lt; 0.001) in exosomes than in MVs. In conclusion, (1) the new generation of flow cytometers are able to accurately identify EVs and to gate them in two size-different populations named exosomes and MVs. (2) Tetraspanins CD9, CD63 and CD81 are present in both seminal EVs, albeit with exosomes and MVs differing in expression profiles, suggesting dissimilar cargo and binding affinity.

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  • 30.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    Univ Murcia, Spain; Univ Girona, Spain.
    Padilla, Lorena
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Perez-Patino, Cristina
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Vazquez, Juan M.
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Seminal Plasma Cytokines Are Predictive of the Outcome of Boar Sperm Preservation2019In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, E-ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 6, article id 436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Boar seminal plasma is rich in cytokines, which could influence the capability of spermatozoa to tolerate preservation.

    Objectives: To evaluate the involvement of boar seminal plasma cytokines in the changes experienced by boar spermatozoa during their storage, either in liquid or frozen state.

    Materials and Methods: In two separated experiments, semen samples from healthy and fertile boars were split in two aliquots, one centrifuged twice (1,500 ×g for 10 min) to harvest seminal plasma, whereas the other was either commercially extended (3 × 107 sperm/mL) and liquid-stored at 17°C during 144 h (n = 28, Experiment 1) or frozen-thawed using a standard 0.5 mL protocol (n = 27, Experiment 2). Sixteen cytokines were quantified using Luminex xMAP®. Sperm attributes (CASA-evaluated total and progressive motility; flow cytometry-evaluated sperm viability, production of intracellular H2O2 and O2&#x2022;-" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative; outline: 0px !important;">O∙−2O2•- and levels of lipid peroxidation in viable spermatozoa) were evaluated either at 0, 72, or 144 h of liquid storage (Experiment 1) or before freezing and at 30- and 150-min post-thawing (Experiment 2).

    Results: Multiple linear regression models, with Bayesian approach for variable selection, revealed that the anti-inflammatory TGF-β2, TGF-β3, IL-1Ra, and IL-4 and the pro-inflammatory IL-8 and IL-18, predicted changes in sperm motility for liquid-stored semen while the anti-inflammatory IFN-γ was included in the models predicting changes in all sperm attributes for cryopreserved semen.

    Conclusion: Specific boar seminal plasma cytokines would contribute to modulate the structural and metabolic changes shown by spermatozoa during preservation, either in liquid or frozen state.

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  • 31.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    Univ Murcia, Spain; Univ Girona, Spain.
    Padilla, Lorena
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Yeste, Marc
    Univ Girona, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Levels of activity of superoxide dismutase in seminal plasma do not predict fertility of pig AI-semen doses2019In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 140, p. 18-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a major antioxidant enzyme in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study evaluated how SP-SOD affected sperm attributes when semen of boars of various breeds, included in commercial artificial insemination (Al)-programs, was extended and liquid-stored at 17 degrees C for AI; as well as their in vivo fertility (farrowing rate and litter size of 10,952 AI-sows). SP-SOD-activity was assessed in 311 ejaculates (100 boars) while sperm motility (by CASA), viability and intracellular H2O2 generation in viable spermatozoa (by flow cytometry) were measured at 0 and 72 h of liquid storage. SP-SOD activity was not affected by breed but differed (P amp;lt; 0.001) between boars (n = 50), ranging from 1.16 +/- 0.11 to 7.02 +/- 0.75 IU/mL. Semen Al-doses (n =44) hierarchically grouped (P amp;lt; 0.001) with low SP-SOD activity showed lower (P amp;lt; 0.05) sperm motility and intracellular H2O2 at 72 h of liquid storage. Fertility did not differ between AI-boars (n = 39) hierarchically grouped (P amp;lt; 0.001) with high or low SP-SOD activity. In conclusion, SP-SOD activity is boar dependent and positively related with sperm functionality of liquid stored semen AI-doses. However, this positive effect is not reflected on in vivo fertility post-AI. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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  • 32.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Perez-Patiño, Cristina
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Alvarez-Rodriguez, Manuel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ceron, Jose J
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Active paraoxonase 1 is synthesised throughout the internal boar genital organs.2017In: Reproduction (Cambridge, England), ISSN 1741-7899, Vol. 154, no 3, p. 237-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paraoxonase type 1 (PON1) is an enzyme with antioxidant properties recently identified in the seminal plasma (SP) of several species, including the porcine. The aims of the present study were to (1) describe the immunohistochemical localisation of PON1 in the genital organs of fertile boars and (2) evaluate the relationship among PON1 activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration in fluids of the boar genital organs. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that PON1 was present in testis (specifically in Leydig cells, blood vessels, spermatogonia and elongated spermatids), epididymis (specifically in the cytoplasm of the principal epithelial cells, luminal secretion and in the surrounding smooth muscle) and the lining epithelia of the accessory sexual glands (cytoplasmic location in the prostate and membranous in the seminal vesicle and bulbourethral glands). The Western blotting analysis confirmed the presence of PON1 in all boar genital organs, showing in all of them a band of 51 kDa and an extra band of 45 kDa only in seminal vesicles. PON1 showed higher activity levels in epididymal fluid than those in SP of the entire ejaculate or of specific ejaculate portions. A highly positive relationship between PON1 activity and HDL-C concentration was found in all genital fluids. In sum, all boar genital organs contributing to sperm-accompanying fluid/s were able to express PON1, whose activity in these genital fluids is highly dependent on the variable HDL-C concentration present.

