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• 1.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A theoretical investigation of mixing thermodynamics, age-hardening potential, and electronic structure of ternary (M1-xMxB2)-M-1-B-2 alloys with AlB2 type structure2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)

Transition metal diborides are ceramic materials with potential applications as hard protective thin films and electrical contact materials. We investigate the possibility to obtain age hardening through isostructural clustering, including spinodal decomposition, or ordering-induced precipitation in ternary diboride alloys. By means of first-principles mixing thermodynamics calculations, 45 ternary (M1-xMxB2)-M-1-B-2 alloys comprising (MB2)-B-i (M-i = Mg, Al, Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta) with AlB2 type structure are studied. In particular Al1-xTixB2 is found to be of interest for coherent isostructural decomposition with a strong driving force for phase separation, while having almost concentration independent a and c lattice parameters. The results are explained by revealing the nature of the electronic structure in these alloys, and in particular, the origin of the pseudogap at E-F in TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2.

• 2.
Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Nucl Research Centre Negev, Israel. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Experimental and theoretical characterization of ordered MAX phases Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC32015In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 118, no 9, p. 094304-Article in journal (Refereed)

Herein, we report on the phase stabilities and crystal structures of two newly discovered ordered, quaternary MAX phases-Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC3-synthesized by mixing and heating different elemental powder mixtures of mMo:(3-m) Ti:1.1Al:2C with 1.5 less than= m less than= 2.2 and 2Mo: 2Ti:1.1Al:2.7C to 1600 degrees C for 4 h under Ar flow. In general, for m greater than= 2 an ordered 312 phase, (Mo2Ti) AlC2, was the majority phase; for mless than 2, an ordered 413 phase (Mo2Ti2)AlC3, was the major product. The actual chemistries determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are Mo2TiAlC1.7 and Mo2Ti1.9Al0.9C2.5, respectively. High resolution scanning transmission microscopy, XPS and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the general ordered stacking sequence to be Mo-Ti-Mo-Al-Mo-Ti-Mo for Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo-Ti-Ti-Mo-Al-Mo-Ti-Ti-Mo for Mo2Ti2AlC3, with the carbon atoms occupying the octahedral sites between the transition metal layers. Consistent with the experimental results, the theoretical calculations clearly show that M layer ordering is mostly driven by the high penalty paid in energy by having the Mo atoms surrounded by C in a face-centered configuration, i.e., in the center of the Mn+1Xn blocks. At 331 GPa and 367 GPa, respectively, the Youngs moduli of the ordered Mo2TiAlC2 and Mo2Ti2AlC3 are predicted to be higher than those calculated for their ternary end members. Like most other MAX phases, because of the high density of states at the Fermi level, the resistivity measurement over 300 to 10K for both phases showed metallic behavior. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

• 3.
Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA; Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Nucl Res Ctr Negev, Israel. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA; Nucl Res Ctr Negev, Israel.
A Tungsten-Based Nanolaminated Ternary Carbide: (W,Ti)(4)C4-x2019In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 1100-1106Article in journal (Refereed)

Nanolamellar transition metal carbides are gaining increasing interests because of the recent developments of their twodimensional (2D) derivatives and promising performance for a variety of applications from energy storage, catalysis to transparent conductive coatings, and medicine. To develop more novel 2D materials, new nanolaminated structures are needed. Here we report on a tungsten based nanolaminated ternary phase, (W,Ti)(4)C4-x, synthesized by an Al catalyzed reaction of W, Ti, and C powders at 1600 degrees C for 4 h, under flowing argon. X-ray and neutron diffraction, along with Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy, were used to determine the atomic structure, ordering, and occupancies. This phase has a layered hexagonal structure (P6(3)/mmc) with lattice parameters, a = 3.00880(7) angstrom, and c = 19.5633(6) angstrom and a nominal chemistry of (W,Ti)(4)C4-x (actual chemistry, W2.1(1)Ti1.6(1)C2.6(1)). The structure is comprised of layers of pure W that are also twin planes with two adjacent atomic layers of mixed W and Ti, on either side. The use of Al as a catalyst for synthesizing otherwise difficult to make phases, could in turn lead to the discovery of a large family of nonstoichiometric ternary transition metal carbides, synthesized at relatively low temperatures and shorter times.

The full text will be freely available from 2020-01-04 16:13
• 4.
University of California Berkeley.
University of California Berkeley. University of California Berkeley. University of California Berkeley. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Acree Technology Inc. Acree Technology Inc.
High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition2010In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 518, no 12, p. 3313-3319Article in journal (Refereed)

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide. In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200 degrees C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10(-4) Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85% in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

• 5.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Strategy for simultaneously increasing both hardness and toughness in ZrB2-rich Zr1-xTaxBy thin films2019In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, no 3, article id 031506Article in journal (Refereed)

Refractory transition-metal diborides exhibit inherent hardness. However, this is not always sufficient to prevent failure in applications involving high mechanical and thermal stress, since hardness is typically accompanied by brittleness leading to crack formation and propagation. Toughness, the combination of hardness and ductility, is required to avoid brittle fracture. Here, the authors demonstrate a strategy for simultaneously enhancing both hardness and ductility of ZrB2-rich thin films grown in pure Ar on Al2O3(0001) and Si(001) substrates at 475 degrees C. ZrB2.4 layers are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) from a ZrB2 target, while Zr1-xTaxBy alloy films are grown, thus varying the B/metal ratio as a function of x, by adding pulsed high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a Ta target to deposit Zr1-xTaxBy alloy films using hybrid Ta-HiPIMS/ZrB2-DCMS sputtering with a substrate bias synchronized to the metal-rich portion of each HiPIMS pulse. The average power P-Ta (and pulse frequency) applied to the HiPIMS Ta target is varied from 0 to 1800W (0 to 300 Hz) in increments of 600W (100 Hz). The resulting boron-to-metal ratio, y = B/(Zr+Ta), in as-deposited Zr1-xTaxBy films decreases from 2.4 to 1.5 as P-Ta is increased from 0 to 1800W, while x increases from 0 to 0.3. A combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), glancing-angle XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), analytical Z-contrast scanning TEM, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atom-probe tomography reveals that all films have the hexagonal AlB2 crystal structure with a columnar nanostructure, in which the column boundaries of layers with 0 amp;lt;= x amp;lt; 0.2 are B-rich, whereas those with x amp;gt;= 0.2 are Ta-rich. The nanostructural transition, combined with changes in average column widths, results in an similar to 20% increase in hardness, from 35 to 42 GPa, with a simultaneous increase of similar to 30% in nanoindentation toughness, from 4.0 to 5.2MPa root m. Published by the AVS.

