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  • 1.
    Ao, Xiang
    et al.
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Jiang, Jianjun
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Ruan, Yunjun
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Li, Zhishan
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yi
    Wuhan Institute Technology, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chundong
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China; Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China.
    Honeycomb-inspired design of ultrafine SnO2@C nanospheres embedded in carbon film as anode materials for high performance lithium- and sodium-ion battery2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 359, 340-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tin oxide (SnO2) has been considered as one of the most promising anodes for advanced rechargeable batteries due to its advantages such as high energy density, earth abundance and environmental friendly. However, its large volume change during the Li-Sn/Na-Sn alloying and de-alloying processes will result in a fast capacity degradation over a long term cycling. To solve this issue, in this work we design and synthesize a novel honeycomb-like composite composing of carbon encapsulated SnO2 nanospheres embedded in carbon film by using dual templates of SiO2 and NaCl. Using these composites as anodes both in lithium ion batteries and sodium-ion batteries, no discernable capacity degradation is observed over hundreds of long term cycles at both low current density (100 mA g(-1)) and high current density (500 mA g(-1)). Such a good cyclic stability and high delivered capacity have been attributed to the high conductivity of the supported carbon film and hollow encapsulated carbon shells, which not only provide enough space to accommodate the volume expansion but also prevent further aggregation of SnO2 nanoparticles upon cycling. By engineering electrodes of accommodating high volume expansion, we demonstrate a prototype to achieve high performance batteries, especially high-power batteries. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-06-09 14:10
  • 2.
    Collaert, N.
    et al.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Alian, A.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Arimura, H.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Boccardi, G.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Eneman, G.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Franco, J.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Ivanov, Ts.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Lin, D.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Loo, R.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Merckling, C.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Mitard, J.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Pourghaderi, M. A.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Rooyackers, R.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Sioncke, S.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Sun, J. W.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Vandooren, A.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Veloso, A.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Verhulst, A.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Waldron, N.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Witters, L.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Zhou, D.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Barla, K.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Thean, A. V. -Y
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Ultimate nano-electronics: New materials and device concepts for scaling nano-electronics beyond the Si roadmap2015In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 132, 218-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract In this work, we will give an overview of the innovations in materials and new device concepts that will be needed to continue Moore’s law to the sub-10 nm technology nodes. To meet the power and performance requirements high mobility materials in combination with new device concepts like tunnel FETs and gate-all-around devices will need to be introduced. As the density is further increased and it becomes increasingly difficult to put contacts, spacers and gate in the available gate pitch, disruptive integration schemes such as vertical transistors and monolithic 3D integration might lead the way to the ultimate scaling of CMOS.

  • 3.
    Gavryushin, V.
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania .
    Gulbinas, K
    Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania .
    Grivickas, V.
    Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania .
    Karaliunas, M.
    Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania .
    Stasiūpnas, M.
    Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania .
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Examination of Photoluminescence Temperature Dependencies in N-B Co-doped 6H-SiC2014In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 56, no 1, 012003- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two overlapping photoluminescent (PL) bands with a peaks (half-width) at 1.95 eV (0.45 eV) and 2.15 eV (0.25 eV), correspondingly at 300 K, are observed in heavily B-N co-doped 6H-SiC epilayers under high-level excitation condition. The low energy band dominates at low temperatures and decreases towards 300 K which is assigned to DAP emission from the nitrogen trap to the deep boron (dB) with phonon-assistance. The 2.15 eV band slightly increases with temperature and becomes comparable with the former one at 300 K. We present a modelling comprising electron de-trapping from the N-trap, i.e. calculating trapping and de-trapping probabilities. The T-dependence of the 2.15 eV band can be explained by free electron emission from the conduction band into the dB center provided by similar phonon-assistance

  • 4.
    Grivickas, V.
    et al.
    Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania .
    Gulbinas, K
    Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania .
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karaliunas, M.
    Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Kamiyama, Satoshi
    Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan .
    Linnarsson, Margareta
    Kaiser, Michl
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carrier Lifetimes and Influence of In-Grown Defects in N-B Co-Doped 6H-SiC2014In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 56, no 1, 012004- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thick N-B co-doped epilayers were grown by the fast sublimation growth method and the depth-resolved carrier lifetimes have been investigated by means of the free-carrier absorption (FCA) decay under perpendicular probe-pump measurement geometry. In some samples, we optically reveal in-grown carbon inclusions and polycrystalline defects of substantial concentration and show that these defects slow down excess carrier lifetime and prevent donor-acceptor pair photo luminescence (DAP PL). A pronounced electron lifetime reduction when injection level approaches the doping level was observed. It is caused by diffusion driven non-radiative recombination. However, the influence of surface recombination is small and insignificant at 300 K.

  • 5.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hens, P.
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Liljedahl, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kaiser, M.
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Wellmann, P.
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
    Sano, S.
    ADMAP INC. 16-2, Tamahara 3-chome, Tamano, Okayama.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kamiyama, S.
    Meijo University, Nagoya .
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of source material on epitaxial growth of fluorescent SiC2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 522, 7-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of fluorescent SiC using Fast Sublimation Growth Process was demonstrated using different types of SiC source materials. These were prepared by (i) high-temperature hot pressing, (ii) chemical vapor deposition and (iii) physical vapor transport. The optimized growth rates of 50 μm/h, 170 μm/h and 200 μm/h were achieved using the three types of sources, respectively. The best results in respect to growth rates are obtained using higher density sources. Fluorescent SiC layers with mirror-like morphology, very good crystal quality and yellowish or warm white light photoluminescence at room temperature were grown using all three types of the source materials.