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  • 33.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rubér, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ceron, Jose J.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Measurement of Activity and Concentration of Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) in Seminal Plasma and Identification of PON-2 in the Sperm of Boar Ejaculates2015In: Molecular Reproduction and Development, ISSN 1040-452X, E-ISSN 1098-2795, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study revealed and characterised the presence of the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase (PON) type 1 (PON-1, extracellular) and type 2 (PON-2, intracellular) in boar semen. To evaluate PON-1, an entire ejaculate from each of ten boars was collected and the seminal plasma was harvested after double centrifugation (1,500g for 10min). Seminal plasma was analysed for concentration as well as enzymatic activity of PON-1 and total cholesterol levels. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration ranged from 0.961 to 1.670ng/ml while its enzymatic activity ranged from 0.056 to 0.400 IU/ml, which represent individual variance. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration and enzymatic activity were negatively correlated (r=-0.763; Pless than0.01). The activity of seminal-plasma PON-1 negatively correlated with ejaculate volume (r=-0.726, Pless than0.05), but positively correlated with sperm concentration (r=0.654, Pless than0.05). Total seminal-plasma cholesterol concentration positively correlated with PON-1 activity (r=0.773; Pless than0.01), but negatively correlated with PON-1 concentration (r=-0.709; Pless than0.05). The presence of intracellular PON-2 was determined via immunocytochemistry in spermatozoa derived from artificial insemination. PON-2 localised to the post-acrosomal area of the sperm head and principal piece of the tail in membrane-intact spermatozoa. In summary, PON is present in boar semen, with PON-1 at low levels in seminal plasma and PON-2 within the spermatozoa. Further studies are needed to characterise the relationship between antioxidant PONs with sperm and other seminal-plasma parameters. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 58-65, 2015. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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  • 34.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Rubio, Camila P.
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Spain; Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    Univ Murcia, Spain; Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Measurement of Oxidative Stress Index in Seminal Plasma Can Predict In Vivo Fertility of Liquid-Stored Porcine Artificial Insemination Semen Doses2021In: Antioxidants, ISSN 2076-3921, Vol. 10, no 8, article id 1203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study evaluated the relation between the oxidative stress index (OSI) in porcine seminal plasma (n = 76) with sperm resilience and in vivo fertility (farrowing rate and litter size of 3137 inseminated sows) of liquid-stored artificial insemination (AI) semen doses. The OSI was assessed as the ratio of advanced oxidation protein products to Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity, both measured using an automated analyzer. Sperm motility (computer-assisted sperm analyzer) and viability (flow cytometry) were evaluated in semen AI-doses at 0 and 72 h of storage at 17 degrees C. Sperm resilience was defined as the difference between storage intervals. Semen AI-doses were hierarchically clustered as having high, medium and low seminal OSI (p &lt; 0.001) with those of low displaying higher resilience (p &lt; 0.01). Boars were hierarchically clustered into two groups (p &lt; 0.001) as having either positive or negative farrowing rate and litter size deviation; the negative one showing higher seminal OSI (p &lt; 0.05). In sum, seminal OSI was negatively related to sperm motility and the in vivo fertility of liquid-stored boar semen AI-doses, with the receiver operating characteristic curve presenting seminal OSI as a good predictive biomarker of in vivo fertility of AI-boars (area under the curve: 0.815, p &lt; 0.05).

