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  • 1.
    Casellas, Nicolas M.
    et al.
    UAM, Spain; IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cornelissen, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berrocal, Jose Augusto
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Torres, Tomas
    IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain; UAM, Spain.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Garcia-Iglesias, Miguel
    UAM, Spain; IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain.
    Resistive switching in an organic supramolecular semiconducting ferroelectric2019In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 55, no 60, p. 8828-8831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of switchable dipolar side groups and the semiconducting core of the newly synthetized C-3-symmetric benzotrithiophene molecule (BTTTA) leads to an ordered columnar material showing continuous tunability from injection- to bulk-limited conductivity modulation.

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  • 2.
    Cornelissen, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biler, Michal
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norman, Patrick
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Linares, Mathieu
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of organic ferroelectrics2019In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 1375-1383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferroelectrics find broad applications, e.g. in non-volatile memories, but the switching kinetics in real, disordered, materials is still incompletely understood. Here, we develop an electrostatic model to study ferroelectric switching using 3D Monte Carlo simulations. We apply this model to the prototypical small molecular ferroelectric trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) and find good agreement between the Monte Carlo simulations, experiments, and molecular dynamics studies. Since the model lacks any explicit steric effects, we conclude that these are of minor importance. While the material is shown to have a frustrated antiferroelectric ground state, it behaves as a normal ferroelectric under practical conditions due to the large energy barrier for switching that prevents the material from reaching its ground state after poling. We find that field-driven polarization reversal and spontaneous depolarization have orders of magnitude different switching kinetics. For the former, which determines the coercive field and is relevant for data writing, nucleation occurs at the electrodes, whereas for the latter, which governs data retention, nucleation occurs at disorder-induced defects. As a result, by reducing the disorder in the system, the polarization retention time can be increased dramatically while the coercive field remains unchanged.

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  • 3.
    Cornelissen, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Microscopic model for switching kinetics in organic ferroelectrics following the Merz law2020In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 101, no 21, article id 214301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an application perspective, one of the most important parameters of a ferroelectric is its switching time, and understanding its limiting factors is key to improve device performance. While there is a variety of competing models for switching kinetics in realistic (disordered) ferroelectrics, they are often merely descriptive and provide little insight into the underlying microscopic mechanisms. This holds in particular for the classical Merz law, which describes the commonly observed exponential field dependence of the switching time. Here, we investigate the switching kinetics in the archetypical molecular ferroelectric trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide using an electrostatic kinetic Monte Carlo model. The simulated field dependence follows the Merz law, which shows that a simple system of interacting dipoles is sufficient to obtain this behavior, even without explicitly considering domain walls or defects that are commonly thought to be involved in the emergence of the Merz law. Through a detailed analysis of the nucleation process, we can relate the macroscopic switching time to the microscopic nucleation energy barrier, which in turn is related to a field-dependent nucleus size. Finally, we use the acquired insight into the nucleation process to derive the Merz law from the theory of thermally activated nucleation-limited switching. This analytical model provides a physically transparent description of the switching kinetics in both experiments and simulations.

  • 4.
    Gorbunov, A. V.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Putzeys, T.
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janssen, R. A. J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wubbenhorst, M.
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Sijbesma, R. P.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    True ferroelectric switching in thin films of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA)2016In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 18, no 34, p. 23663-23672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the ferroelectric polarization switching properties of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA), which is a model system for a large class of novel organic ferroelectric materials. In the solid state BTAs form a liquid crystalline columnar hexagonal phase that provides long range order that was previously shown to give rise to hysteretic dipolar switching. In this work the nature of the polar switching process is investigated by a combination of dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, depth-resolved pyroelectric response measurements, and classical frequency- and time-dependent electrical switching. We show that BTAs, when brought in a homeotropically aligned hexagonal liquid crystalline phase, are truly ferroelectric. Analysis of the transient switching behavior suggests that the ferroelectric switching is limited by a highly dispersive nucleation process, giving rise to a wide distribution of switching times.