  • 6.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Growth optimization and applicability of thick on-axis SiC layers using sublimation epitaxy in vacuum2016In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 448, 51-57 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate growth of thick SiC layers (100–200 µm) on nominally on-axis hexagonal substrates using sublimation epitaxy in vacuum (10−5 mbar) at temperatures varying from 1700 to 1975 °C with growth rates up to 270 µm/h and 70 µm/h for 6H- and 4H–SiC, respectively. The stability of hexagonal polytypes are related to process growth parameters and temperature profile which can be engineered using different thermal insulation materials and adjustment of the induction coil position with respect to the graphite crucible. We show that there exists a range of growth rates for which single-hexagonal polytype free of foreign polytype inclusions can be maintained. Further on, foreign polytypes like 3C–SiC can be stabilized by moving out of the process window. The applicability of on-axis growth is demonstrated by growing a 200 µm thick homoepitaxial 6H–SiC layer co-doped with nitrogen and boron in a range of 1018 cm−3 at a growth rate of about 270 µm/h. Such layers are of interest as a near UV to visible light converters in a monolithic white light emitting diode concept, where subsequent nitride-stack growth benefits from the on-axis orientation of the SiC layer.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-05-13 11:40
  • 7.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yazdi, Gholam Reza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Philipp, Schuh
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Wilhelm, Martin
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Single Domain 3C-SiC Growth on Off-Oriented 4H-SiC Substrates2015In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 15, no 6, 2940-2947 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the formation of structural defects in thick (∼1 mm) cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) layers grown on off-oriented 4H-SiC substrates via a lateral enlargement mechanism using different growth conditions. A two-step growth process based on this technique was developed, which provides a trade-off between the growth rate and the number of defects in the 3C-SiC layers. Moreover, we demonstrated that the two-step growth process combined with a geometrically controlled lateral enlargement mechanism allows the formation of a single 3C-SiC domain which enlarges and completely covers the substrate surface. High crystalline quality of the grown 3C-SiC layers is confirmed using high resolution X-ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence measurements.

  • 8.
    Kwasnicki, Pawel
    et al.
    CNRS, L2C UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peyre, H.
    Université Montpellier 2, L2C UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France .
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Camasse, J.
    CNRS, L2C UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France .
    Juillaguet, S.
    Université Montpellier 2, L2C UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France .
    Optical investigation of 3C-SiC hetero-epitaxial layers grown by sublimation epitaxy under gas atmosphere2014In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, Vol. 778-780, 243-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated three 3C-SiC samples grown on 6H SiC substrate by sublimation epitaxy under gas atmosphere. We focus on the low temperature photoluminescence and Raman measurements to show that compare to a growth process under vacuum atmosphere, the gas atmosphere favor the incorporation of impurities at already existing and/or newly created defect sites.

  • 9.
    Loo, Roger
    et al.
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Witters, Liesbeth
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Hikavyy, Andriy
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Vincent, Benjamin
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Shimura, Yosuke
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium / Celestijnenlaan 200D, B - 3001, Belgium / FWO Pegasus Marie Curie Fellow.
    Favia, Paola
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Richard, Olivier
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Bender, Hugo
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Vandervorst, Wilfried
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Collaert, Nadine
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Thean, Aaron
    Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B- 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Strained Ge FinFET structures fabricated by selective epitaxial growth2014In: Silicon-Germanium Technology and Device Meeting (ISTDM), 2014 7th International, 2014, 19-20 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A one-growth step fabrication scheme for strained Ge FinFET structures has been successfully developed and implemented in a device fabrication scheme. From device point of view, the concept including two growth steps might be even more favorable. However, it requires an improvement of the pre-epi oxide removal from Si1-xGex surfaces.

  • 10.
    Lorenzzi, J.
    et al.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne CEDEX 69622, France.
    Zoulis, G.
    Groupe d’Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR 5650, CNRS and Université Montpellier 2, cc 074-GES, Montpellier CEDEX 5, 34095, France.
    Marinova, M.
    Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54 124, Greece.
    Kim-Hak, O.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne CEDEX 69622, France.
    Sun, J. W.
    Groupe d’Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR 5650, CNRS and Université Montpellier 2, cc 074-GES, Montpellier CEDEX 5, 34095, France.
    Jegenyes, N.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne CEDEX 69622, France.
    Peyre, H.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne CEDEX 69622, France.
    Cauwet, F.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne CEDEX 69622, France.
    Chaudouët, P.
    Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS UMR 5628, Minatec Grenoble-INP, 3 parvis Louis Néel, BP 257, Grenoble CEDEX 01, 38016, France.
    Soueidan, M.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne CEDEX 69622, France.
    Carole, D.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne CEDEX 69622, France.
    Camassel, J.
    Groupe d’Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR 5650, CNRS and Université Montpellier 2, cc 074-GES, Montpellier CEDEX 5, 34095, France.
    Polychroniadis, E. K.
    Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki GR-54 124, Greece.
    Ferro, G.
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR 5615, Laboratoire des Multimatériaux et Interfaces 43 Bd du 11 Novembre 1918, Villeurbanne CEDEX 69622, France.
    Incorporation of group III, IV and V elements in 3C–SiC(1 1 1) layers grown by the vapour–liquid–solid mechanism2010In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 312, no 23, 3443-3450 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a comparative investigation of the incorporation of group III, IV and V impurities in 3C–SiC heteroepitaxial layers grown by the vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) mechanism on on-axis α-SiC substrates. To this end, various Si-based melts have been used with addition of Al, Ga, Ge and Sn species. Homoepitaxial α-SiC layers grown using Al-based melts were used for comparison purposed for Al incorporation. Nitrogen incorporation depth profile systematically displays an overshoot at the substrate/epilayer interface for all the layers. Ga and Al incorporations follow the same distribution shape as N whereas this is not the case for the isoelectronic impurities Ge and Sn. This suggests some interaction between Ga/Al and N coming from the high bonding energy between the group III and V elements, which does not exist with Ge and Sn. This is why both incorporate as a cluster. A model of incorporation is proposed taking into account metal-N and metal-C bonding energies together with the solid solubility of the corresponding nitrides.