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  • 35.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rubér, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Perez-Patino, Cristina
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Atikuzzaman, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Seminal Plasma of the Boar is Rich in Cytokines, with Significant Individual and Intra-Ejaculate Variation2015In: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, ISSN 1046-7408, E-ISSN 1600-0897, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 523-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem The boar, as human, sequentially ejaculates sperm-rich and sperm-poor fractions. Seminal plasma (SP) spermadhesins (PSP-I/PSP-II) induce a primary endometrial inflammatory response in female sows, similar to that elicited by semen deposition in other species, including human. However, the SP is also known to mitigate such response, making it transient to allow for embryo entry to a cleansed endometrium. Although cytokine involvement has been claimed, the exploration of cytokines in different SP fractions is scarce. This study determines Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th3 cytokine profiles in specific ejaculate SP fractions from boars of proven fertility. Methods SP samples from the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) and the sperm-poor post-SRF fraction (post-SRF) of manually collected ejaculates from eight boars (four ejaculates per boar) were analysed by commercial multiplex bead assay kits (Milliplex MAP, Millipore, USA) for interferon-gamma, interferon gamma-induced protein 10, macrophage-derived chemokine, growth-regulated oncogene, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1, interleukins (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, IL-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1-beta 3. Results Cytokine concentrations differed between the ejaculate fractions among boars, being highest in the post-SRF. Conclusion Boar SP is rich in Th1, Th2, Th17 and Th3 cytokines, with lowest concentrations in the sperm-peak-containing fraction, indicating its main immune influence might reside in the larger, protein-rich sperm-poor post-SRF.

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  • 36.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Sanchez-Lopez, Christian M.
    Univ Valencia, Spain; Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Bucci, Diego
    Univ Bologna, Italy.
    Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Marcilla, Antonio
    Univ Valencia, Spain; Univ Valencia, Spain.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    The Proteome of Large or Small Extracellular Vesicles in Pig Seminal Plasma Differs, Defining Sources and Biological Functions2023In: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, ISSN 1535-9476, E-ISSN 1535-9484, Vol. 22, no 4, article id 100514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seminal plasma contains many morphologically hetero-geneous extracellular vesicles (sEVs). These are sequentially released by cells of the testis, epididymis, and accessory sex glands and involved in male and fe-male reproductive processes. This study aimed to define in depth sEV subsets isolated by ultrafiltration and size exclusion chromatography, decode their proteomic profiles using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantify identified proteins using sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra. The sEV subsets were defined as large (L-EVs) or small (S-EVs) by their protein concentration, morphology, size distribution, and EV-specific protein markers and purity. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified a total of 1034 proteins, 737 of them quantified by SWATH in S-EVs, L-EVs, and non-EVs-enriched samples (18-20 size exclusion chromatography-eluted fractions). The differential expression analysis revealed 197 differentially abundant proteins between both EV subsets, S-EVs and L-EVs, and 37 and 199 between S-EVs and L-EVs versus non-EVs-enriched samples, respectively. The gene ontology enrichment analysis of differentially abundant proteins suggested, based on the type of protein detected, that S-EVs could be mainly released through an apocrine blebbing pathway and be involved in modulating the im-mune environment of the female reproductive tract as well as during sperm-oocyte interaction. In contrast, L-EVs could be released by fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane becoming involved in sperm physiological processes, such as capacitation and avoidance of oxidative stress. In conclusion, this study provides a procedure capable of isolating subsets of EVs from pig seminal plasma with a high degree of purity and shows differences in the proteomic profile between EV subsets, indicating different sources and biological functions for the sEVs.

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  • 37.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    Univ Murcia, Spain; Univ Girona, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Padilla, Lorena
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Lucas, Xiomara
    Univ Murcia, Spain.
    Delays in processing and storage of pig seminal plasma alters levels of contained antioxidants2021In: Research in Veterinary Science, ISSN 0034-5288, E-ISSN 1532-2661, Vol. 135, p. 416-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seminal plasma (SP) antioxidants are considered biomarkers of sperm function and fertility for AI-boars. The current protocol for their measurement implies the SP was harvested immediately after ejaculation and prompt stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Such protocol may be impractical for AI-centers. This study evaluated how SP levels of antioxidants were influenced by delays in (1) SP-harvesting (0 [control], 2 or 24 h at 17 degrees C after ejaculate collection), in (2) SP-freezing (0 [control] or 24 hat 17 degrees C after SP-harvesting) or (3) the temperature of storage (-80 degrees C [control] or - 20 degrees C). The SP-antioxidants evaluated were: glutathione peroxidase [GPx], superoxide dismutase [SOD], paraoxonase-1 [PON-1], trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity [TEAC] and oxidative stress index [OSI]. A total of 120 aliquots from 10 entire ejaculates were handled in three trials. They were centrifuged (1500 g, 10 min) for harvesting SP and antioxidants were measured with an Automatic Chemistry Analyzer. A 24 h-delay in harvesting the SP led to an increase (p 0.001) in TEAC and SOD SP-levels, and a decrease (p 0.05) of OSI and PON-1. Similarly, a 24 h-delay to freeze the SP increased (p 0.01) TEAC values and decreased (p 0.01) PON-1 and GPx activity levels. Finally, storing the SP at -20 degrees C decreased (p 0.001) SP-levels of TEAC, PON-1 and GPx, and increased (p 0.01) OSI values. Strong positive relationships (p 0.001) were found between antioxidant SP-levels in processed samples and their respective controls. In sum, handling and SP storage influence antioxidant measurements in AI-boars. Reliable levels of SP-antioxidants can only be warranted if a strict protocol for harvesting and SP storage is followed.