• 6.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Controlling the B/Ti ratio of TiBx thin films grown by high-power impulse magnetron sputtering2018In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 3, article id 030604Article in journal (Refereed)

TiBx thin films grown from compound TiB2 targets by magnetron sputter deposition are typically highly over-stoichiometric, with x ranging from 3.5 to 2.4, due to differences in Ti and B preferential-ejection angles and gas-phase scattering during transport from the target to the substrate. Here, the authors demonstrate that stoichiometric TiB2 films can be obtained using highpower impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) operated in power-controlled mode. The B/Ti ratio x of films sputter-deposited in Ar is controllably varied from 2.08 to 1.83 by adjusting the length of HiPIMS pulses t(on) between 100 and 30 mu s, while maintaining average power and pulse frequency constant. This results in peak current densities J(T), peak ranging from 0.27 to 0.88 A/cm(2). Energy- and time-resolved mass spectrometry analyses of the ion fluxes incident at the substrate position show that the density of metal ions increases with decreasing t(on) due to a dramatic increase in J(T, peak) resulting in the strong gas rarefaction. With t(on)amp;lt;60 mu s (J(T),(peak)amp;gt; 0.4 A/cm(2)), film growth is increasingly controlled by ions incident at the substrate, rather than neutrals, as a result of the higher plasma dencity and, hence, electron-impact ionization probablity. Thus, since sputter- ejected Ti atoms have a higher probability of being ionized than B atoms, due to their lower first-ionization potential and larger ionization cross-section, the Ti concentration in as-deposited films increases with decreasing ton (increasing J(T,peak)) as ionized sputtered species are steered to the substrate by the plasma in order to maintain charge neutrality. Published by the AVS.

• 7.
University of Grenoble Alpes, France.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Grenoble Alpes, France. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
First-order Raman scattering in three-layered Mo-based ternaries: MoAlB, Mo2Ga2C and Mo2GaC2017In: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, ISSN 0377-0486, E-ISSN 1097-4555, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 631-638Article in journal (Refereed)

Here, we report, for the first time, on the first-order Raman spectra of the layered Mo-based ternaries: MoAlB, Mo2Ga2C and Mo2GaC. Polycrystalline samples were fabricated, and well-defined Raman spectra were recorded. When the experimental peak positions were compared with those predicted from density functional theory, good agreement was obtained, indirectly validating both. Furthermore, all modes in the three compounds were symmetry assigned. Copyright (c) 2017 John Wiley amp; Sons, Ltd.

• 8.
UCLouvain, Belgium.
Univ Grenoble Alpes, France. Univ Grenoble Alpes, France. Univ Grenoble Alpes, France. Univ Grenoble Alpes, France. Univ Clermont Auvergne, France. Univ Grenoble Alpes, France; European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, France. European Synchrotron Radiat Facil, France. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA. UCLouvain, Belgium.
First-order Raman scattering of rare-earth containing i-MAX single crystals (Mo2/3RE1/3)(2)AlC (RE = Nd, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er)2019In: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 053609Article in journal (Refereed)

Herein, we report on the growth of single crystals of various (Mo2/3RE1/3)(2)AlC (RE = Nd, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er) i-MAX phases and their Raman characterization. Using first principles, the wave numbers of the various phonon modes and their relative atomic displacements are calculated and compared to experimental results. Twelve high-intensity Raman peaks are identified as the fingerprint of this new family of rare-earth containing i-MAX phases, thus being a useful tool to investigate their corresponding composition and structural properties. Indeed, while a redshift is observed in the low-wave-number range due to an increase of the rare-earth atomic mass when moving from left to right on the lanthanide row, a blueshift is observed for most of the high-wave-number modes due to a strengthening of the bonds. A complete classification of bond stiffnesses is achieved based on the direct dependence of a phonon mode wave number with respect to the bond stiffness. Finally, STEM images are used to confirm the crystal structure.

• 9.
Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; SCK CEN, Belgium. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; SCK CEN, Belgium. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SCK CEN, Belgium. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium. Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Theoretical Prediction and Synthesis of (Cr2/3Zr1/3)(2)AIC i-MAX Phase2018In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 6237-6244Article in journal (Refereed)

Guided by predictive theory, a new compound with chemical composition (Cr2/3Zr1/3)(2)AlC was synthesized by hot pressing of Cr, ZrH2, Al, and C mixtures at 1300 degrees C. The crystal structure is monoclinic of space group C2/c and displays in-plane chemical order in the metal layers, a so-called i-MAX phase. Quantitative chemical composition analyses confirmed that the primary phase had a (Cr2/3Zr1/3)(2)AlC stoichiometry, with secondary Cr2AlC, AlZrC2, and ZrC phases and a small amount of Al-Cr intermetallics. A theoretical evaluation of the (Cr2/3Zr1/3)(2)AlC magnetic structure was performed, indicating an antiferromagnetic ground state. Also (Cr2/3Zr1/3)(2)AlC, of the same structure, was predicted to be stable.