  • 11.
    Ma, Quanbao
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Carvalho, Patricia
    SINTEF.
    Galeckas, Augustinas
    University of Oslo.
    Alexander, Azarov
    University of Oslo.
    Hovden, Sigurd
    SINTEF.
    Thøgersen, Annett
    SINTEF.
    Wright, Daniel N.
    SINTEF ICT.
    Diplas, Spyros
    SINTEF.
    Løvvik, Ole M.
    SINTEF.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Bengt G.
    University of Oslo.
    Characterization of B-Implanted 3C-SiC for Intermediate Band Solar Cells2017In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 897, 299-302 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sublimation-grown 3C-SiC crystals were implanted with B ions at elevated temperature (400 °C) using multiple energies (100 to 575 keV) with a total dose of 1.3×1017 atoms/cm2 in order to form intermediate band (IB) in 3C-SiC. The samples were then annealed at 1400 °C for 60 min. An anomalous area in the center was observed in the PL emission pattern. The SIMS analysis indicated that the B concentration was the same both within and outside the anomalous area. The buried boron box-like concentration profile can reach ~3×1021 cm-3 in the plateau region. In the anomalous area a broad emission band (possible IB) emerges at around ~1.7-1.8 eV, which may be associated with B-precipitates having a sufficiently high density.

  • 12.
    Ma, Quanbao
    et al.
    University of Oslo.
    Galeckas, Augustinas
    University of Oslo.
    Alexander, Azarov
    University of Oslo.
    Thøgersen, Annett
    SINTEF.
    Carvalho, Patricia
    SINTEF.
    Wright, Daniel N.
    SINTEF ICT.
    Diplas, Spyros
    SINTEF.
    Løvvik, Ole M.
    SINTEF.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Bengt G.
    University of Oslo.
    Boron-implanted 3C-SiC for intermediate band solar cells2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sublimation-grown 3C-SiC crystals were implanted with 2 atomic percent of boron ions at elevated temperature (400 °C) using multiple energies (100 to 575 keV) with a total dose of 8.5×1016 atoms/cm2. The samples were then annealed at 1400, 1500 and 1600 °C for 1h at each temperature. The buried boron box-like concentration profile can reach ~2×1021 cm-3 in the plateau region. The optical activity of the incorporated boron atoms was deduced from the evolution in absorption and emission spectra, indicating possible pathway for achieving an intermediate band behavior in boron doped 3C-SiC at sufficiently high dopant concentrations.                    

  • 13.
    Marinova, Maya
    et al.
    Thessaloniki , Greece.
    Andreadou, A.
    Thessaloniki , Greece.
    Sun, JianWu
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Lorenzzi, J.
    Villeurbanne; France.
    Mantzari, A.
    Thessaloniki , Greece.
    Zoulis, Georgios
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Jegenyes, Nikoletta
    Villeurbanne; France.
    Juillaguet, Sandrine
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Soulière, Veronique
    Villeurbanne; France.
    Ferro, G.
    Villeurbanne; France.
    Camassel, Jean
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Polychroniadis, Efstathios K.
    Thessaloniki , Greece.
    Influence of Post-Growth Annealing on the Defects Nature and Distribution in VLS Grown (111) 3C-SiC Layers2011In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2010, 2011, Vol. 679, 241-244 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current communication focuses on the influence of a post-growth annealing on the evolution of defects inside (111) 3C-SiC layers grown by the Vapour Liquid Solid (VLS) mechanism in SiGe melts on Si-face on- and off axis 6H-SiC substrates. The layers are studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Low Temperature Photoluminescence (LTPL). It was found that the growth on off-axis substrates results in a 3C-SiC layer containing mainly stacking faults (SFs) and microtwins (MT). The density of MT lamellae and SFs reduces in the layers grown on the on-axis substrate compared to off-axis substrate. In the layers grown on off-axis substrates the annealing strongly reduces the density of SFs inclined to the 3C/6H-SiC interface. Additionally, 3C to 6H polytypic transformation appears only at the interface, most probably starting from substrate step edges. This was only seen on off-axis seed since the step edges are more.

  • 14.
    Marinova, Maya
    et al.
    Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Mantzari, A.
    Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Montpellier Cedex, France.
    Lorenzzi, J.
    Villeurbanne, France.
    Andreadou, A.
    Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Zoulis, G.
    Montpellier Cedex, France.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Montpellier Cedex, France.
    Ferro, G.
    Villeurbanne, France.
    Camassel, J.
    Montpellier Cedex, France.
    Polychroniadis, E.K
    Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Structural and Optical Investigation of VLS Grown (111) 3C-SiC Layers on 6H-SiC Substrates in Sn-Based Melts2011In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2010, 2011, Vol. 679, 165-168 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current communication focuses on the investigation of 3C-SiC layers grown by the Vapour-Liquid-Solid mechanism on on-axis Si-face 6H-SiC substrates in SiSn melts with different compositions and at different growth temperatures. The layers are studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Low Temperature Photoluminescence. It was found that for melts with Sn concentration higher than 60 at% large Sn-related precipitates are formed. The depth distribution of the Sn precipitates strongly depends not only on the melt composition but also on the growth temperature. Their formation strongly influences the stacking fault density and the dopant incorporation in the layers. Lower Sn concentrations combined with higher growth temperatures should result in 3C-SiC layer with enhanced structural quality.