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  • 5.
    Gorbunov, Andrey V.
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Haedler, Andreas T.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Putzeys, Tristan
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Zha, R. Helen
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Schmidt, Hans-Werner
    University of Bayreuth, Germany.
    Kivala, Milan
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wubbenhorst, Michael
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Meijer, E. W.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Switchable Charge Injection Barrier in an Organic Supramolecular Semiconductor2016In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 24, p. 15535-15542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We disclose a supramolecular material that combines semiconducting and dipolar functionalities. The material consists of a discotic semiconducting carbonyl-bridged triarylamine core, which is surrounded by three dipolar amide groups. In thin films, the material self-organizes in a hexagonal columnar fashion through Jr-stacking of the molecular core and hydrogen bonding between the amide groups. Alignment by an electrical field in a simple metal/semiconductor/metal geometry induces a polar order in the interface layers near the metal contacts that can be reversibly switched, while the bulk material remains nonpolarized. On suitably chosen electrodes, the presence of an interfacial polarization field leads to a modulation of the barrier for charge injection into the semiconductor. Consequently, a reversible switching is possible between a high-resistance, injection-limited off-state and a low-resistance, space-charge-limited on-state. The resulting memory diode shows switchable rectification with on/off ratios of up to two orders of magnitude. This demonstrated multifunctionality of a single material is a promising concept toward possible application in lowcost, large-area, nonvolatile organic memories.

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  • 6.
    Gorbunov, AV
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Meng, X
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Putzeys, T
    KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Wübbenhorst, M
    KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Sijbesma, RP
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Polarization loss in the organic ferroelectrictrialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA)2017In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 3192-3200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the polarization loss in the archetypical molecular organic ferroelectric trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA). We prove that the polarization loss is due to thermally activated R-relaxation,which is a collective reversal of the amide dipole moments in ferroelectric domains. By applying a weakelectrostatic field both the polarization loss and the R-relaxation are suppressed, leading to anenhancement of the retention time by at least several orders of magnitude. Alternative loss mechanismsare discussed and ruled out. By operating the thin-film devices slightly above the crystalline to liquidcrystalline phase transition temperature the retention time of one compound becomes more than12 hours even in absence of supportive bias, which is among the longest reported so far for organicferroelectric materials.

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  • 7. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Multifunctional Supramolecular Organic Ferroelectrics2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ferroelectric materials are known and valued for their multifunctionality arising from the possibility to perturb the remnant ferroelectric polarization by electric field, temperature and/or mechanical stimuli. While inorganic ferroelectrics dominate the current market, their organic counterparts may provide highly desired properties like eco-friendliness, easy processability and flexibility, concomitantly opening unique opportunities to combine multiple functionalities into a single compound that facilitates unprecedented device concepts and designs. Supramolecular organic ferroelectrics of columnar discotic type, that are the topic of this thesis, offer additional advantages related to their strong hierarchical self-assembly and easy tunability by molecular structure modifications, allowing optimization of ferroelectric characteristics and their hybridization with, e.g., semiconductivity. This not only leads to textbook ferroelectric materials that can be used as model systems to understand the general behaviour of ferroics, but also gives rise to previously unobserved effects stemming from the interplay of different functionalities.

    The core-shell structure of the molecules under the scope enables multiple pathways forrational design by molecular structure modification. This was firstly pursued via peripheral tail engineering on an archetypal self-assembling ferroelectric trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA). We found that by shortening the alkyl chain length all the ferroelectric properties can be continuously tuned. In particular, changing the tail from C18H37 to C6H13causes an increase in depolarization activation energy (~0.8 eV to ~1.55 eV), coercive field(~25 V/μm to ~50 V/μm) and remnant polarization (~20 mC/m2 to ~60 mC/m2). The combination of the mentioned characteristics resulted in a record polarization retention time of close to 3 months at room temperature for capacitor devices of the material having the shortest alkyl chain – BTA-C6, which at the time of writing was one of the best results for liquid-crystalline ferroelectrics.

    Taking one step further, we experimentally demonstrated how introduction of branched-tailsubstituents results in materials with a wide operating temperature range and a data retention time of more than 10 years in thin-film solution-processed capacitor devices already atelevated temperatures with no measurable depolarization at room temperature. The observed differences between linear- and branched-tail compounds were analysed using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We concluded that morphological factors like improved packing quality and reduced disorder, rather than electrostatic interactions or intra/inter-columnar steric hindrance, underlay the superior properties of the branched-tailed BTAs. Synergistic effects upon blending of compounds with branched and linear sidechains were shown to further improve the materials’ characteristics.

    Exploiting the excellent ferroelectric performance and the well-defined nanostructure of BTAs, we experimentally determined the Preisach (hysteron) distribution of BTA and confronted it to the one obtained for the semi-crystalline P(VDF:TrFE). This allowed to elucidate how the broadening of the Preisach distribution relates to the materials’ morphology. We further connected the experimental Preisach distribution to the corresponding microscopic switching kinetics. We argue that the combination of the two underlays the macroscopic dispersive switching kinetics as commonly observed for practical ferroelectrics. These insights lead to guidelines for further advancement of ferroelectric materials both for conventional and multi-bit data storage applications.