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  • 38.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Perez-Patino, Cristina
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Ceron, Jose J.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    High total antioxidant capacity of the porcine seminal plasma (SP-TAC) relates to sperm survival and fertility2015In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 18538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study attempted to clarify the role of total antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma (SP-TAC) on boar sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). SP-TAC differed (P &lt; 0.001) among boars (no = 15) and, to a lesser degree, among ejaculates within male (4 ejaculates/boar). SP-TAC also differed (P &lt; 0.001) among ejaculate fractions (43 ejaculates and 3 fractions per ejaculate), of which the sperm-peak portion of the sperm rich ejaculate fraction (SRF) had the highest SP-TAC. SP-TAC was not correlated with sperm quality (motility and viability) or functionality (intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation) of liquid AI-semen samples stored at 17 degrees C for 72 h (90 AI-samples), but the decline in sperm quality was larger (P &lt; 0.05) in ejaculates with low, compared with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped). The SP-TAC differences among ejaculate portions agree with sperm cryosurvival rates (14 ejaculates from 7 boars), showing sperm from sperm-peak portion better (P &lt; 0.01) post-thaw quality and functionality than those from the entire ejaculate (mainly post-SRF). Boars (no = 18) with high SP-TAC (hierarchically grouped) had higher (P &lt; 0.05) fertility outcomes (5,546 AI-sows) than those with low SP-TAC. Measurement of SP-TAC ought to be a discriminative tool to prognosis fertility in breeding boars.

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  • 39.
    Barranco, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Perez-Patino, Cristina
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Vicente Carrillo, Alejandro
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Parrilla, Inmaculada
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Ceron, Jose J.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Martinez, Emilio A.
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roca, Jordi
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Glutathione Peroxidase 5 Is Expressed by the Entire Pig Male Genital Tract and Once in the Seminal Plasma Contributes to Sperm Survival and In Vivo Fertility2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e0162958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutathione peroxidase-5 (GPX5) is an H2O2-scavenging enzyme identified in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study attempted to clarify its origin and role on sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). GPX5 was expressed (Western blot and immunocytochemistry using a rabbit primary polyclonal antibody) in testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands (6 boars). SP-GPX5 concentration differed among boars (11 boars, P amp;lt; 0.001), among ejaculates within boar (44 ejaculates, P amp;lt; 0.001) and among portions within ejaculate (15 ejaculates). The first 10 mL of the spermrich fraction (SRF, sperm-peak portion) had a significantly lower concentration (8.87 +/- 0.78 ng/mL) than the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (11.66 +/- 0.79 and 12.37 +/- 0.79 ng/mL, respectively, P amp;lt; 0.005). Spermmotility of liquid-stored semen AI-doses (n = 44, at 15-17 degrees C during 72h) declined faster in AI-doses with low concentrations of SP-GPX5 compared to those with high-levels. Boars (n = 11) with high SP-GPX5 showed higher farrowing rates and litter sizes than those with low SP-GPX5 (a total of 5,275 inseminated sows). In sum, GPX5 is widely expressed in the boar genital tract and its variable presence in SP shows a positive relationship with sperm quality and fertility outcomes of liquid-stored semen AI-doses.