• 10.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Phase stability of Ti2AlC upon oxygen incorporation: A first-principles investigation2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 024111-1-024111-8Article in journal (Refereed)

The phase stability of Ti2AlC upon oxygen incorporation has been studied by means of first-principles calculations. Recent experimental observations of this so-called MAX phase (M = early transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C or N) show that the characteristic nanolaminated structure is retained upon oxygen incorporation, with strong indications of O substituting for C. Therefore, a solid solution of C and O on the carbon sublattice has been simulated by the so-called special quasirandom structure method. Through a developed systematic approach, the enthalpy of formation of Ti2Al(C1−x,Ox) has been compared to all experimentally known competing phases, and has been found favorable for all C to O ratios at the composition of the MAX phase. A negative isostructural formation enthalpy has also been predicted for Ti2Al(C1−x,Ox). Altogether, the results indicate that a large amount of oxygen, at least up to x=0.75, might be present in the Ti2AlC MAX-phase structure without decomposition of the material into its competing phases. Furthermore, an effect of an increased oxygen content is a corresponding increase in the bulk modulus and a change in electronic properties. These results are of importance for further understanding and identification of possible composition range of the MAX-phase oxycarbide, and hence for the prospect of tuning the material properties by a varying incorporation of oxygen.

• 11.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Magnetic nanoscale laminates with tunable exchange coupling from first principles2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, no 22, p. 220403-Article in journal (Refereed)

The M(n+1)AX(n) (MAX) phases are nanolaminated compounds with a unique combination of metallic and ceramic properties, not yet including magnetism. We carry out a systematic theoretical study of potential magnetic MAX phases and predict the existence of stable magnetic (Cr(1-x)Mn(x))(2)AlC alloys. We show that in this system ferromagnetically ordered Mn layers are exchange coupled via nearly nonmagnetic Cr layers, forming an inherent structure of atomic-thin magnetic multilayers, and that the degree of disorder between Cr and Mn in the alloy can be used to tune the sign and magnitude of the coupling.

• 12.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. 3Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Complex magnetism in nanolaminated Mn2GaC2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

We have used first-principles calculations and Heisenberg Monte Carlo simulations to search for the magnetic ground state of Mn2GaC, a recently synthesized magnetic nanolaminate. We have, independent on method, identified a range of low energy collinear as well as non-collinear magnetic configurations, indicating a highly frustrated magnetic material with several nearly degenerate magnetic states. An experimentally obtained magnetization of only 0.29 per Mn atom in Mn2GaC may be explained by canted spins in an antiferromagnetic configuration of ferromagnetically ordered sub-layers with alternating spin orientation, denoted AFM[0001]$\smal\text{A}\atop\text{4}$. Furthermore, low temperature X-ray diffraction show a new basal plane peak appearing upon a magnetic transition, which is consistent with the here predicted change in inter-layer spacing for the AFM[0001]$\smal\text{A}\atop\text{4}$ configuration.

• 13.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A critical evaluation of GGA plus U modeling for atomic, electronic and magnetic structure of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC2015In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 095601-Article in journal (Refereed)

In this work we critically evaluate methods for treating electron correlation effects in multicomponent carbides using a GGA + U framework, addressing doubts from previous works on the usability of density functional theory in the design of magnetic MAX phases. We have studied the influence of the Hubbard U-parameter, applied to Cr 3d orbitals, on the calculated lattice parameters, magnetic moments, magnetic order, bulk modulus and electronic density of states of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC and Cr2GeC. By considering non-, ferro-, and five different antiferromagnetic spin configurations, we show the importance of including a broad range of magnetic orders in the search for MAX phases with finite magnetic moments in the ground state. We show that when electron correlation is treated on the level of the generalized gradient approximation (U = 0 eV), the magnetic ground state of Cr(2)AC (A = Al, Ga, Ge) is in-plane antiferromagnetic with finite Cr local moments, and calculated lattice parameters and bulk modulus close to experimentally reported values. By comparing GGA and GGA + U results with experimental data we find that using a U-value larger than 1 eV results in structural parameters deviating strongly from experimentally observed values. Comparisons are also done with hybrid functional calculations (HSE06) resulting in an exchange splitting larger than what is obtained for a U-value of 2 eV. Our results suggest caution and that investigations need to involve several different magnetic orders before lack of magnetism in calculations are blamed on the exchange-correlation approximations in this class of magnetic MAX phases.

• 14.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Correlation between magnetic state and bulk modulus of Cr2AlC2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 21Article in journal (Refereed)

The effect of magnetism on the bulk modulus (B0) of M2AlC (M  = Ti, V, and Cr) has been studied using first principles calculations. We find that it is possible to identify an energetically favorable magnetic Cr2AlC phase without using any adjustable parameter, such as the Hubbard U. Furthermore, we show that an in-plane spin polarized configuration has substantially lower B0 as compared to the non-magnetic model. The existences of local magnetic moments on Cr atoms considerably improve agreement between theory and experiment regarding trends in B0 for M2AlC phases.

• 15.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Magnetic ground state of Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC, and Cr2GeC from first-principles interplay of spin configurations and strong electrons correlation2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

We have studied the interplay between spin configuration and electron correlations approximations as well as their influence on calculated lattice parameters, magnetic moments, and bulk modulus of the nanolaminated MAX phase materials Cr2AlC, Cr2GaC, and Cr2GeC. By considering non-, ferro- and, and five different antiferromagnetic configurations, we show the importance of including a broad range of magnetic states in search for the ground state. Our calculations show that when electron correlation is treated on the level of the generalized gradient approximation or with an additional Hubbard U interaction term up to a value of 1 eV, the magnetic ground state of Cr2AC (A=Al, Ga, Ge) is in-plane antiferromagnetic with finite Cr local moments and calculated lattice parameters and bulk modulus close to experimentally reported values.

• 16.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Stability trends of MAX phases from first principles2010In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 81, no 22, p. 220102-Article in journal (Refereed)

We have developed a systematic method to investigate the phase stability of M(n+1)AX(n) phases, here applied for M=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, or Mn, A=Al, and X=C or N. Through a linear optimization procedure including all known competing phases, we identify the set of most competitive phases for n=1-3 in each system. Our calculations completely reproduce experimental occurrences of stable MAX phases. We also identify and suggest an explanation for the trend in stability as the transition metal is changed across the 3d series for both carbon- and nitrogen-based systems. Based on our results, the method can be used to predict stability of potentially existing undiscovered phases.

