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  • 1.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brain size is reduced by selectionfor tameness in Red Junglefowl–correlated effects in vital organs2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 3306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During domestication animals have undergone changes in size of brain and other vital organs. We hypothesize that this could be a correlated effect to increased tameness. Red Junglefowl (ancestors of domestic chickens) were selected for divergent levels of fear of humans for five generations. The parental (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5) were culled when 48–54 weeks old and the brains were weighed before being divided into telencephalon, cerebellum, mid brain and optic lobes. Each single brain part as well as the liver, spleen, heart and testicles were also weighed. Brains of S5 birds with high fear scores (S5 high) were heavier both in absolute terms and when corrected for body weight. The relative weight of telencephalon (% of brain weight) was significantly higher in S5 high and relative weight of cerebellum was lower. Heart, liver, testes and spleen were all relatively heavier (% of body weight) in S5 high. Hence, selection for tameness has changed the size of the brain and other vital organs in this population and may have driven the domesticated phenotype as a correlated response.

  • 2.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens2018Inngår i: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 205, s. 227-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals offers unique possibilities to study evolutionary changes caused by similar selection pressures across a range of species. Animals from separate genera tend to develop a suite of phenotypic alterations referred to as "the domesticated phenotype". This involves changes in appearance, including loss of pigmentation, and alterations in body size and proportions. Furthermore, effects on reproduction and behaviour are typical. It is hypothesized that this recurring phenotype may be secondary effects of the increased tameness that is an inevitable first step in the domestication of any species. We first provide a general overview of observations and experiments from different species and then review in more detail a project attempting to recreate the initial domestication of chickens. Starting from an outbred population of Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all modem chickens, divergent lines were selected based on scores in a standardized fear-of-human test applied to all birds at 12 weeks of age. Up to the eighth selected generation, observations have been made on correlated effects of this selection on various phenotypes. The fear score had a significant heritability and was genetically correlated to several other behavioural traits. Furthermore, low-fear birds were larger at hatch, grew faster, laid larger eggs, had a modified metabolism and increased feed efficiency, had modified social behaviour and reduced brain size. Selection affected gene expression and DNA-methylation in the brains, but the genetic and epigenetic effects were not specifically associated with stress pathways. Further research should be focused on unraveling the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the correlated side-effects of reduced fear of humans.

  • 3.
    Beltéky, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Beatrix
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gene expression of behaviorally relevant genes in the cerebral hemisphere changes after selection for tameness in Red Junglefowl.2017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikkel-id e0177004Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of domestication in animals has led to alterations in behavior, physiology and phenotypic traits, changes that may be driven by correlations with reduced fear of humans. We used Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all domesticated chickens selected for either high or low fear of humans for five generations to study the effects of selection on gene transcription in the cerebral hemisphere, which is heavily involved in behaviour control. A total of 24 individuals from the parental generation as well as from the fifth selected generation were used. Twenty-two genes were significantly differentially expressed at p < 0.05 after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Those genes that were upregulated in the low fearful animals were found to be involved in neural functions. Gene ontology and pathway analysis revealed enrichment for terms associated with behavioural processes. We conclude that five generations of divergent selection for high or low tameness has significantly changed gene expression patterns in the cerebral hemisphere in the Red Junglefowl population used here, which could underlie a range of changes in the domestic phenotype.