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  • 40.
    Becerro-Rey, Laura
    et al.
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Martin-Cano, Francisco Eduardo
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Ferrusola, Cristina Ortega
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Children's and Women's Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gaitskell-Phillips, Gemma
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    da Silva-Alvarez, Eva
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Silva-Rodriguez, Antonio
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Gil, Maria Cruz
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Pena, Fernando J.
    Univ Extremadura, Spain.
    Aging of stallion spermatozoa stored in vitro is delayed at 22C using a 67 mm glucose-10 mm pyruvate-based media2023In: Andrology, ISSN 2047-2919, E-ISSN 2047-2927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Most commerce of equine seminal doses is carried out using commercial extenders under refrigeration at 5 degrees C.Objectives: To determine if 10 mM pyruvate in a 67 mM glucose extender and storage at 22 degrees C could be the basis of an alternative storage method to cooling to 5 degrees C.Material and methods: Stallion ejaculates were extendedin: INRA96 (67 mM glucose, non-pyruvate control), modified Tyrodes (67 mM glucose-10 mM pyruvate), supplemented with 0, 10, 50, and 100 mu M itaconate. As itaconate was vehiculated in DMSO, a control vehicle was also included. Sperm motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and production of reactive oxygen species were measured after collection and again after 48 and 96 h of storage at 22 degrees C. To disclose molecular metabolic changes, spermatozoa were incubated up to 3 h in modified Tyrodes 67 mM glucose-10 mM pyruvate and modified Tyrodes 67 mM glucose, and metabolic analysis conducted.Results: After 96 h of storage aliquots stored in the control, INRA96 had a very poor total motility of 5.6% +/- 2.3%, while in the 67 mM glucose-10 mM pyruvate/10 mu M itaconate extender, total motility was 34.7% +/- 3.8% (p = 0.0066). After 96 h, viability was better in most pyruvate-based media, and the mitochondrial membrane potential in spermatozoa extended in INRA96 was relatively lower (p &lt; 0.0001). Metabolomics revealed that in the spermatozoa incubated in the high pyruvate media, there was an increase in the relative amounts of NAD(+), pyruvate, lactate, and ATP.Discussion and conclusions: Aliquots stored in a 67 mM glucose-10 mM pyruvatebased medium supplemented with 10 mu M itaconate, maintained a 35% total motility after 96 h of storage at 22 degrees C, which is considered the minimum acceptable motility for commercialization. Improvements may be related to the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and regeneration of NAD(+).

  • 41.
    Berg, Göran
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Ernerudh, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Immunology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Special Issue: Marcus Wallenberg International Symposium in Comparative Reproductive Immunology, "Immunology at the fetal maternal interface: Basic science and clinical applications", July 7-8th, 2011, Linkoping University, Sweden2011In: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, ISSN 1046-7408, E-ISSN 1600-0897, Vol. 66, no Issue supplement 1, p. 1-1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden .
    Ballester, Joan
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Johannisson, Anders
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Hernandez, Marta
    University of Murcia, Spain.
    Lundeheim, Nils
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    In vitro capacitation of bull spermatozoa by oviductal fluid and its components2006In: Zygote (Cambridge. Print), ISSN 0967-1994, E-ISSN 1469-8730, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 259-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sperm capacitation is crucial for fertilization. However, debate continues on exactly how, where and when capacitation is elicited in the bovine female genital tract. In this study we used merocyanine-540 and the chlortetracycline (CTC) assay to test how capacitation of bull spermatozoa is affected in vitro by exposure to oviductal fluid (ODF) collected in vivo, various glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or bicarbonate. Following different durations of exposure, spermatozoa were stained with CTC or merocyanine-540, and evaluated with epifluorescent light microscopy or flow cytometry, respectively. Incubation time did not significantly affect capacitation. Exposure (30-120 min) to ODF capacitated (p less than 0.05) bull spermatozoa as measured by either merocyanine-540 or CTC. Hyaluronan was the only GAG that induced a significant increase in B-pattern spermatozoa (capacitated; p = 0.012) compared with controls. Dermatan sulphate also induced capacitation (merocyanine-540 high fluorescence; p = 0.035). Exposure to bicarbonate-enriched media also yielded an increase in merocyanine-540 high fluorescence (p less than 0.0001). When bicarbonate was added to the other treatments (ODF or GAGs) an equal increase in merocyanine-540 high fluorescence was noted (p less than 0.0001), compared with before addition of bicarbonate and independent of the treatment before exposure. There was no significant difference in the number of B-pattern spermatozoa when bicarbonate was added, but an significant increase in spermatozoa with an acrosome-reacted (AR)-pattern (p less than 0.0001) was observed. Exposure of spermatozoa to solubilized zonae pellucidae significantly increased the AR-pattern spermatozoa (p = 0.016). In conclusion, ODF was more potent in inducing capacitation of bull spermatozoa than the individual GAGs. Our results also indicate that bicarbonate is an effector of bull sperm capacitation.

  • 43.
    Bergqvist, A.-S.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Ballester, J.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Johannisson, A.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Lundeheim, N.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Heparin and dermatan sulphate induced capacitation of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa measured by merocyanine-5402007In: Zygote (Cambridge. Print), ISSN 0967-1994, E-ISSN 1469-8730, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 225-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the oviduct in which the major part of sperm capacitation occurs. In this study we have tested how capacitation of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa is effected by exposure to different GAGs detectable or possibly present in oviductal fluid; i.e. heparin, hyaluronan, heparan sulphate, dermatan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate. Following exposure of different duration, the spermatozoa were stained with either Chlortetracycline (CTC) or merocyanine-540 and evaluated with epifluorescent light microscopy or flow cytometry, respectively. Heparin elicited a significant increase in the number of alive, capacitated spermatozoa, either expressed as higher merocyanine-540 fluorescence (p less than 0.0001) or as B-pattern (p = 0.0021) in the CTC assay, during 4 h of incubation. When comparing the different GAG treatments one by one to the negative control in the flow cytometric study, only heparin and dermatan sulphate were significant (p less than 0.0001) higher than the control at 0-30 min of incubation. Duration of incubation did not affect the proportion of capacitated spermatozoa when measured as merocyanine-540 fluorescence or CTC B-pattern, but the length of the incubation did affect the number of dead (Yo-PRO 1 positive) spermatozoa (p less than 0.0001). Exposure to zona pellucida proteins significantly increased the proportion of acrosome reacted spermatozoa (p = 0.016). Both heparin and dermatan sulphate induce capacitation of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa in vitro.