  • 15.
    Ou, Haiyan
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Ou, Yiyu
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Argyraki, Aikaterini
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Schimmel, Saskia
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany .
    Kaiser, Michl
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany .
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany .
    Linnarsson, Margareta
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Advances in wide bandgap SiC for optoelectronics2014In: European Physical Journal B: Condensed Matter Physics, ISSN 1434-6028, E-ISSN 1434-6036, Vol. 87, 58- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon carbide (SiC) has played a key role in power electronics thanks to its unique physical properties like wide bandgap, high breakdown field, etc. During the past decade, SiC is also becoming more and more active in optoelectronics thanks to the progress in materials growth and nanofabrication. This paper will review the advances in fluorescent SiC for white light-emitting diodes, covering the poly-crystalline doped SiC source material growth, single crystalline epitaxy growth of fluorescent SiC, and nanofabrication of SiC to enhance the extraction efficiency for fluorescent SiC based white LEDs.

  • 16.
    Peyre, Hervé
    et al.
    Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Guelfucci, Jude
    Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Juillaguet, Sandrine
    Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Contreras, S.
    CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Brosselard, Pierre
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR-CNRS 5615, UCB-Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France.
    Camassel, Jean
    CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR 5221, F-34095, Montpellier, France.
    Low Temperature Photoluminescence Investigation of 3-Inch SiC Wafers for Power Device Applications2012In: HeteroSiC & WASMPE 2011, 2012, Vol. 711, 164-168 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the change in aluminium-related photoluminescence lines in 4H-SiC versus doping concentration, we have used a combination of LTPL (Low Temperature PhotoLuminescence) and secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements to set new calibration curves. In this way, one can probe the change in aluminum concentration in the range 1017 to 1019 cm-3. When applied to LTPL maps collected on full 3-inch wafers, we show that such abacuses constitute a powerful tool to control efficiently the doping level of as-grown p+ (emitters) and p++ (contact) layers for power device applications.

  • 17.
    Schimmel, Saskia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Erlangen, Germany.
    Kaiser, Michl
    University of Erlangen, Germany.
    Hens, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ou, Yi Yu
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby.
    Ou, Hai Yan
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen, Germany.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Step-flow growth of fluorescent 4H-SiC layers on 4 degree off-axis substrates2013In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2012 / [ed] Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu. Davydov, Pavel A. Ivanov and Mikhail E. Levinshtein, Trans Tech Publications , 2013, Vol. 740-742, 185-188 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homoepitaxial layers of fluorescent 4H-SiC were grown on 4 degree off-axis substrates by sublimation epitaxy. Luminescence in the green spectral range was obtained by co-doping with nitrogen and boron utilizing donor-acceptor pair luminescence. This concept opens possibilities to explore green light emitting diodes using a new materials platform.

  • 18.
    Schimmel, Saskia
    et al.
    University of Erlangen, Germany .
    Kaiser, Michl
    University of Erlangen, Germany .
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ou, Yiyu
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby.
    Hens, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, Margareta K.
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ou, Haiyan
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen, Germany .
    The role of defects in fluorescent silicon carbide layers grown by sublimation epitaxy2014In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 56, no 1, 012002- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a promising light converter for novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LEDs due to its broad-band donor-acceptor pair luminescence and potentially high internal quantum efficiency. Besides sufficiently high doping concentrations in an appropriate ratio yielding short radiative lifetimes, long nonradiative lifetimes are crucial for efficient light conversion. The impact of different types of defects is studied by characterizing fluorescent silicon carbide layers with regard to photoluminescence intensity, homogeneity and efficiency taking into account dislocation density and distribution. Different doping concentrations and variations in gas phase composition and pressure are investigated.

  • 19.
    Sun, J. W.
    et al.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Zoulis, G.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Lorenzzi, J. C.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR‐CNRS 5615, UCB‐Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Jegenyes, N.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR‐CNRS 5615, UCB‐Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Juillaguet, S.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Souliere, V.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR‐CNRS 5615, UCB‐Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Ferro, G.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR‐CNRS 5615, UCB‐Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Camassel, J.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Splitting of close N-€Al donor-€acceptor-€pair spectra in 3C-€SiC2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete series of lines have been observed for many years in N‐Al DAP (Donor Acceptor Pair) spectra in 3C‐SiC. Unfortunately, up to now, there has been no quantitative analysis for the splitting of lines in a given shell. This is done in this work for N‐Al DAP spectra in 3C‐SiC. The samples were non‐intentionally doped 3C‐SiC layers grown by CVD on a VLS seeding layer grown on a 6H‐SiC substrate. From low temperature photoluminescence measurements, strong N‐Al DAP emission bands were observed and, on the high energy side of the zero‐phonon line, we could resolve a series of discrete lines coming from close pairs. Comparing with literature data, we show that the splitting energy for a given shell is constant and, to explain this shell substructure, we consider the non equivalent sets of sites for a given shell. Results are discussed in terms of the ion‐ion interaction containing third and forth multipole terms.