  • 4.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chicken domestication: Effects of tameness on brain gene expression and DNA methylation2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication greatly increases phenotypic variation in a short time span, with selection for a single phenotype and a plethora of associated phenotypic changes as an outcome of the process. The domestication process influences the underlying genomic architecture of a species, and the success and speed of the process is likely influenced by it. The main aims of my thesis was to study how domestication affects the brain of chickens: specifically changes in morphology, gene expression, and DNA methylation. Differences in gene expression and DNA methylation between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl chickens were mapped, and inheritance of these patterns were quantified, indicating a faithful transmission of breed-specific epigenetic markers. Selection on the behavioral trait fearfulness, generated high and low fearful lines of Red Junglefowl. Both the parental population and the fifth selected generation were used for the analyses in this thesis. One experiment studied morphological changes in the brain and other vital organs, and found that relative total brain size increased in high fearful birds, as a consequence of an increase in cerebral hemisphere size in high fearful birds and not in low fearful birds. Also, the relative heart, liver, spleen and testis size increased in high fearful birds, indicating correlated morphological changes with selection for fearfulness. Two additional experiments examined differential gene expression in the hypothalamus and the anterior cerebral hemisphere. The hypothalamus differed in expression of genes with reproductive and immunological functions, whilst the cerebral hemisphere differed in expression of genes related to social behaviors and neurological functions especially those upregulated in low fearful birds.  These results indicate the occurrence of tissue- and species-specific changes in gene expression as overlap with other domestication events were nearly nonexistent. A fourth experiment sought to associate the change in fear levels and gene expression differences with DNA methylation. Chromosomal regions with differential DNA methylation between high and low fearful birds were identified, and genes in these regions had annotated functions relevant to phenotypic differences between the selection lines. This thesis is the first to study the genetic alterations of domestication using the wild ancestor of an already domesticated species to repeat the domestication process selecting against fear of humans. The findings corroborate results from previous comparisons of wild and domestic animals, and further support the theory that rigorous selection for a behavioral trait can cause a cascade of genetic and epigenetic changes facilitating the domestication of a population.

    Delarbeid
    1. Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens
    Vise andre…
    2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 13, nr 59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in gene expression, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, may cause broad phenotypic effects in animals. However, it has been debated to what extent expression variation and epigenetic modifications, such as patterns of DNA methylation, are transferred across generations, and therefore it is uncertain what role epigenetic variation may play in adaptation. Here, we show that in Red Junglefowl, ancestor of domestic chickens, gene expression and methylation profiles in thalamus/hypothalamus differ substantially from that of a domesticated egg laying breed. Expression as well as methylation differences are largely maintained in the offspring, demonstrating reliable inheritance of epigenetic variation. Some of the inherited methylation differences are tissue-specific, and the differential methylation at specific loci are little changed after eight generations of intercrossing between Red Junglefowl and domesticated laying hens. There was an over-representation of differentially expressed and methylated genes in selective sweep regions associated with chicken domestication. Hence, our results show that epigenetic variation is inherited in chickens, and we suggest that selection of favourable epigenomes, either by selection of genotypes affecting epigenetic states, or by selection of methylation states which are inherited independently of sequence differences, may have been an important aspect of chicken domestication.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    BioMed Central, 2012
    Emneord
    Domestication, gene expression, tiling array, behaviour, methylation
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70159 (URN)10.1186/1471-2164-13-59 (DOI)000301440800001 ()
    Merknad

    funding agencies|Swedish Research Council| 2008-14496-59340-36 |Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning| 221 2007 838 |

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-08-22 Laget: 2011-08-22 Sist oppdatert: 2019-03-05bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. Domestication and tameness: brain geneexpression in red junglefowl selected for less fear of humans suggests effects on reproduction and immunology
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Domestication and tameness: brain geneexpression in red junglefowl selected for less fear of humans suggests effects on reproduction and immunology
    Vise andre…
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, nr 3, artikkel-id 160033Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypicmodifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiologyand reproduction, which are consistent across a range ofspecies. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes couldhave evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness,an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting froman outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of alldomestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or lowfear of humans for five generations. Birds from the fifthselected generation (S5) showed a divergent pattern of growthand reproduction, where low fear chickens grew larger andproduced larger offspring. To examine underlying geneticmechanisms, we used microarrays to study gene expressionin thalamus/hypothalamus, a brain region involved in fearand stress, in both the parental generation and the S5. Whileparents of the selection lines did not show any differentiallyexpressed genes, there were a total of 33 genes with adjustedp-values below 0.1 in S5. These were mainly related to spermfunction,immunological functions, with only a few known tobe relevant to behaviour. Hence, five generations of divergentselection for fear of humans produced changes in hypothalamicgene expression profiles related to pathways associated withmale reproduction and to immunology. This may be linked to the effects seen on growth and size of offspring. These results support the hypothesis thatdomesticated phenotypes may evolve because of correlated effects related to reduced fear of humans.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Royal Society Publishing, 2016
    Emneord
    artificial selection, gene expression, microarray, chicken, fearfulness
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130501 (URN)10.1098/rsos.160033 (DOI)000384411000002 ()
    Merknad

    Funding agencies:  Research council Formas; Vetenskapsradet; ERC [322206]