  • 44.
    Bergqvist, A-S
    et al.
    Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johannisson, A.
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology & Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bäckgren, L.
    Department of Anatomy, Physiology & Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dalin, A-M
    Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Morrell, J M.
    Division of Reproduction, Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Single Layer Centrifugation of Stallion Spermatozoa through Androcoll (TM)-E does not Adversely Affect their Capacitation-Like Status, as Measured by CTC Staining2011In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 46, no 1, p. e74-e78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contents This study was designed to evaluate the effect of single layer centrifugation (SLC) and subsequent cold storage on stallion sperm capacitation-like status and acrosome reaction. Three stallions were included in the study, with three ejaculates per stallion. The samples were examined 4, 24 and 72 h after collection, extension and SLC, with storage at 6 degrees C. Sperm capacitation-like status was investigated using the fluorescent dye chlortetracycline (CTC). There was no difference in capacitation-like status between colloid-selected and non-selected spermatozoa. Sperm motility decreased significantly during cold storage, whereas the proportion of apparently capacitated spermatozoa increased. There was no change in the proportion of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. In conclusion, SLC through Androcoll (TM)-E does not adversely affect the capacitation-like status of stallion spermatozoa, although it did increase with time during cold storage.

  • 45.
    Bergqvist, AS
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Killian, G
    Pennsylvania State University, USA; .
    Erikson, D
    Pennsylvania State University, USA; .
    Hoshino, Y
    Tohoku University,, Japan; .
    Bage, R
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Sato, E
    Tohoku University,, Japan; .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Detection of Fas ligand in the bovine oviduct2005In: Animal Reproduction Science, ISSN 0378-4320, E-ISSN 1873-2232, Vol. 86, no 1-2, p. 71-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of a Fas-Fas ligand (FasL) system defines the immune-privileged status of certain tissues such as placenta. This study examined the fluids and tissue(s) of the bovine oviduct, where both spermatozoa and early embryos escape elimination by the female immune system, for the presence and the distribution of Fas and FasL, which might provide an explanation for the immune-privilegded site of this organ. In the present study, the immunolocalisation of FasL and Fas, as well as the gene expression of FasL, were determined in the uterotubal junction (UTJ), isthmic (I) and ampullar (A) segments of the oviduct during oestrus and the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. The degree of apoptosis of oviductal epithelium was examined by the TUNEL method. Oviductal fluid (01317), collected chronically via indwelling catheters from the I or A segments during both non-luteal and luteal phases of the cycle, was analysed for the presence of FasL. The Fas immunostaining was scattered along the epithelium of all regions of the oviduct and cycle stages investigated, whereas FasL immunolabelling was more conspicuous in oestrous samples. This staining disappeared during the luteal phase, which was particularly evident in the sperm reservoir (UTJ and I). There were fewer TUNEL-positive cells than Fas- or FasL-positive cells in the oviductal epithelium, suggesting that tubal Fas and FasL are not directly involved in epithelia apoptosis. Western blot analyses detected FasL in ODF collected from both I and A, most conspicuously as a 24-27 kDa band but also at a 40-45 kDa band level. FasL mRNA was expressed in the epithelial cells from the sperm reservoir and A during both non-luteal and luteal phases. However, the level of expression differed significantly between segments during the luteal phase. The results provide novel evidence that the Fas-FasL system is present in the bovine oviduct and could be involved in mediating survival of spermatozoa and early embryos. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Bergqvist, AS
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Sulphated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAGs) and syndecans in the bovine oviduct2006In: Animal Reproduction Science, ISSN 0378-4320, E-ISSN 1873-2232, Vol. 93, no 1-2, p. 46-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo, bull sperm capacitation seems to occur mainly in the oviduct. Capacitation of bull spermatozoa can be triggered in vitro by exposure to heparin, a heavily sulphated glycosaminoglycan (S-GAG). We determined the concentration of S-GAGs in oviductal fluid from dairy heifers, collected over the course of several oestrous cycles via surgically implanted intraluminal catheters. We also investigated the presence of syndecans, i.e. heparan sulphate proteoglycans, in the bovine oviductal epithelium of Swedish dairy cattle during standing oestrus and the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle, using immunohistochemistry for three different polyclonal antibodies raised against human syndecan-2 and rat syndecan-1 and syndecan-2, respectively. The concentration of S-GAGs in oviductal fluid obtained from the ampullar segment of the oviduct was significantly higher (P = 0.0026) than it was in fluid from the isthmic segment during the functional period, i.e. from prooestrus to metaoestrus (73.5 +/- 10.49 mg/L in ampullar ODF, compared to 43.2 +/- 10.74 mg/L in isthmic ODF); least square mean (L.S.M.) standard error of the mean (S.E.M.). There was also a sianificantly higher concentration of S-GAGs in the fluid from the oviduct ipsilateral to the ovulation side 73.5 +/- 10.54 mg/L on the ovulation side, compared to 43.1 +/- 10.71 mg/L in the oviduct on the contralateral side (L.S.M. +/- S.E.M., P = 0.0026) during this period. Both syndecan-1 and syndecan-2 were present in the epithelial cells lining all studied segments of the bovine oviduct, i.e. the UTJ, isthmus and ampulla, during both standing oestrus and dioestrus. The syndecans and S-GAGs found may influence the gametes. while they reside in the oviduct; the amounts of S-GAGs found in the bovine oviduct seem sufficient to act as capacitating factors in vivo. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 47.
    Bergqvist, AS
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Yokoo, M
    Tohoku University , Japan; .
    Bage, R
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Sato, E
    Tohoku University, Japan; .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Detection of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 in the bovine oviductal epithelium2005In: Journal of reproduction and development, ISSN 0916-8818, E-ISSN 1348-4400, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronan is involved in fundamental reproductive events such as sperm storage in the female reproductive tract, fertilization, and early embryo development, these functions are presumably mediated by its major cell surface receptor, CD44. The present study was conducted to investigate the presence and localization of CD44 in the bovine oviductal epithelium, using immunohistochemical and Western blot methods on tissue sections and epithelial cell extracts collected from the uterotubal junction (UTJ), isthmus, and ampulla of animals in the oestrus or luteal phase of the oestrous cycle. While positive immunolabelling for CD44 was found on the ad-luminal surface and supra-nuclear region of epithelial cells in all tubal segments investigated, in the UTJ, there were epithelial cells in which the entire cytoplasm positively stained. We found no differences in terms of CD44-positive staining between the different stages of the oestrous cycle. Presence of CD44 was detected by Western blotting in the tubal epithelium as a single band at 200 kDa. Although it appeared in all tubal segments, the expression of CD44 protein was more accentuated in the sperm reservoir (UTJ) than in the other segments. This is the first time CD44 has been detected in the epithelium of the tubal sperm reservoir in cattle, suggesting a pathway for the action of hyaluronan in this segment.