    Although having strong differences in the Preisach distribution, BTA and P(VDF:TrFE) both demonstrate negative piezoelectricity – a rare anomalous phenomenon which is characteristic to two-phased materials and has never been observed in small-molecular ferroelectrics. We measured a pronounced negative piezoelectric effect in a whole family of BTAs and revealed its tunability by mesogenic tail substitution and structural disorder. While the large- and small-signal strain in highly ordered thin-film BTA capacitor devices are dominated by intrinsic contributions and originates from piezostriction, rising disorder introduces additional extrinsic factors that boost the large-signal d33 up to −20 pm/V in short-tailed molecules. Interestingly, homologues with longer mesogenic tails show a large-signal electromechanical response that is dominated by the quadratic Maxwell strain with significant mechanical softening upon polarization switching, whereas the small-signal strain remains piezostrictive. Molecular dynamics and DFT calculations both predict a positive d33 for defect-free BTA stacks. Hence, the measured negative macroscopic d33 is attributed to the presence of structural defects that enable the dimensional effect to dominate the piezoelectric response of BTA thin films.

    The true multifunctionality of supramolecular discotics manifests when large semiconducting cores surrounded by field-switchable strongly polar moieties are introduced in the structure. We showed how the combination of switchable dipolar side groups and the semiconducting core of the newly synthetized C3-symmetric benzotristhiophene molecule (BTTTA) leads to an ordered columnar material showing continuous tunability from injection- to bulk-limited conductivity modulation. Both these resistive switching mechanisms may lead to the next-generation high-density non-volatile rewritable memory devices with high on/off ratios and non-destructive data readout – the element that has been desperately sought after to enablefully organic flexible electronics.

    List of papers
    1. Tuning the Ferroelectric Properties of Trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tuning the Ferroelectric Properties of Trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA)
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    2017 (English)In: Advanced Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 3, no 7, article id 1600530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates how simple structural modification of a prototypical organic ferroelectric molecule can be used to tune its key ferroelectric properties. In particular, it is found that shortening the alkyl chain length of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) from C18H37 to C6H13 causes an increase in depolarization activation energy (approximate to 1.1-1.55 eV), coercive field (approximate to 25-40 V mu m(-1)), and remnant polarization (approximate to 20-70 mC m(-2)). As the polarization enhancement far exceeds the geometrically expected factor, these observations are attributed to an increase in the intercolumnar interaction. The combination of the mentioned characteristics results in a record polarization retention time of close to three months at room temperature for capacitor devices of the material having the shortest alkyl chain. The long retention and the remnant polarization that is as high as that of P(VDF:TrFE) distinguish the BTA-C6 material from other small molecular organic ferroelectrics and make it a perspective choice for applications that require cheap, flexible, and lightweight ferroelectrics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY, 2017
    Keywords
    alkyl chains; benzene-1, 3, 5-tricarboxamide; ferroelectric memories; organic ferroelectrics; polarization retention
    National Category
    Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139615 (URN)10.1002/aelm.201600530 (DOI)000405205300005 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|NWO Nano program; Vetenskapsradet; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at the Linkping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]

    Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2021-06-11
    2. Suppressing depolarization by tail substitution in an organic supramolecular ferroelectric
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Suppressing depolarization by tail substitution in an organic supramolecular ferroelectric
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    2019 (English)In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2069-2079Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite being very well established in the field of electro-optics, ferroelectric liquid crystals so far lacked interest from a ferroelectric device perspective due to a typically high operating temperature, a modest remnant polarization and/or poor polarization retention. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how simple structural modification of a prototypical ferroelectric liquid-crystal benzene-1,3,5-trisamide (BTA) - introduction of branched-tail substituents - results in materials with a wide operating temperature range and a data retention time of more than 10 years in thin-film solution-processed capacitor devices at room temperature. The observed differences between linear- and branched-tail compounds are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We conclude that morphological factors like improved packing quality and reduced disorder, rather than electrostatic interactions or intra/inter-columnar steric hindrance, underlay the superior properties of the branched-tailed BTAs. Synergistic effects upon blending of compounds with branched and linear side-chains can be used to further improve the materials characteristics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2019
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155600 (URN)10.1039/c8cp06315j (DOI)000459584100039 ()30638230 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Vetenskapsradet; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; SeRC (Swedish e-Science Research Center)

    Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-10-24
    3. Physical reality of the Preisach model for organic ferroelectrics
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical reality of the Preisach model for organic ferroelectrics
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    2018 (English)In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4409Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Preisach model has been a cornerstone in the fields of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity since its inception. It describes a real, non-ideal, ferroic material as the sum of a distribution of ideal hysterons. However, the physical reality of the model in ferroelectrics has been hard to establish. Here, we experimentally determine the Preisach (hysteron) distribution for two ferroelectric systems and show how its broadening directly relates to the materials morphology. We connect the Preisach distribution to measured microscopic switching kinetics that underlay the macroscopic dispersive switching kinetics as commonly observed for practical ferroelectrics. The presented results reveal that the in principle mathematical construct of the Preisach model has a strong physical basis and is a powerful tool to explain polarization switching at all time scales in different types of ferroelectrics. These insights lead to guidelines for further advancement of the ferroelectric materials both for conventional and multi-bit data storage applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
    National Category
    Other Physics Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152613 (URN)10.1038/s41467-018-06717-w (DOI)000448044300007 ()30352995 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Vetenskapsradet; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [200900971]

    Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2023-03-28
    4. Negative piezoelectric effect in an organic supramolecular ferroelectric
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative piezoelectric effect in an organic supramolecular ferroelectric
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    2019 (English)In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 6, p. 1688-1698Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of ferroelectric materials demonstrate a positive piezoelectric effect. Theoretically, the negative piezoelectric coefficient d33 could be found in certain classes of ferroelectrics, yet in practice, the number of materials showing linear longitudinal contraction with increasing applied field (d33 < 0) is limited to few ferroelectric polymers. Here, we measure a pronounced negative piezoelectric effect in the family of organic ferroelectric small-molecular BTAs (trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides), which can be tuned by mesogenic tail substitution and structural disorder. While the large- and small-signal strain in highly-ordered thin-film BTA capacitor devices are dominated by intrinsic contributions and originates from piezostriction, rising disorder introduces additional extrinsic factors that boost the large-signal d33 up to −20 pm V’1 in short-tailed molecules. Interestingly, homologues with longer mesogenic tails show a large-signal electromechanical response that is dominated by the quadratic Maxwell strain with significant mechanical softening upon polarization switching, whereas the small-signal strain remains piezostrictive. Molecular dynamics and DFT calculations both predict a positive d33 for defect-free BTA stacks. Hence, the measured negative macroscopic d33 is attributed to the presence of structural defects that enable the dimensional effect to dominate the piezoelectric response of BTA thin films.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
    National Category
    Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Condensed Matter Physics Theoretical Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160355 (URN)10.1039/C9MH00094A (DOI)000486213200010 ()
    Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
    5. Resistive switching in an organic supramolecular semiconducting ferroelectric
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resistive switching in an organic supramolecular semiconducting ferroelectric
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 55, no 60, p. 8828-8831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of switchable dipolar side groups and the semiconducting core of the newly synthetized C-3-symmetric benzotrithiophene molecule (BTTTA) leads to an ordered columnar material showing continuous tunability from injection- to bulk-limited conductivity modulation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, 2019
    National Category
    Inorganic Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159550 (URN)10.1039/c9cc02466b (DOI)000476956800019 ()31140995 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|MINECO, Spain [CTQ2017-85393-P]; Vetenskapsradet; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]

    Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-08-13 Last updated: 2019-12-30
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  • 8.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bhattacharjee, Subham
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Biler, Michal
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Lugger, Jody A. M.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Cornelissen, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norman, Patrick
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Linares, Mathieu
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Sijbesma, Rint P.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Suppressing depolarization by tail substitution in an organic supramolecular ferroelectric2019In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 2069-2079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite being very well established in the field of electro-optics, ferroelectric liquid crystals so far lacked interest from a ferroelectric device perspective due to a typically high operating temperature, a modest remnant polarization and/or poor polarization retention. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how simple structural modification of a prototypical ferroelectric liquid-crystal benzene-1,3,5-trisamide (BTA) - introduction of branched-tail substituents - results in materials with a wide operating temperature range and a data retention time of more than 10 years in thin-film solution-processed capacitor devices at room temperature. The observed differences between linear- and branched-tail compounds are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We conclude that morphological factors like improved packing quality and reduced disorder, rather than electrostatic interactions or intra/inter-columnar steric hindrance, underlay the superior properties of the branched-tailed BTAs. Synergistic effects upon blending of compounds with branched and linear side-chains can be used to further improve the materials characteristics.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cornelissen, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meng, Xiao
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Sijbesma, Rint P.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Physical reality of the Preisach model for organic ferroelectrics2018In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Preisach model has been a cornerstone in the fields of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity since its inception. It describes a real, non-ideal, ferroic material as the sum of a distribution of ideal hysterons. However, the physical reality of the model in ferroelectrics has been hard to establish. Here, we experimentally determine the Preisach (hysteron) distribution for two ferroelectric systems and show how its broadening directly relates to the materials morphology. We connect the Preisach distribution to measured microscopic switching kinetics that underlay the macroscopic dispersive switching kinetics as commonly observed for practical ferroelectrics. The presented results reveal that the in principle mathematical construct of the Preisach model has a strong physical basis and is a powerful tool to explain polarization switching at all time scales in different types of ferroelectrics. These insights lead to guidelines for further advancement of the ferroelectric materials both for conventional and multi-bit data storage applications.