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-08-11 Laget: 2016-08-11 Sist oppdatert: 2017-11-28
  • 5.
    Bélteky, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bektic, Lejla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Höglund, Andrey
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Guerrero Bosagna, Carlos
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Epigenetics and early domestication: differences in hypothalamic DNA methylation between red junglefowl divergently selected for high or low fear of humans2018Inngår i: Genetics Selection Evolution, ISSN 0999-193X, E-ISSN 1297-9686, Vol. 50, artikkel-id 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Domestication of animals leads to large phenotypic alterations within a short evolutionary time-period. Such alterations are caused by genomic variations, yet the prevalence of modified traits is higher than expected if they were caused only by classical genetics and mutations. Epigenetic mechanisms may also be important in driving domesticated phenotypes such as behavior traits. Gene expression can be modulated epigenetically by mechanisms such as DNA methylation, resulting in modifications that are not only variable and susceptible to environmental stimuli, but also sometimes transgenerationally stable. To study such mechanisms in early domestication, we used as model two selected lines of red junglefowl (ancestors of modern chickens) that were bred for either high or low fear of humans over five generations, and investigated differences in hypothalamic DNA methylation between the two populations. Results: Twenty-two 1-kb windows were differentially methylated between the two selected lines at p amp;lt; 0.05 after false discovery rate correction. The annotated functions of the genes within these windows indicated epigenetic regulation of metabolic and signaling pathways, which agrees with the changes in gene expression that were previously reported for the same tissue and animals. Conclusions: Our results show that selection for an important domestication-related behavioral trait such as tameness can cause divergent epigenetic patterns within only five generations, and that these changes could have an important role in chicken domestication.

  • 6.
    Bélteky, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johnsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Domestication and tameness: brain geneexpression in red junglefowl selected for less fear of humans suggests effects on reproduction and immunology2016Inngår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, nr 3, artikkel-id 160033Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypicmodifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiologyand reproduction, which are consistent across a range ofspecies. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes couldhave evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness,an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting froman outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of alldomestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or lowfear of humans for five generations. Birds from the fifthselected generation (S5) showed a divergent pattern of growthand reproduction, where low fear chickens grew larger andproduced larger offspring. To examine underlying geneticmechanisms, we used microarrays to study gene expressionin thalamus/hypothalamus, a brain region involved in fearand stress, in both the parental generation and the S5. Whileparents of the selection lines did not show any differentiallyexpressed genes, there were a total of 33 genes with adjustedp-values below 0.1 in S5. These were mainly related to spermfunction,immunological functions, with only a few known tobe relevant to behaviour. Hence, five generations of divergentselection for fear of humans produced changes in hypothalamicgene expression profiles related to pathways associated withmale reproduction and to immunology. This may be linked to the effects seen on growth and size of offspring. These results support the hypothesis thatdomesticated phenotypes may evolve because of correlated effects related to reduced fear of humans.

  • 7.
    Ericsson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sundman, Ann-Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shionoya, Kiseko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Long-Term and Transgenerational Effects of Stress Experienced during Different Life Phases in Chickens (Gallus gallus)2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikkel-id e0153879Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress in animals causes not only immediate reactions, but may affect their biology for long periods, even across generations. Particular interest has been paid to perinatal stress, but also adolescence has been shown to be a sensitive period in mammals. So far, no systematic study has been performed of the relative importance of stress encountered during different life phases. In this study, groups of chickens were exposed to a six-day period of repeated stress during three different life phases: early (two weeks), early puberty (eight weeks) and late puberty (17 weeks), and the effects were compared to an unstressed control group. The short-term effects were assessed by behaviour, and the long-term and transgenerational effects were determined by effects on behavior and corticosterone secretion, as well as on hypothalamic gene expression. Short-term effects were strongest in the two week group and the eight week group, whereas long-term and transgenerational effects were detected in all three stress groups. However, stress at different ages affected different aspects of the biology of the chickens, and it was not possible to determine a particularly sensitive life phase. The results show that stress during puberty appears to be at least equally critical as the previously studied early life phase. These findings may have important implications for animal welfare in egg production, since laying hens are often exposed to stress during the three periods pinpointed here.