  • 20.
    Sun, J. W.
    et al.
    Groupe d'Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR 5650, CNRS, Université Montpellier 2, cc 074-GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Zoulis, G.
    Groupe d'Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR 5650, CNRS, Université Montpellier 2, cc 074-GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Lorenzzi, J. C.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615, CNRS, UCB-Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Jegenyes, N.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615, CNRS, UCB-Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Peyre, H.
    Groupe d'Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR 5650, CNRS, Université Montpellier 2, cc 074-GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Juillaguet, S.
    Groupe d'Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR 5650, CNRS, Université Montpellier 2, cc 074-GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Souliere, V.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615, CNRS, UCB-Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Milesi, F.
    CEA-LETI/MINATEC, DPTS/SLIDE, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France .
    Ferro, G.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR 5615, CNRS, UCB-Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Camassel, J.
    Groupe d'Etude des Semiconducteurs, UMR 5650, CNRS, Université Montpellier 2, cc 074-GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Combined effects of Ga, N, and Al codoping in solution grown 3C-€“SiC2010In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 108, no 1, 013503-1-013503-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on Ga-doped 3C–SiC epitaxial layers grown on on-axis (0001) 6H–SiC substrates using the vapor-liquid-solid technique and different melts. The resulting samples have been investigated using secondary ion mass spectroscopy(SIMS), micro-Raman spectroscopy and, finally, low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) spectroscopy. From SIMS measurements we find Ga concentrations in the range of , systematically accompanied by high nitrogen content. In good agreement with these findings, the spectra show that the Ga-doped samples are -type, with electron concentrations close to . As expected, the LTPL spectra are dominated by strong N–Ga donor-acceptor pair (DAP) transitions. In one sample, a weak additional N–Al DAP recombination spectrum is also observed, showing the possibility to have accidental codoping with Ga and Al simultaneously. This was confirmed on a non-intentionally doped 3C–SiC (witness) sample on which, apart of the usual N and Al bound exciton lines, a small feature resolved at 2.35 eV comings from neutral Ga bound excitons. Quantitative analyses of the DAP transition energies in the Ga-doped and witness sample gave 346 meV for the optical binding energy of Ga acceptors in 3C–SiC against 251 meV for the Al one. The conditions for the relative observa-tion of Ga and Al related LTPL features are discussed and the demonstration of room temperature luminescence using Ga doping is done.

  • 21.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Camassel, J.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Splitting of type-I (N-B, P-Al) and type-II (N-Al, N-Ga) donor-acceptor pair spectra in 3C-SiC2011In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, Vol. 83, no 19-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete series of lines have been observed for many years in donor-acceptor pair (DAP) spectra in 3C-SiC. In this work, the splitting of both type-I (N-B, P-Al) and type-II (N-Al, N-Ga) DAP spectra in 3C-SiC has been systematically investigated by considering the multipole terms. For type-I spectra, in which either N or B substitutes on C sites or P and Al replace Si, the splitting energy of the substructure for a given shell is almost the same for both pairs. For type-II spectra, in which N is on the C site while Al and Ga acceptors replace Si, we find that, when compared with literature data, the splitting energy for a given shell is almost independent of the identity of the acceptor. For both type-I and type-II spectra, this splitting energy can be successfully explained by the octupole term V 3   alone with k 3    =   −2 × 10 5    Å 4   meV. Comparing the experimental donor and acceptor binding energies with the values calculated by the effective-mass model, this suggests that the shallow donor (N,P) ions can be treated as point charges while the charge distribution of the acceptor ions (Al,Ga,B) is distorted in accord with the T d   point group symmetry, resulting in a considerable value for k 3   . This gives a reasonable explanation for the observed splitting energies for both type-I and type-II DAP spectra.

  • 22.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Considerably long carrier lifetimes in high-quality 3C-SiC(111)2012In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 100, no 25, 252101- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a challenge and consequence due to its metastable nature, cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) has only shown inferior material quality compared with the established hexagonal polytypes. We report on growth of 3C-SiC(111) having a state of the art semiconductor quality in the SiC polytype family. The x-ray diffraction and low temperature photoluminescence measurements show that the cubic structure can indeed reach a very high crystal quality. As an ultimate device property, this material demonstrates a measured carrier lifetime of 8.2 mu s which is comparable with the best carrier lifetime in 4 H-SiC layers. In a 760-mu m thick layer, we show that the interface recombination can be neglected since almost all excess carriers recombines before reaching the interface while the surface recombination significantly reduces the carrier lifetime. In fact, a comparison of experimental lifetimes with numerical simulations indicates that the real bulk lifetime in such high quality 3C-SiC is in the range of 10-15 mu s.

  • 23.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, L.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Booker, Ian Don
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hofmann, J.P.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Hensen, E.J.M.
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Linnarsson, M.
    School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kista, Sweden.
    Wellmann, P.
    Department of Materials Science 6, University of of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 7, Erlangen, Germany.
    Ramiro, I.
    Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Av. De la Complutense 30, Madrid, Spain.
    Marti, A.
    Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Av. De la Complutense 30, Madrid, Spain.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Solar driven energy conversion applications based on 3C-SiC2016In: Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications Ltd , 2016, Vol. 858, 1028-1031 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong and growing worldwide research on exploring renewable energy resources. Solar energy is the most abundant, inexhaustible and clean energy source, but there are profound material challenges to capture, convert and store solar energy. In this work, we explore 3C-SiC as an attractive material towards solar-driven energy conversion applications: (i) Boron doped 3C-SiC as candidate for an intermediate band photovoltaic material, and (ii) 3C-SiC as a photoelectrode for solar-driven water splitting. Absorption spectrum of boron doped 3C-SiC shows a deep energy level at ~0.7 eV above the valence band edge. This indicates that boron doped 3C-SiC may be a good candidate as an intermediate band photovoltaic material, and that bulk like 3C-SiC can have sufficient quality to be a promising electrode for photoelectrochemical water splitting. © 2016 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  • 24.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Université Montpellier 2, France.
    Camassel, J.
    CNRS, Montpellier, France.
    Kamiyama, S.
    Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Room temperature luminescence properties of fluorescent SiC as white light emitting diode medium2012In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 522, 33-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high quantum efficiency of donor–acceptor-pair emission in N and B co-doped 6H–SiC opens the way for SiC to constitute as an efficient light-emitting medium for white light-emitting diodes. In this work, we evidence room temperature luminescence in N and B co-doped 6H–SiC fluorescent material grown by the Fast Sublimation Growth Process. Three series of samples, with eight different N and B doping levels, were investigated. In most samples, from photoluminescence measurements a strong N–B donor–acceptor-pair emission band was observed at room temperature, with intensity dependent on the nitrogen pressure in the growth chamber and boron doping level in the source. Low temperature photoluminescence spectra showed that N bound exciton peaks exhibited a continuous broadening with increasing N2 pressure during the growth, unambiguously indicating an opportunity to control the N doping in the epilayer by conveniently changing the N2 pressure. Finally, the crystal quality of the N and B doped 6H–SiC was evaluated by X-ray diffraction measurements. The ω rocking curves of (0006) Bragg diffractions from the samples grown with lower and higher N2 pressure show almost the same value of the full width at half maximum as that collected from the substrate. This suggests that the N and B doping, which is expected to give rise to an efficient donor–acceptor-pair emission at room temperature, does not degrade the crystal quality.