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  • 10.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Garcia-Iglesias, Miguel
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands; Univ Cantabria, Spain.
    Gorbunov, Andrey
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Meijer, E. W.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands; Eindhoven Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Heidelberg Univ, Germany.
    Ferro- and ferrielectricity and negative piezoelectricity in thioamide-based supramolecular organic discotics2023In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, no 25, p. 16930-16937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Amide-based discotic supramolecular organic materials are of interest for fundamental understanding of cooperative self-assembly and collective dipole switching mechanisms as well as for practically relevant ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Here, we show how replacing amides (dipole moment of similar to 3.5 D) with thioamides (similar to 5.1 D) as dipolar moieties in the archetypal C-3-symmetric discotic molecule BTA leads to ferroelectric materials with a higher remnant polarization and lower coercive field. The thioamide-based materials also demonstrate a rare negative piezoelectricity and a previously predicted, yet never experimentally observed, polarization reversal via asymmetric intermediate states, that is, ferrielectric switching.

  • 11.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meng, Xiao
    Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands .
    Biler, Michal
    Department of Chemistry – BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wei, Yingfen
    Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands .
    Cornelissen, Tim D.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bhattacharjee, Subham
    Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Linares, Mathieu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Negative piezoelectric effect in an organic supramolecular ferroelectric2019In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, Vol. 6, p. 1688-1698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast majority of ferroelectric materials demonstrate a positive piezoelectric effect. Theoretically, the negative piezoelectric coefficient d33 could be found in certain classes of ferroelectrics, yet in practice, the number of materials showing linear longitudinal contraction with increasing applied field (d33 < 0) is limited to few ferroelectric polymers. Here, we measure a pronounced negative piezoelectric effect in the family of organic ferroelectric small-molecular BTAs (trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides), which can be tuned by mesogenic tail substitution and structural disorder. While the large- and small-signal strain in highly-ordered thin-film BTA capacitor devices are dominated by intrinsic contributions and originates from piezostriction, rising disorder introduces additional extrinsic factors that boost the large-signal d33 up to −20 pm V’1 in short-tailed molecules. Interestingly, homologues with longer mesogenic tails show a large-signal electromechanical response that is dominated by the quadratic Maxwell strain with significant mechanical softening upon polarization switching, whereas the small-signal strain remains piezostrictive. Molecular dynamics and DFT calculations both predict a positive d33 for defect-free BTA stacks. Hence, the measured negative macroscopic d33 is attributed to the presence of structural defects that enable the dimensional effect to dominate the piezoelectric response of BTA thin films.

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    Negative piezoelectric effect in an organic supramolecular ferroelectric
  • 12.
    Urbanaviciute, Indre
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meng, Xiao
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Cornelissen, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gorbunov, Andrey V.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Bhattacharjee, Subham
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Sijbesma, Rint P.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kemerink, Martijn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Complex Materials and Devices. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tuning the Ferroelectric Properties of Trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA)2017In: Advanced Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 3, no 7, article id 1600530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates how simple structural modification of a prototypical organic ferroelectric molecule can be used to tune its key ferroelectric properties. In particular, it is found that shortening the alkyl chain length of trialkylbenzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) from C18H37 to C6H13 causes an increase in depolarization activation energy (approximate to 1.1-1.55 eV), coercive field (approximate to 25-40 V mu m(-1)), and remnant polarization (approximate to 20-70 mC m(-2)). As the polarization enhancement far exceeds the geometrically expected factor, these observations are attributed to an increase in the intercolumnar interaction. The combination of the mentioned characteristics results in a record polarization retention time of close to three months at room temperature for capacitor devices of the material having the shortest alkyl chain. The long retention and the remnant polarization that is as high as that of P(VDF:TrFE) distinguish the BTA-C6 material from other small molecular organic ferroelectrics and make it a perspective choice for applications that require cheap, flexible, and lightweight ferroelectrics.

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