  • 8.
    Fallahsharoudi, Amir
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Løtvedt, Pia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. AVIAN Behavioural Genomics and Physiology Group, IFM Biology, Linköping University, 58183, Linköping, Sweden..
    Beltéky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Changes in pituitary gene expression may underlie multiple domesticated traits in chickens.2019Inngår i: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 122, nr 2, s. 195-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated animals share a unique set of morphological and behavioral traits, jointly referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Striking similarities amongst a range of unrelated domesticated species suggest that similar regulatory mechanisms may underlie the domesticated phenotype. These include color pattern, growth, reproduction, development and stress response. Although previous studies have focused on the brain to find mechanisms underlying domestication, the potential role of the pituitary gland as a target of domestication is highly overlooked. Here, we study gene expression in the pituitary gland of the domesticated White Leghorn chicken and its wild ancestor, the Red Junglefowl. By overlapping differentially expressed genes with a previously published list of functionally important genes in the pituitary gland, we narrowed down to 34 genes. Amongst them, expression levels of genes with inhibitory function on pigmentation (ASIP), main stimulators of metabolism and sexual maturity (TSHB and DIO2), and a potential inhibitor of broodiness (PRLR), were higher in the domesticated breed. Additionally, expression of 2 key inhibitors of the stress response (NR3C1, CRHR2) was higher in the domesticated breed. We suggest that changes in the transcription of important modulatory genes in the pituitary gland can account not only for domestication of the stress response in domestic chickens, but also for changes in pigmentation, development, and reproduction. Given the pivotal role of the pituitary gland in the regulation of multiple shared domesticated traits, we suggest that similar changes in pituitary transcriptome may contribute to the domesticated phenotype in other species as well.

  • 9.
    Nätt, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rubin, Carl-Johan
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johnsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Beltéky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Leif
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens2012Inngår i: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 13, nr 59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in gene expression, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, may cause broad phenotypic effects in animals. However, it has been debated to what extent expression variation and epigenetic modifications, such as patterns of DNA methylation, are transferred across generations, and therefore it is uncertain what role epigenetic variation may play in adaptation. Here, we show that in Red Junglefowl, ancestor of domestic chickens, gene expression and methylation profiles in thalamus/hypothalamus differ substantially from that of a domesticated egg laying breed. Expression as well as methylation differences are largely maintained in the offspring, demonstrating reliable inheritance of epigenetic variation. Some of the inherited methylation differences are tissue-specific, and the differential methylation at specific loci are little changed after eight generations of intercrossing between Red Junglefowl and domesticated laying hens. There was an over-representation of differentially expressed and methylated genes in selective sweep regions associated with chicken domestication. Hence, our results show that epigenetic variation is inherited in chickens, and we suggest that selection of favourable epigenomes, either by selection of genotypes affecting epigenetic states, or by selection of methylation states which are inherited independently of sequence differences, may have been an important aspect of chicken domestication.

  • 10.
    Persson, Mia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Trottier, Agaia J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Roth, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Intranasal oxytocin and a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene are associated with human-directed social behavior in golden retriever dogs2017Inngår i: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 95, s. 85-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxytocin system may play an important role in dog domestication from the wolf. Dogs have evolved unique human analogue social skills enabling them to communicate and cooperate efficiently with people. Genomic differences in the region surrounding the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene have previously been associated with variation in doge communicative skills. Here we have utilized the unsolvable problem paradigm to investigate the effects of oxytocin and OXTR polymorphisms on human-directed contact seeking behavior in 60 golden retriever dogs. Human-oriented behavior was quantified employing a previously defined unsolvable problem paradigm. Behaviors were tested twice in a repeated, counterbalanced design, where dogs received a nasal dose of either oxytocin or saline 45 min before each test occasion. Buccal DNA was analysed for genotype on three previously identified SNP-markers associated with OXTR. The same polymorphisms were also geno-typed in 21 wolf blood samples to explore potential genomic differences between the species. Results showed that oxytocin treatment decreased physical contact seeking with the experimenter and one of the three polymorphisms was associated with degree of physical contact seeking with the owner. Dogs with the AA-genotype at this locus increased owner physical contact seeking in response to oxytocin while the opposite effect was found in GG-genotype individuals. Hence, intranasal oxytocin treatment, an OXTR polymorphism and their interaction are associated with doge human-directed social skills, which can explain previously described breed differences in oxytocin response. Genotypic variation at the studied locus was also found in wolves indicating that it was present even at the start of dog domestication.

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