  • 25.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kamiyama, Satoshi
    Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peyre, H.
    Universite Montpellier 2, France .
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Universite Montpellier 2, France .
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fluorescent silicon carbide as an ultraviolet-to-visible light converter by control of donor to acceptor recombinations2012In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 45, no 23, 235107- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an alternative to the conventional phosphors in white LEDs, a donor and acceptor co-doped fluorescent 6H-SiC can be used as an ultraviolet-to-visible light converter without any need of rare-earth metals. From experimental data we provide an explanation to how light can be obtained at room temperature by a balance of the donors and acceptors. A steady-state recombination rate model is used to demonstrate that the luminescence in fluorescent SiC can be enhanced by controlling the donor and acceptor doping levels. A doping criterion for optimization of this luminescence is thus proposed.

  • 26.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kamiyama, Satoshi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Microsecond carrier lifetimes in bulk-like 3C-SiC grown by sublimation epitaxy2013In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2012 / [ed] Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu. Davydov, Pavel A. Ivanov and Mikhail E. Levinshtein, Trans Tech Publications , 2013, Vol. 740-742, 315-318 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High quality bulk-like 3C-SiC were grown on on-axis (0001) 6H-SiC substrate by sublimation epitaxy. The microwave photoconductivity decay mapping measurements revealed that this material shows considerable long carrier lifetimes varied from 3.519 to 7.834 mu s under the injection level of 3.5x10(12) cm(-2), which are comparable with the best carrier lifetimes in 4H-SiC layers. The mapping of high resolution x-ray diffraction obtained from the same region shows that smaller carrier lifetimes seem to correspond to the larger FWHM values and vice versa. This shows that long carrier lifetime obtained in 3C-SiC is due to the improvement of the crystal quality.

  • 27.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kamiyama, Satoshi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of surface and interface recombination on carrier lifetime in 6H-SiC layers2013In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2012, Trans Tech Publications , 2013, Vol. 740-742, 490-493 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carrier lifetimes in 6H-SiC epilayers were investigated by using numerical simulations and micro-wave photoconductivity decay measurements. The measured carrier lifetimes were significantly increasing with an increased thickness up to 200 mu m while it stays almost constant in layers thicker than 200 mu m. From a comparison of the simulation and experimental results, we found that if the bulk lifetime in 6H-SiC is around a few microseconds, both the surface recombination and interface recombination influence the carrier lifetime in layers with thickness less than 200 mu m while only the surface recombination determines the carrier lifetime in layers with thickness more than 200 mu m. In samples with varying thicknesses, a bulk lifetime tau(B) = 2.93 mu s and carrier diffusion coefficient D= 2.87 cm(2)/s were derived from the linear fitting of reciprocal lifetime vs reciprocal square thickness.

  • 28.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robert, T.
    Universite Montellier 2, France .
    Andreadou, A.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Mantzari, A.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Camassel, J.
    Universite Montellier 2, France.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Universite Montpellier 2, France.
    Polychroniadis, E. K.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shockley-Frank stacking faults in 6H-SiC2012In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 111, 113527- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on Shockley-Frank stacking faults (SFs) identified in 6H-SiC by a combination of low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the faulted area, stacking faults manifested as large photoluminescence emissions bands located in between the 6H-SiC signal (at ∼2.99 eV) and the 3C-SiC bulk-like one (at ∼2.39 eV). Each of the stacking fault related emission band had a four-fold structure coming from the TA, LA, TO, and LO phonon modes of 3C-SiC. Up to four different faults, with four different thickness of the 3C-SiC lamella, could be observed simultaneously within the extent of the laser excitation spot. From the energy of the momentum-conservative phonons, they were associated with excitonic energy gaps at Egx1 = 2.837 eV, Egx2 = 2.689 eV, Egx3 = 2.600 eV and Egx4 = 2.525 eV. In the same part where low temperature photoluminescence was performed, high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed stacking faults which, in terms of the Zhdanov notation, could be recognized as SFs (3, 4), (3, 5), (3, 6), (3, 7), (3, 9), (3, 11), (3, 16) and (3, 22), respectively. Among them stacking fault (3, 4) was the most common one, but a faulted region with a (4, 4) 8H-SiC like sequence was also found. Using a type II 6H/3C/6H quantum-well model and comparing with experimental results, we find that the photoluminescence emissions with excitonic band gaps at 2.837 eV (Egx1), 2.689 eV (Egx2), 2.600 eV (Egx3) and 2.525 eV (Egx4) come from SFs (3, 4), (3, 5), (3, 6) and (3, 7), respectively. A possible formation mechanism of these SFs is suggested, which involves a combination of Frank faults with Shockley ones. This provides a basic understanding of stacking faults in 6H-SiC and gives a rapid and non-destructive approach to identify SFs by low temperature photoluminescence.