• 17.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Uppsala University, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Iceland, Iceland. Uppsala University, Sweden. Uppsala University, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. National University of Science and Technology MISIS, Russia; Tomsk State University, Russia. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Magnetically driven anisotropic structural changes in the atomic laminate Mn2GaC2016In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 014410-Article in journal (Refereed)

Inherently layered magnetic materials, such as magnetic M(n+1)AX(n) (MAX) phases, offer an intriguing perspective for use in spintronics applications and as ideal model systems for fundamental studies of complex magnetic phenomena. The MAX phase composition M(n+1)AX(n) consists of M(n+1)AX(n) blocks separated by atomically thin A-layers where M is a transition metal, A an A-group element, X refers to carbon and/or nitrogen, and n is typically 1, 2, or 3. Here, we show that the recently discovered magnetic Mn2GaC MAX phase displays structural changes linked to the magnetic anisotropy, and a rich magnetic phase diagram which can be manipulated through temperature and magnetic field. Using first-principles calculations and Monte Carlo simulations, an essentially one-dimensional (1D) interlayer plethora of two-dimensioanl (2D) Mn-C-Mn trilayers with robust intralayer ferromagnetic spin coupling was revealed. The complex transitions between them were observed to induce magnetically driven anisotropic structural changes. The magnetic behavior as well as structural changes dependent on the temperature and applied magnetic field are explained by the large number of low energy, i.e., close to degenerate, collinear and noncollinear spin configurations that become accessible to the system with a change in volume. These results indicate that the magnetic state can be directly controlled by an applied pressure or through the introduction of stress and show promise for the use of Mn2GaC MAX phases in future magnetoelectric and magnetocaloric applications.

• 18.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Uppsala University, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Influence of boron vacancies on phase stability, bonding and structure of MB2 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W) with AlB2 type structure2015In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 27, no 43, p. 435702-Article in journal (Refereed)

Transition metal diborides in hexagonal AlB2 type structure typically form stable MB2 phases for group IV elements (M = Ti, Zr, Hf). For group V (M = V, Nb, Ta) and group VI (M = Cr, Mo, W) the stability is reduced and an alternative hexagonal rhombohedral MB2 structure becomes more stable. In this work we investigate the effect of vacancies on the B-site in hexagonal MB2 and its influence on the phase stability and the structure for TiB2, ZrB2, HfB2, VB2, NbB2, TaB2, CrB2, MoB2, and WB2 using first-principles calculations. Selected phases are also analyzed with respect to electronic and bonding properties. We identify trends showing that MB2 with M from group V and IV are stabilized when introducing B-vacancies, consistent with a decrease in the number of states at the Fermi level and by strengthening of the B-M interaction. The stabilization upon vacancy formation also increases when going from M in period 4 to period 6. For TiB2, ZrB2, and HfB2, introduction of B-vacancies have a destabilizing effect due to occupation of B-B antibonding orbitals close to the Fermi level and an increase in states at the Fermi level.

• 19.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Prediction and synthesis of a family of atomic laminate phases with Kagome-like and in-plane chemical ordering2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 7, article id e1700642Article in journal (Refereed)

The enigma of MAX phases and their hybrids prevails. We probe transition metal (M) alloying in MAX phases for metal size, electronegativity, and electron configuration, and discover ordering in these MAX hybrids, namely, (V2/3Zr1/3)(2)AlC and (Mo2/3Y1/3)(2)AlC. Predictive theory and verifying materials synthesis, including a judicious choice of alloying M from groups III to VI and periods 4 and 5, indicate a potentially large family of thermodynamically stable phases, with Kagome-like and in-plane chemical ordering, and with incorporation of elements previously not known for MAX phases, including the common Y. We propose the structure to be monoclinic C2/c. As an extension of the work, we suggest a matching set of novel MXenes, from selective etching of the A-element. The demonstrated structural design on simultaneous two-dimensional (2D) and 3D atomic levels expands the property tuning potential of functional materials.

• 20.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Dataset on the structure and thermodynamic and dynamic stability of Mo2ScAlC2 from experiments and first-principles calculations.2017In: Data In Brief, ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 10, p. 576-582Article in journal (Refereed)

The data presented in this paper are related to the research article entitled "Theoretical stability and materials synthesis of a chemically ordered MAX phase, Mo2ScAlC2, and its two-dimensional derivate Mo2ScC" (Meshkian et al. 2017) [1]. This paper describes theoretical phase stability calculations of the MAX phase alloy MoxSc3-xAlC2 (x=0, 1, 2, 3), including chemical disorder and out-of-plane order of Mo and Sc along with related phonon dispersion and Bader charges, and Rietveld refinement of Mo2ScAlC2. The data is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

• 21.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Origin of Chemically Ordered Atomic Laminates (i-MAX): Expanding the Elemental Space by a Theoretical/Experimental Approach2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 7761-7770Article in journal (Refereed)

With increased chemical diversity and structural complexity comes the opportunities for innovative materials possessing advantageous properties. Herein, we combine predictive first-principles calculations with experimental synthesis, to explore the origin of formation of the atomically laminated i-MAX phases. By probing (Mo2/3M1/32)(2)AC (where M-2 = Sc, Y and A = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, In), we predict seven stable i-MAX phases, five of which should have a retained stability at high temperatures. (Mo2/3Sc1/3)(2)GaC and (Mo2/3Y1/3)(2)GaC were experimentally verified, displaying the characteristic in-plane chemical order of Mo and Sc/Y and Kagome-like ordering of the A-element. We suggest that the formation of i-MAX phases requires a significantly different size of the two metals, and a preferable smaller size of the A-element. Furthermore, the population of antibonding orbitals should be minimized, which for the metals herein (Mo and Sc/Y) means that A elements from Group 13 (Al, Ga, In) are favored over Group 14 (Si, Ge, Sn). Using these guidelines, we foresee a widening of elemental space for the family of i-MAX phases and expect more phases to be synthesized, which will realize useful properties. Furthermore, based on i-MAX phases as parent materials for 2D MXenes, we also expect that the range of MXene compositions will be expanded.