  • 48.
    Bergqvist, AS
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Yokoo, M
    Tohuku University, Japan; .
    Heldin, P
    Uppsala University, Sweden; .
    Frendin, J
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Sato, E
    Tohuku University, Japan; .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden; .
    Hyaluronan and its binding proteins in the epithelium and intraluminal fluid of the bovine oviduct2005In: Zygote (Cambridge. Print), ISSN 0967-1994, E-ISSN 1469-8730, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 207-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronan (HA) is involved in several important steps of sperm storage and of fertilization. This study investigates the presence and concentration of HA in oviductal fluid (ODF), together with the localization of HA and the presence of hyaluronan-binding proteins (HABPs) in the oviductal epithelium of normally cycling dairy heifers and cows. The concentration and amount of HA in ODF, collected over the course of several oestrous cycles via catheters placed in the isthmic and ampullar tubal segments, were measured using an ELISA. The concentration and amount of HA in ODF did not vary significantly between these anatomical regions, nor between the stages of the oestrous cycle (p greater than 0.05), although the amount of HA seemed to peak during oestrous. The most HA per day (2.9 +/- 0.64 mu g, least square mean +/- SEM) was produced on the day of ovulation, whereas the lowest amount (1.25 +/- 0.68 mu g) was produced 4 days before ovulation. To investigate the localization of HA, tissue samples were retrieved at well-defined stages of the oestrous cycle and from corresponding regions of the oviduct. Sections and protein extracts from the tissue samples were studied histochemically using biotinylated HABP and immunoblotted with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-HA, respectively. Presence of HA labelling in the oviductal epithelium was restricted to the sperm reservoir, a localization that seemed to be cycle-independent. The immunoblotting of samples from the lining epithelium revealed seven bands of HABPs. We confirm that the bovine oviduct produces HA and its binding proteins, and that HA is mainly localized to the epithelium of the sperm reservoir.

