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  • 1.
    Halim, Joseph
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    E. J., Moon
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    M., Precner
    Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava 84104, Slovak Republic.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    M. W., Barsoum
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Nb1.33C (MXene) with Randomly Distributed Vacancies by Etching of the Quaternary Solid Solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX Phase2018In: ACS Applied Nano Materials, ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 2455-2460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing point defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can alter or enhance their properties. Here, we demonstrate how etching a laminated (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX phase (solid solution) of both the Sc and Al atoms results in a 2D Nb1.33C material (MXene) with a large number of vacancies and vacancy clusters. This method is applicable to any quaternary, or higher, MAX phase, wherein one of the transition metals is more reactive than the other and could be of vital importance in applications such as catalysis and energy storage. We also report, for the first time, on the existence of solid solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)3AlC2 and (Nb2/3Sc1/3)4AlC3 phases.

  • 2.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    et al.
    Messiah Coll, PA 17055 USA.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sortica, Maurico A.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci and Technol, Taiwan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High-power impulse magnetron sputter deposition of TiBx thin films: Effects of pressure and growth temperature2019In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 169, article id UNSP 108884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium boride, TiBx thin films are grown in pure Ar discharges by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound TiB2 target Film compositions are determined by time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry as a function of deposition temperature (T-s = 25-900 degrees C) and Ar pressure (p(Ar) = 0.67-2.67 Pa, 5-20 mTorr). For reference, films are also grown by direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) under similar conditions. The HiPIMS waveform, average target power P-T, and resulting film compositions are strongly dependent not only on P-Ar, but also on T-s. At high pressures the effect of varying T-s on P-T is minimal, while at lower P-Ar the effect of T-s is more pronounced, due to substrate-temperature-induced gas rarefaction. Films grown by HiPIMS at 0.67 Pa are understoichiometric, with B/Ti = 1.4-1.5, while at 2.67 Pa, B/Ti decreases from 2.4 to 1.4 as T-s increases from 25 to 900 degrees C. dcMS-deposited films are overstoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to 3) when grown at low pressures, and near-stoichiometric (B/Ti similar or equal to r 1.9-2.2) for higher P-Ar. All experimental results are explained by differences in the ionization potentials of sputtered Ti and B atoms, together with P-Ar- and T-s-dependent gas-phase scattering.

  • 3.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wickman, Bjorn
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Shixuan
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Intikhab, Saad
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Snyder, Joshua
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Barsoum, Michel W.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Yildizhan, Melike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    W-Based Atomic Laminates and Their 2D Derivative W1.33C MXene with Vacancy Ordering2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 21, article id 1706409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural design on the atomic level can provide novel chemistries of hybrid MAX phases and their MXenes. Herein, density functional theory is used to predict phase stability of quaternary i-MAX phases with in-plane chemical order and a general chemistry (W2/3M1/32)(2)AC, where M-2 = Sc, Y (W), and A = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, and Sn. Of over 18 compositions probed, only twowith a monoclinic C2/c structureare predicted to be stable: (W2/3Sc1/3)(2)AlC and (W2/3Y1/3)(2)AlC and indeed found to exist. Selectively etching the Al and Sc/Y atoms from these 3D laminates results in W1.33C-based MXene sheets with ordered metal divacancies. Using electrochemical experiments, this MXene is shown to be a new, promising catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The addition of yet one more element, W, to the stable of M elements known to form MAX phases, and the synthesis of a pure W-based MXene establishes that the etching of i-MAX phases is a fruitful path for creating new MXene chemistries that has hitherto been not possible, a fact that perforce increases the potential of tuning MXene properties for myriad applications.

  • 4.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis of (V2/3Sc1/3)(2)AlC i-MAX phase and V2-xC MXene scrolls2019In: Nanoscale, ISSN 2040-3364, E-ISSN 2040-3372, Vol. 11, no 31, p. 14720-14726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new laminated i-MAX phase, (V2/3Sc1/3)(2)AlC, with in-plane chemical ordering between the M-elements. We also present evidence for the solid solution (V2-xScx)(2)AlC, where x amp;lt;= 0.05. Chemical etching of the Al and Sc results in a two-dimensional (2D) MXene counterpart: V2-xC from the latter phase. Furthermore, etching with HF yields single-sheet MXene of flat morphology, while LiF + HCl gives MXene scrolls. We also show a 4x reduction in etching time for (V2-xScx)(2)AlC compared to V2AlC, suggesting that traces of Sc changes the phase stability, and make the material more susceptible to etching. The results show a path for improved control of MXene synthesis and morphology, which may be applicable also for other MAX/MXene systems.

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