• 22.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Order and disorder in quaternary atomic laminates from first-principles calculations2015In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 17, no 47, p. 31810-31821Article in journal (Refereed)

We report on the phase stability of chemically ordered and disordered quaternary MAX phases - TiMAlC, TiM2AlC2, MTi2AlC2, and Ti2M2AlC3 where M = Zr, Hf (group IV), M = V, Nb, Ta (group V), and M = Cr, Mo, W (group VI). At 0 K, layered chemically ordered structures are predicted to be stable for M from groups V and VI. By taking into account the configurational entropy, an order-disorder temperature T-disorder can be estimated. TiM2AlC2 (M = Cr, Mo, W) and Ti2M2AlC3 (M = Mo, W) are found with Tdisorder 4 1773 K and are hence predicted to be ordered at the typical bulk synthesis temperature of 1773 K. Other ordered phases, even though metastable at elevated temperatures, may be synthesized by non-equilibrium methods such as thin film growth. Furthermore, phases predicted not to be stable in any form at 0 K can be stabilized at higher temperatures in a disordered form, being the case for group IV, for MTi2AlC2 (M = V, Cr, Mo), and for Ti2M2AlC3 (M = V, Ta). The stability of the layered ordered structures with M from group VI can primarily be explained by Ti breaking the energetically unfavorable stacking of M and C where M is surrounded by C in a face-centered cubic configuration, and by M having a larger electro-negativity than Al resulting in a fewer electrons available for populating antibonding Al-Al orbitals. The results show that these chemically ordered quaternary MAX phases allow for new elemental combinations in MAX phases, which can be used to add new properties to this family of atomic laminates and in turn prospects for tuning these properties.

• 23.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Oxygen incorporation and defect formation in Ti2AlC, V2AlC and Cr2AlC from first-principles calculations2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

We have studied oxygen incorporation and defect formation in M2AlC (M = Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases using first principles calculations. Evaluating phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations, we show that oxygen prefer different lattice sites depending on M-element, which can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. The results show that oxygen substitutes for carbon in Ti2AlC, while forming an interstitial oxygen in the Al-layer for Cr2AlC. We also predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x = 0.5) in Ti2Al(C1-xOx). Due to similar valence electron configuration of Ti2AlC and the hypothetical M2AlC (M =Zr, Hf), we also investigate if oxygen can be used to stabilize the latter MAX phases.

• 24.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Electronic structure, bonding characteristics, and mechanical properties in (W2/3Sc1/3)(2)AIC and (W2/3Y1/3)(2)AIC i-MAX phases from first-principles calculations2018In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 30, no 30, article id 305502Article in journal (Refereed)

With the recent discovery of in-plane chemically ordered MAX phases (i-MAX) of the general formula ((M2/3M1/32)-M-1)(2)AC comes addition of non-traditional MAX phase elements. In the present study, we use density functional theory calculations to investigate the electronic structure, bonding nature, and mechanical properties of the novel (W2/3Sc1/3)(2)AlC and (W2/3Y1/3)(2)AlC i-MAX phases. From analysis of the electronic structure and projected crystal orbital Hamilton populations, we show that the metallic i-MAX phases have significant hybridization between W and C, as well as Sc(Y) and C states, indicative of strong covalent bonding. Substitution of Sc for Y (M-2) leads to reduced bonding strength for W-C and Al-Al interactions while M-2-C and M-2-Al interactions are strengthened. We also compare the Voigt-Reuss-Hill bulk, shear, and Youngs moduli along the series of M-1 = Cr, Mo, and W, and relate these trends to the bonding interactions. Furthermore, we find overall larger moduli for Sc-based i-MAX phases.

• 25.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Electronic structure, bonding characteristics, and mechanical properties in (W2/3Sc1/3)(2)AIC and (W2/3Y1/3)(2)AIC i-MAX phases from first-principles calculations2018In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 30, no 30, article id 305502Article in journal (Refereed)

With the recent discovery of in-plane chemically ordered MAX phases (i-MAX) of the general formula ((M2/3M1/32)-M-1)(2)AC comes addition of non-traditional MAX phase elements. In the present study, we use density functional theory calculations to investigate the electronic structure, bonding nature, and mechanical properties of the novel (W2/3Sc1/3)(2)AlC and (W2/3Y1/3)(2)AlC i-MAX phases. From analysis of the electronic structure and projected crystal orbital Hamilton populations, we show that the metallic i-MAX phases have significant hybridization between W and C, as well as Sc(Y) and C states, indicative of strong covalent bonding. Substitution of Sc for Y (M-2) leads to reduced bonding strength for W-C and Al-Al interactions while M-2-C and M-2-Al interactions are strengthened. We also compare the Voigt-Reuss-Hill bulk, shear, and Youngs moduli along the series of M-1 = Cr, Mo, and W, and relate these trends to the bonding interactions. Furthermore, we find overall larger moduli for Sc-based i-MAX phases.

• 26.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Uppsala University, Sweden . Uppsala University, Sweden . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Discovery of the Ternary Nanolaminated Compound Nb2GeC by a Systematic Theoretical-Experimental Approach2012In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 035502-Article in journal (Refereed)

Since the advent of theoretical materials science some 60 years ago, there has been a drive to predict and design new materials in silicio. Mathematical optimization procedures to determine phase stability can be generally applicable to complex ternary or higher-order materials systems where the phase diagrams of the binary constituents are sufficiently known. Here, we employ a simplex-optimization procedure to predict new compounds in the ternary Nb-Ge-C system. Our theoretical results show that the hypothetical Nb2GeC is stable, and excludes all reasonably conceivable competing hypothetical phases. We verify the existence of the Nb2GeC phase by thin film synthesis using magnetron sputtering. This hexagonal nanolaminated phase has a and c lattice parameters of similar to 3.24 angstrom and 12.82 angstrom.