  • 29.
    Sun, Jianwu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robert, T.
    Université Montpellier 2, France.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Université Montpellier 2, France.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Camassel, J.
    CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, Montpellier, France.
    Low Temperature Photoluminescence Signature of Stacking Faults in 6H-SiC Epilayers Grown on Low Angle Off-axis Substrates2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radiative recombination spectra of 6H-SiC epilayers grown on low angle (1.4° off-axis) substrates have been investigated by low temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Four different types of stacking faults have been identified, together with the presence of 3C-SiC inclusions. From the energy of the momentum-conserving phonons, four excitonic band gap energies have been found with Egx equal to 2.837, 2.698, 2.600 and 2.525 eV. These photoluminescence features, which give a rapid and non-destructive approach to identify stacking faults in 6H-SiC, provide a direct feedback to improve the material growth.

  • 30.
    Sun, Jianwu W.
    et al.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France.
    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mexis, M.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France .
    Eriksson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tsiaoussis, I.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peyre, H.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France.
    Camassel, J.
    Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, France.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comparative micro-photoluminescence investigation of ZnO hexagonal nanopillars and the seeding layer grown on 4H-SiC2012In: Journal of Luminescence, ISSN 0022-2313, E-ISSN 1872-7883, Vol. 132, no 1, 122-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a comparative micro-photoluminescence investigation of ZnO hexagonal nanopillars (HNPs) and the seeding layer grown on the off-axis 4H-SiC substrate. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results establish that a thin seeding layer continuously covers the terraces of 4H-SiC prior to the growth of ZnO HNPs. Low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) shows that ZnO HNPs are only dominated by strong donor bound exciton emissions without any deep level emissions. Micro-LTPL mapping demonstrates that this is specific also for the seeding layer. To further understand the recombination mechanisms, time-resolved micro-PL spectra (micro-TRPL) have been collected at 5 K and identical bi-exponential decays have been found on both the HNPs and seeding layer. Temperature-dependent TRPL indicates that the decay time of donor bound exciton is mainly determined by the contributions of non-radiative recombinations. This could be explained by the TEM observation of the non-radiative defects in both the seeding layer and HNPs, like domain boundaries and dislocations, generated at the ZnO/SiC interface due to biaxial strain.

  • 31.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Quanbao
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Galeckas, Augustinas
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xinyu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wellmann, Peter
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Germany.
    Linnarsson, Margareta
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Runde, Paal
    St Gobain Ceram Mat AS, Norway.
    Andre Johansen, Bertil
    St Gobain Ceram Mat AS, Norway.
    Thogersen, Annett
    SINTEF Mat and Chemistry, Norway.
    Diplas, Spyros
    SINTEF Mat and Chemistry, Norway.
    Almeida Carvalho, Patricia
    SINTEF Mat and Chemistry, Norway.
    Martin Lovvik, Ole
    SINTEF Mat and Chemistry, Norway.
    Nilsen Wright, Daniel
    SINTEF ICT, Norway.
    Yu Azarov, Alexander
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Svensson, Bengt G.
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Cubic silicon carbide as a potential photovoltaic material2016In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 145, 104-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we present a significant advancement in cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) growth in terms of crystal quality and domain size, and indicate its potential use in photovoltaics. To date, the use of 3C-SiC for photovoltaics has not been considered due to the band gap of 2.3 eV being too large for conventional solar cells. Doping of 3C-SiC with boron introduces an energy level of 0.7 eV above the valence band. Such energy level may form an intermediate band (IB) in the band gap. This IB concept has been presented in the literature to act as an energy ladder that allows absorption of sub-bandgap photons to generate extra electron-hole pairs and increase the efficiency of a solar cell. The main challenge with this concept is to find a materials system that could realize such efficient photovoltaic behavior. The 3C-SiC bandgap and boron energy level fits nicely into the concept, but has not been explored for an IB behavior. For a long time crystalline 3C-SiC has been challenging to grow due to its metastable nature. The material mainly consists of a large number of small domains if the 3C polytype is maintained. In our work a crystal growth process was realized by a new approach that is a combination of initial nucleation and step-flow growth. In the process, the domains that form initially extend laterally to make larger 3C-SiC domains, thus leading to a pronounced improvement in crystalline quality of 3C-SiC. In order to explore the feasibility of IB in 3C-SiC using boron, we have explored two routes of introducing boron impurities; ion implantation on un-doped samples and epitaxial growth on un-doped samples using pre-doped source material. The results show that 3C-SiC doped with boron is an optically active material, and thus is interesting to be further studied for IB behavior. For the ion implanted samples the crystal quality was maintained even after high implantation doses and subsequent annealing. The same was true for the samples grown with pre-doped source material, even with a high concentration of boron impurities. We present optical emission and absorption properties of as-grown and boron implanted 3C-SiC. The low-temperature photoluminescence spectra indicate the formation of optically active deep boron centers, which may be utilized for achieving an IB behavior at sufficiently high dopant concentrations. We also discuss the potential of boron doped 3C-SiC base material in a broader range of applications, such as in photovoltaics, biomarkers and hydrogen generation by splitting water. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Müller, J.
    University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany .
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grivickas, Vytautas
    Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Ou, Yiyu
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hens, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kaisr, M.
    University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany .
    Ariyawong, Kanaparin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gulbinas, K.
    Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Liljedahl, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Kista-Stockholm .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan .
    Wellmann, P.
    University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany .
    Spiecker, E.
    University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany .
    Ou, H.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby.
    Fluorescent SiC as a new material for white LEDs2012In: Physica scripta. T, ISSN 0281-1847, Vol. T148, 014002- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current III–V-based white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are available. However, their yellow phosphor converter is not efficient at high currents and includes rare-earth metals, which are becoming scarce. In this paper, we present the growth of a fluorescent silicon carbide material that is obtained by nitrogen and boron doping and that acts as a converter using a semiconductor. The luminescence is obtained at room temperature, and shows a broad luminescence band characteristic of donor-to-acceptor pair recombination. Photoluminescence intensities and carrier lifetimes reflect a sensitivity to nitrogen and boron concentrations. For an LED device, the growth needs to apply low-off-axis substrates. We show by ultra-high-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy using aberration-corrected electrons that the growth mechanism can be stable and that there is a perfect epitaxial relation from the low-off-axis substrate and the doped layer even when there is step-bunching.