  • 49.
    Bierla, Joanna B.
    et al.
    Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw, Poland.
    Gizejewski, Zygmunt
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Olsztyn, Poland.
    Leigh, Christopher M.
    The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Ekwall, Hans
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala S-75007, Sweden.
    Soderquist, Lennart
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala S-75007, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala S-75007, Sweden.
    Zalewski, Kazimierz
    University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.
    Breed, William G.
    The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.
    Sperm morphology of the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber: An example of a species of rodent with highly derived and pleiomorphic sperm populations2007In: Journal of morphology, ISSN 0362-2525, E-ISSN 1097-4687, Vol. 268, no 8, p. 683-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural organization of the spermatozoon from the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber (Family: Castoridae), was determined and compared to that of other sciuromorph rodents. The beaver spermatozoon has a head, which is variable in form but usually paddle-shaped, with a small nucleus and very large acrosome, and a tail that is relatively short compared to that of most other rodents. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that in most testicular spermatozoa the acrosome projects apically, although in a few it becomes partly flexed. During the final stages of maturation, however, the acrosome becomes highly folded so that the apical segment comes to lie alongside part of the acrosome that occurs lateral to the nucleus, with, in some cases, fusion taking place between the outer acrosomal membranes. The sperm nucleus is wedge-shaped, being broader basally and narrowing apically with an occasional large nuclear vacuole occurring. This spermatozoon structure is markedly different from that found in the other species of Geomyoidea, which is the sister group of the Castoridae. The findings thus emphasize the highly divergent nature of the beaver spermatozoon and demonstrate that, within the proposed Infraorder Castorimorpha, very large differences in sperm structure have evolved.

  • 50.
    Bolarin, A.
    et al.
    University of Murcia, Spain .
    Hernandez, M.
    University of Murcia, Spain .
    Vazquez, J.M.
    University of Murcia, Spain .
    Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto
    SLU, Sweden .
    A. Martinez, E.
    University of Murcia, Spain .
    Roca, J.
    University of Murcia, Spain .
    Use of frozen-thawed semen aggravates the summer-autumn infertility of artificially inseminated weaned sows in the Mediterranean region2009In: Journal of Animal Science, ISSN 0021-8812, E-ISSN 1525-3163, Vol. 87, no 12, p. 3967-3975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement of farrowing rate (FR) and litter size (LS) of sows that are AI with frozen-thawed (FT) semen can hardly be reached without identification of the factors behind the high variability seen among trials. Three experiments using weaned (4-d wean-to-estrus interval) multiparous (parity 2 to 7) sows were conducted to evaluate the effect of period of the year on FR and LS of FT-inseminated sows in southern Spain. Sows were grouped into 2 periods of the year: winter-spring (November to April; WS) and summer-autumn (May to October; SA). Ovarian status was monitored by transrectal ultrasonography to record how long before or after ovulation AI was performed (pre-, peri-, or postovulatory AI) and to determine the onset of estrus-to-ovulation interval (EOI). Inseminations were performed using deep intrauterine AI with 1.5 x 109 FT sperm per dose. The first experiment was designed to determine the influence of the period of the year on FR and LS of FT semen. Sows (116 in WS and 100 in SA) were AI at 33 and 39 h after the onset of estrus. The period of the year influenced the FR and LS (P less than 0.01). Farrowing rate and LS were least in SA (P less than 0.05). This pattern of annual variation was similar to that shown by sows on the same farm currently undergoing AI with liquid semen (cervical AI at 12 and 36 h after the onset of estrus with 3 x 109 sperm per dose). However, the FR reduction in SA respect to WS was more substantial in sows artificially inseminated with FT (77.6 vs. 50%, P less than 0.001) than those artificially inseminated with liquid semen (83.9 vs. 71.8%, P less than 0.05). More pre- and less periovulatory AI were performed in SA sows than in WS sows (P = 0.05). Experiment 2 was designed to evaluate whether the period of the year influenced EOI. Ovarian status was transrectal ultrasonography scanned every 6 h after the onset of estrus until the end of ovulation (WS: 30; SA: 31 sows). There were more sows with long EOI (greater than48 h) in SA than in WS (P = 0.05). Experiment 3 aimed to improve the reduced FR and LS recorded in SA sows when using FT semen (Exp. 1) by inducing ovulation with eCG + hCG. A single AI with FT semen was performed 5 h before the expected ovulation (55 sows). As a control, spontaneously ovulating sows (n = 53) were FT-inseminated as in Exp. 1. Hormonal induction of ovulation did not improve FR and LS (P greater than 0.05). In the Spanish Mediterranean area, a longer EOI during SA negatively influenced the FR and LS of weaned sows after AI. This effect was particularly evident when FT semen was used. These findings were not ameliorated by hormonal induction of ovulation.

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