• 27.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Layered ternary M(n+1)AX(n) phases and their 2D derivative MXene: an overview from a thin-film perspective2017In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 50, no 11, article id 113001Article, review/survey (Refereed)

Inherently and artificially layered materials are commonly investigated both for fundamental scientific purposes and for technological application. When a layered material is thinned or delaminated to its physical limits, a two-dimensional (2D) material is formed and exhibits novel properties compared to its bulk parent phase. The complex layered phases known as MAX phases (where M = early transition metal, A = A-group element, e.g. Al or Si, and X = C or N) are an exciting model system for materials design and the understanding of process-structure-property relationships. When the A layers are selectively etched from the MAX phases, a new type of 2D material is formed, named MXene to emphasize the relation to the MAX phases and the parallel with graphene. Since their discovery in 2011, MXenes have rapidly become established as a novel class of 2D materials with remarkable possibilities for composition variations and property tuning. This article gives a brief overview of MAX phases and MXene from a thin-film perspective, reviewing theory, characterization by electron microscopy, properties and how these are affected by the change in dimensionality, and outstanding challenges.

• 28.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Seco Tools AB, Fagersta, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Arc deposition of Ti–Si–C–N thin films from binary and ternary cathodes — Comparing sources of C2012In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 213, p. 145-154Article in journal (Refereed)

Ti–Si–C–N thin films with composition of 1–11 at.% Si and 1–20 at.% C have been deposited onto cemented carbide substrates by arcing Ti–Si cathodes in a CH4 + N2 gas mixture and, alternatively, through arcing Ti–Si–C cathodes in N2. Films of comparable compositions from the two types of cathodes have similar structure and properties. Hence, C can be supplied as either plasma ions generated from the cathode or atoms from the gas phase with small influence on the structural evolution. Over the compositional range obtained, the films were dense and cubic-phase nanocrystalline, as characterized by X-ray diffraction, ion beam analysis, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The films have high hardness (30–40 GPa by nanoindentation) due to hardening from low-angle grain boundaries on the nanometer scale and lattice defects such as growth-induced vacancies and alloying element interstitials.

• 29.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Nanocolumnar Epitaxial Ti1-xSixN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.18) Thin Films Grown by Dual Reactive Magnetron Sputtering on MgO (001), (011), and (111) Substrates2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

Ti1-xSixNy thin films and multilayers have been grown on single-crystal TiN-templated MgO (001), (011), and (111) substrates kept at 550 °C. Elemental Ti and Si targets were used in UVH reactive dual magnetron sputtering in a mixed Ar/N2 discharge. Composition analysis by time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis show that the films are close to stoichiometric (0.95 ≤ y ≤ 1.00) with respect to TiN over the wide range of Si concentrations 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.22. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with scanning TEM and energy dispersive Xray analysis show that all films grow epitaxially for x ≤ 0.18 and that as much as every fifth Ti atom can be replaced by Si (~10 at.%) in Ti1-xSixN(001). For the (011) and (111)-oriented films, however, only 1-2 at.% Si substitutes for Ti. Instead, Si segregates to form crystalline-to-amorphous SiNz (z ≈ 1) tissue phases, which promote the formation of epitaxial TiN nanocolumns. The nanocolumns have preferred {110} interfaces and {200} top facets and grow several hundreds  of nm in length.

• 30.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Influence of Ar and N2 Pressure on Plasma Chemistry, Ion Energy, and Thin Film Composition during Filtered Arc Deposition from Ti3SiC2 Cathodes2014In: IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, ISSN 0093-3813, E-ISSN 1939-9375, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 3498-3507Article in journal (Refereed)

Arc plasma from Ti3SiC2 compound cathodes used in a filtered dc arc system has been characterized with respect to plasma chemistry and charge-state resolved ion energies. In vacuum, the plasma composition is dominated by Ti ions, with concentrations of 84.3, 9.3, and 6.4 at% for Ti, Si, and C ions, respectively. The reduced amount of Si and most notably C compared with the cathode composition is confirmed by analysis of film composition in corresponding growth experiments. The deposition of light-element deficient films is thus related to plasma generation or filter transport. The ion energy distributions in vacuum range up to 140, 90, and 70 eV for Ti, Si, and C, respectively. Corresponding average ion energies of 48, 36, and 27 eV are reduced upon introduction of gas, down to around 5 eV at 0.6 Pa Ar or 0.3 Pa N2 for all species. In vacuum, the charge state distributions of Si and C are shifted to higher values compared with corresponding elemental cathodes, likely caused by changed effective electron temperature of the plasma stemming from compound cathode material and/or by electron impact ionization in the filter. The average ion charge states are reduced upon addition of Ar, ranging between 1.97 and 1.48 for Ti, 1.91 and 1.46 for Si, and 1.25 and 1.02 for C. Similar effects are observed upon introduction of N2, though with more efficient charge state reduction with pressure. It is conceivable that the pressure-induced changes in ion energy and charge state are crucial for the film synthesis from a microstructure evolution point of view, as they affect the ion-surface interactions through supply of energy, especially when substrate biasing is employed during arc deposition from a compound cathode.