  • 33.
    Ul-Hassan, Jawad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bae, H.
    Applied Materials Lab., Components R&D Center, LG Innotek Co., Ltd.
    Lilja, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Farkas, Ildiko
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kim, I.
    Applied Materials Lab., Components R&D Center, LG Innotek Co., Ltd, South Korea.
    Stenberg, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ha, S.
    Applied Materials Lab., Components R&D Center, LG Innotek Co., Ltd, South Korea.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast growth rate epitaxy on 4((degrees)under-bar) off-cut 4-inch diameter 4H-SiC wafers2014In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2013, PTS 1 AND 2, Trans Tech Publications , 2014, Vol. 778-780, 179-182 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the development of over 100 mu m/h growth rate process on 4-inch diameter wafers using chlorinated growth. The optimized growth process has shown extremely smooth epilayers completely free of surface step-bunching with very low surface defect density, high uniformity in thickness and doping and high run to run reproducibility in growth rate, controlled doping and defect density.

  • 34.
    Zoulis, G.
    et al.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Sun, J. W.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Jegenyes, N.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR‐CNRS 5615, UCB‐Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Lorenzzi, J. C.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR‐CNRS 5615, UCB‐Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Juillaguet, S.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Soulière, V.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR‐CNRS 5615, UCB‐Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Ferro, G.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, UMR‐CNRS 5615, UCB‐Lyon1, 43 Bd du 11 nov. 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France .
    Camassel, J.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France .
    Effects of Growth Conditions on the Low Temperature Photoluminescence Spectra of (111) 3C-€SiC Layers Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition on 3C-€SiC Seeds grown by the Vapor-€Liquid-Solid Technique2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the results of a low temperature photoluminescence investigation of 3C‐SiC samples grown by chemical vapor deposition on vapor‐liquid‐solid seeds. The main parameters tested in this series of samples were i°) the effects of changing the C/Si ratio and ii°) the growth temperature on the final growth product. On the first series the C/Si ratio varied from 1 to 14 for a constant growth temperature of 1550° C. For the second series, the growth temperature varied from 1450 to 1650° C by steps of 50° C with a constant C/Si ratio equal to 3. According to this work, the best results (minimum incorporation of impurities and best crystal quality) were obtained when using a C/Si ratio of 3 at 1650° C.

  • 35.
    Zoulis, G.
    et al.
    CNRS, Montpellier, France.
    Sun, Jianwu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lorenzzi, J.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.
    Peyre, H.
    Université Montpellier 2, France.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ferro, G.
    Laboratoire des Multimateriaux et Interfaces, University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Université Montpellier 2, France.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Camassel, J.
    CNRS, Montpellier, France .
    Seeding layer influence on the low temperature photoluminescence intensity of 3C-SiC grown on 6H-SiC by sublimation epitaxy2012In: HETEROSIC and WASMPE 2011 / [ed] Daniel Alquier, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 711, 149-153 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on n-type 3C-SiC samples grown by sublimation epitaxy. We focus on the low temperature photoluminescence intensity and show that the presence of a first conversion layer, grown at low temperature, is not only beneficial to improve the homogeneity of the polytype conversion but, also, to the LTPL signal intensity. From the use of a simple model, we show that this comes from a reduced density of non-radiative recombination centers.

  • 36.
    Zoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Sun, Jian Wu
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Beshkova, Milena
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vasiliauskas, Remigijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Juillaguet, S.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Peyre, H.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Camassel, J.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Investigation of Low Doped n-Type and p-Type 3C-SiC Layers Grown on 6H-SiC Substrates by Sublimation Epitaxy2010In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2009, 2010, Vol. 645, 179-182 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both, n-type and p-type 3C-SiC samples grown on 6H-SiC substrates by sublimation epitaxy have been investigated. From low temperature photoluminescence studies, we demonstrate a low level of residual (n and/or p-type) doping with weak compensation, which is confirmed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy in the case of p-type samples.

  • 37.
    Zoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Sun, JianWu
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Galben-Sandulache, Irina G.
    Grenoble, France.
    Sun, Guoli L.
    Grenoble, France.
    Juillaguet, Sandrine
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Ouisse, Thierry
    Grenoble, France.
    Chaussende, Didier
    Grenoble, France.
    Madar, Roland
    Grenoble, France.
    Camassel, Jean
    Groupe d’Etudes des Semiconducteurs, Université Montpellier 2 and CNRS, cc 074‐GES, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
    Optical Investigation of Defect Filtering Effects in Bulk 3C-SiC Crystals Grown by the CF-PVT Method Using a Necking Technique2011In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2010, 2011, Vol. 679, 169-172 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of an optical investigation performed using low temperature photomuminescence and Raman spectroscopy on bulk 3C-SiC samples grown with the Continuous-Feed Physical Vapor Transport technique, using a small diameter neck to filter the defects and improve the as-grown material.

1 - 37 of 37
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