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  • 1.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Assessing the economic potential of landfill mining: Review and recommendations2019In: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, p. 125-140Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As landfill mining (LFM) gains public attention, systematic assessment of its economic potential is deemed necessary. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the usefulness and validity of previous economic assessments of LFM. Following the life cycle costing (LCC) framework, (i) the employed methods based on goal and scope, technical parameters and data inventory, and modelling choices were contrasted with respect to (ii) the synthesized main findings based on net profitability and economic performance drivers. Results showed that the selected studies (n=15) are mostly case study-specific and concluded that LFM has a weak economic potential, hinting at the importance of favorable market and regulation settings. However, several method issues are apparent as costs and revenues are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale-from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot-scale, respectively. Moreover, despite the inherent large uncertainties, more than half of the studies did not perform any uncertainty or sensitivity analyses posing validity issues. Consequently, this also limits the usefulness of results as individual case studies and as a collective, towards a generic understanding of LFM economics. Irrespective of case study-specific or generic aims, this review recommends that future assessments should be learning-oriented. That is, uncovering granular information about what builds up the net profitability of LFM, to be able to systematically determine promising paths for the development of cost-efficient projects.

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  • 2.
    Hernandez Parrodi, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    Renewi Belgium SA NV, Belgium; Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Lucas, Hugo
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Gigantino, Marco
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Sauve, Giovanna
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Einhaupl, Paul
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Vollprecht, Daniel
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Pomberger, Roland
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Friedrich, Bernd
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    INTEGRATION OF RESOURCE RECOVERY INTO CURRENT WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH (ENHANCED) LANDFILL MINING2019In: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, p. 141-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has somewhere between 150,000 and 500,000 landfill sites, with an estimated 90% of them being "non-sanitary" landfills, predating the EU Landfill Directive of 1999/31/EC. These older landfills tend to be filled with municipal solid waste and often lack any environmental protection technology. " Doing nothing", state-of-theart aftercare or remediating them depends largely on technical, societal and economic conditions which vary between countries. Beside " doing nothing and landfill aftercare, there are different scenarios in landfill mining, from re-landfilling the waste into "sanitary landfills" to seizing the opportunity for a combined resource-recovery and remediation strategy. This review article addresses present and future issues and potential opportunities for landfill mining as an embedded strategy in current waste management systems through a multi-disciplinary approach. In particular, three general landfill mining strategies are addressed with varying extents of resource recovery. These are discussed in relation to the main targets of landfill mining: (i) reduction of the landfill volume (technical), (ii) reduction of risks and impacts (environmental) and (iii) increase in resource recovery and overall profitability (economic). Geophysical methods could be used to determine the characteristics of the landfilled waste and subsurface structures without the need of an invasive exploration, which could greatly reduce exploration costs and time, as well as be useful to develop a procedure to either discard or select the most appropriate sites for (E)LFM. Material and energy recovery from land-filled waste can be achieved through mechanical processing coupled with thermochemical valorization technologies and residues upcycling techniques. Gasification could enable the upcycling of residues after thermal treatment into a new range of eco-friendly construction materials based on inorganic polymers and glass-ceramics. The multi-criteria assessment is directly influenced by waste- and technology related factors, which together with site-specific conditions, market and regulatory aspects, influence the environmental, economic and societal impacts of (E)LFM projects.

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  • 3.
    Laner, David
    et al.
    Univ Kassel, Germany; TU Wien, Austria.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Horttanainen, Mika
    Lappeenranta Univ Technol, Finland.
    Kriipsalu, Mait
    Estonian Univ Life Sci, Estonia.
    Rosendal, Rene Moller
    Danish Waste Solut ApS, Denmark.
    Stanisavljevic, Nemanja
    Univ Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Systematic assessment of critical factors for the economic performance of landfill mining in Europe: What drives the economy of landfill mining?2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 95, p. 674-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill mining (LFM) is a strategy to mitigate environmental impacts associated with landfills, while simultaneously recovering dormant materials, energy carriers, and land resources. Although several case study assessments on the economy of LFM exist, a broader understanding of the driving factors is still lacking. This study aims at identifying generically important factors for the economy of LFM in Europe and understanding their role in developing economically feasible projects in view of different site, project and system-level conditions. Therefore, a set-based modeling approach is used to establish a large number (531,441) of LFM scenarios, evaluate their economic performance in terms of net present value (NPV), and analyze the relationships between input factors and economic outcome via global sensitivity analysis. The scenario results range from -139 Euro to +127 Euro/Mg of excavated waste, with 80% of the scenarios having negative NPVs. Variations in the costs for waste treatment and disposal and the avoided cost of alternative landfill management (i.e. if the landfill was not mined) have the strongest effect on the scenario NPVs, which illustrates the critical role of system level factors for LFM economy and the potential of policy intervention to incentivize LFM. Consequently, system conditions should guide site selection and project development, which is exemplified in the study for two extreme regional archetypes in terms of income and waste management standard. Future work should further explore the developed model to provide decision support on LFM strategies in consideration of alternative purposes, stakeholders, and objectives. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-07-09 14:49
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