• 31.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Si incorporation in Ti1-xSixN films grown on TiN(001) and (001)-faceted TiN(111) columns2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 257, p. 121-128Article in journal (Refereed)

Thin films consisting of TiN nanocrystallites encapsulated in a fully percolated SiNy tissue phase are archetypes for hard and superhard nanocomposites. Here, we investigate metastable SiNy solid solubility in TiN and probe the effects of surface segregation during the growth of TiSiN films onto substrates that are either flat TiN(001)/MgO(001) epitaxial buffer layers or TiN(001) facets of length 1-5 nm terminating epitaxial TiN(111) nanocolumns, separated by voids, deposited on epitaxial TiN(111)/MgO(111) buffer layers. Using reactive magnetron sputter deposition, the TiSiN layers were grown at 550 degrees C and the TiN buffer layers at 900 degrees C On TiN(001), the films are NaCl-structure single-phase metastable Ti1-xSixN(001) with N/(Ti + Si) = 1 and 0 less than= x less than= 0.19. These alloys remain single-crystalline to critical thicknesses h(c) ranging from 100 +/- 30 nm with x = 0.13 to 40 +/- 10 nm with x = 0.19. At thicknesses h greater than h(c), the epitaxial growth front breaks down locally to form V-shaped polycrystalline columns with an underdense feather-like nanostructure. In contrast, the voided epitaxial TiN(111) columnar surfaces, as well as the TiN(001) facets, act as sinks for SiNy. For Ti1-xSixN layers with global average composition values less than x greater than = 0.16, the local x value in the middle of Ti1-xSixN columns increases from 0.08 for columns with radius r similar or equal to 2 nm to x = 0.14 with r similar or equal to 4 nm. The average out-of-plane lattice parameter of epitaxial nanocolumns encapsulated in SiNy decreases monotonically with increasing Si fraction less than x greater than, indicating the formation of metastable (Ti,Si)N solid solutions under growth conditions similar to those of superhard nanocomposites for which the faceted surfaces of nanograins also provide sinks for SiNy.

• 32.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Seco Tools AB, Sweden. Seco Tools AB, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Ti-Si-C-N Thin Films Grown by Reactive Arc Evaporation from Ti3SiC2 Cathodes2011In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 26, p. 874-881Article in journal (Refereed)

Ti-Si-C-N thin films were deposited onto WC-Co substrates by industrial scale arc evaporation from Ti3SiC2 compound cathodes in N2 gas. Microstructure and hardness were found to be highly dependent on the wide range of film compositions attained, comprising up to 12 at.% Si and 16 at.% C. Nonreactive deposition yielded films consisting of understoichiometric TiCx, Ti and silicide phases with high (27 GPa) hardness. At a nitrogen pressure of 0.25-0.5 Pa, below that required for N saturation, superhard, 45-50 GPa, (Ti,Si)(C,N) films with a nanocrystalline feathered structure were formed. Films grown above 2 Pa displayed crystalline phases of more pronounced nitride character, but with C and Si segregated to grain boundaries to form weak grain boundary phases. In abundance of N, the combined presence of Si and C disturb cubic phase growth severely and compromises the mechanical strength of the films.

• 33.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Seco Tools AB, Sweden. Seco Tools AB, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Layer Formation by Resputtering in Ti-Si-C Hard Coatings during Large Scale Cathodic Arc Deposition2011In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 15, p. 3923-3930Article in journal (Refereed)

This paper presents the physical mechanism behind the phenomenon of self-layering in thin films made by industrial scale cathodic arc deposition systems using compound cathodes and rotating substrate fixture. For Ti-Si-C films, electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry reveals a trapezoid modulation in Si content in the substrate normal direction, with a period of 4 to 23 nm dependent on cathode configuration. This is caused by preferential resputtering of Si by the energetic deposition flux incident at high incidence angles when the substrates are facing away from the cathodes. The Ti-rich sub-layers exhibit TiC grains with size up to 5 nm, while layers with high Si-content are less crystalline. The nanoindentation hardness of the films increases with decreasing layer thickness.

• 34.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Synthesis of Ti3AuC2, Ti3Au2C2 and Ti3IrC2 by noble metal substitution reaction in Ti3SiC2 for high-temperature-stable Ohmic contacts to SiC2017In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 814-818Article in journal (Refereed)

The large class of layered ceramics encompasses both van der Waals (vdW) and non-vdW solids. While intercalation of noble metals in vdW solids is known, formation of compounds by incorporation of noble-metal layers in non-vdW layered solids is largely unexplored. Here, we show formation of Ti3AuC2 and Ti3Au2C2 phases with up to 31% lattice swelling by a substitutional solid-state reaction of Au into Ti3SiC2 single-crystal thin films with simultaneous out-diffusion of Si. Ti3IrC2 is subsequently produced by a substitution reaction of Ir for Au in Ti3Au2C2. These phases form Ohmic electrical contacts to SiC and remain stable after 1,000 h of ageing at 600 degrees C in air. The present results, by combined analytical electron microscopy and ab initio calculations, open avenues for processing of noble-metal-containing layered ceramics that have not been synthesized from elemental sources, along with tunable properties such as stable electrical contacts for high-temperature power electronics or gas sensors.

• 35.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Ti2Au2C and Ti3Au2C2 formed by solid state reaction of gold with Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC22017In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 53, no 69, p. 9554-9557Article in journal (Refereed)

Incorporation of layers of noble metals in non-van der Waals layered materials may be used to form novel layered compounds. Recently, we demonstrated a high-temperature-induced exchange process of Au with Si in the layered phase Ti3SiC2, resulting in the formation of Ti3AuC2 and Ti3Au2C2. Here, we generalize this technique showing that Au/Ti2AlC and Au/Ti3AlC2 undergo an exchange reaction at 650 [degree]C to form Ti2Au2C and Ti3Au2C2 and determine their structures by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ab initio calculations. These results imply that noble-metal-containing layered phases should be possible to synthesize in many systems. The metal to be introduced should be inert to the transition-metal carbide layers, and exhibit negative heat of mixing with the initial A element in a liquid phase or two-phase liquid/solid region at the annealing temperature.

• 36.
Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany; JARA, Germany.
Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany; JARA, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany; Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany. Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany. Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany; JARA, Germany. Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany; JARA, Germany; Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany; Univ Duisburg Essen, Germany.
Direct measurement of anisotropic conductivity in a nanolaminated (Mn0.5Cr0.5)(2)GaC thin film2019In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 115, no 9, article id 094101Article in journal (Refereed)

The direct and parameter-free measurement of anisotropic electrical resistivity of a magnetic M(n+1)AX(n) (MAX) phase film is presented. A multitip scanning tunneling microscope is used to carry out 4-probe transport measurements with variable probe spacing s. The observation of the crossover from the 3D regime for small s to the 2D regime for large s enables the determination of both in-plane and perpendicular-to-plane resistivities rho(ab) and rho(c). A (Cr0.5Mn0.5)(2)GaC MAX phase film shows a large anisotropy ratio rho(c)/rho(ab) = 525 +/- 49. This is a consequence of the complex bonding scheme of MAX phases with covalent M-X and metallic M-M bonds in the MX planes and predominately covalent, but weaker bonds between the MX and A planes. Published under license by AIP Publishing.

• 37.
CONACYT-Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. J-48, Puebla, Pue, Mexico.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. School of Materials, Faculty of Science and Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. CINVESTAV-Unidad Queretaro, Queretaro, Qro, Mexico. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SKF Research & Technology Development Center, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.
Micro-tribological performance of fullerene-like carbon and carbon-nitride surfaces2018In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 128, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)

We studied the microtribological behavior of amorphous and fullerene-like (FL) carbon and carbon-nitride coatings deposited by filtered-cathodic-arc. All films show similar friction coefficients but different wear mechanisms. The FL films exhibit a surface swelling with the formation of a layer that thickens during the test, limiting wear and maintaining a low friction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on worn FL film surfaces show an increase in the sp(2)-content, indicating that the lubricious layer generated by the wear process is probably the result of re-hybridization due to plasticity induced by localized shear. In contrast, the wear results of the amorphous films, involving tribomechanical and tribochemical surface phenomena, show that the surface layer formed during sliding is a precursor to the onset of wear.

• 38.
Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO 65409 USA; Missouri University of Science and Technology, MO 65409 USA. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Alkylammonium Cation Intercalation into Ti3C2 (MXene): Effects on Properties and Ion-Exchange Capacity Estimation2017In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 1099-1106Article in journal (Refereed)

Ti3C2Tx MXene intercalated with Li+ ions was produced and ion-exchanged with a series of trimethylalkylammonium (AA) cations of increasing alkyl chain length. A discontinuous expansion in the MXene layer spacing was observed, attributed to complete packing of the interlayer space at a critical chain length. The latter was used to estimate the number of cations per Ti3C2 formula unit, which was found to be in good agreement with a similar quantification obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The system was also modeled using density functional theory and molecular dynamics, arriving at cation concentrations in the same range. The intercalated AA cations led to tunable increases in resistivity of the normally highly electrically conductive MXene and were investigated as interlayer pillars in electrochemical capacitors.

• 39.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Theoretical prediction and synthesis of CSxFy thin films2016In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, no 17, p. 9527-9534Article in journal (Refereed)

A new carbon-based compound: CSxFy was addressed by density functional theory calculations and synthesized by reactive magnetron sputtering. Geometry optimizations and energy calculations were performed on graphene-like model systems containing sulfur and fluorine atoms. It is shown that [S+F] concentrations in the range of 0−10 at.%, structural ordered characteristics similar to graphene pieces containing ring defects are energetically feasible. The modeling predicts that CSxFy thin films with graphite and fullerene-like characteristics may be obtained for the mentioned concentration range. Accordingly, thin films were synthesized from a graphite solid target and sulfur hexafluoride as reactive gas. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, transmission electron microscopy characterization and selected area electron diffraction confirmed the presence of small ordered clusters with graphitic features in a sample containing 0.4 at.% of S and 3.4 at.% of F.

• 40.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Control of the metal/gas ion ratio incident at the substrate plane during high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of transition metals in Ar2017In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 642, p. 36-40Article in journal (Refereed)

High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of materials systems with metal/gas-atom mass ratios m(Me)/m(g) near, or less than, unity presents a challenge for precise timing of synchronous substrate-bias pulses to select metal-ion irradiation of the film and, thus, reduce stress while increasing layer density during low-temperature growth. The problem stems from high gas-ion fluxes Fg+(t) at the substrate, which overlap with metal-ion fluxes FMe+(t). We use energy-and time-dependent mass spectrometry to analyze FMe+(t) and Fg+(t) for Group IVb transition-metal targets in Ar and show that the time-and energy-integrated metal/gas ion ratio NMe+/NAr+ at the substrate can be controlled over a wide range by adjusting the HiPIMS pulse length tau(ON), while maintaining the peak target current density J(T,peak) constant. The effect is a consequence of severe gas rarefaction which scales with J(T)(t). For Ti-HiPIMS, terminating the discharge at the maximum J(T)(t), corresponding to tau(ON) = 30 mu s, there is an essentially complete loss of Ar+ ion intensity, yielding NTi+/NAr+ similar to 60. With increasing tau(ON),J(T)(t) decreases and NTi+/NAr+ gradually decays, due to Ar refill, to similar to 1 with tau(ON) = 120 s. Time-resolved ion-energy distribution functions confirm that the degree of rarefaction depends on tau(ON): for shorter pulses, tau ONHTC/SUBTAG amp;lt; FORTITLEHTC_RETAIN 60 [rs, the original sputtered-atom Sigmund-Thompson energy distributions are preserved long after the HiPIMS pulse, which is in distinct contrast to longer pulses, tau(ON) amp;gt;= 60 mu s, for which the energy distributions collapse into narrow ther-malized peaks. Thus, optimizing the HiPIMS pulse width minimizes the gas-ion flux to the substrate independent of m(Me)/m(g).

• 41.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Gas rarefaction effects during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of groups IVb and VIb transition metals in Ar2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 6, article id 060601Article in journal (Refereed)

The authors use energy- and time-dependent mass spectrometry to analyze the evolution of metal- and gas-ion fluxes incident at the substrate during high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of groups IVb and VIb transition-metal (TM) targets in Ar. For all TMs, the time-and energy-integrated metal/gas-ion ratio at the substrate plane NMe+/NAr+ increases with increasing peak target current density J(T,peak) due to rarefaction. In addition, NMe+/NAr+ exhibits a strong dependence on metal/gas-atom mass ratio m(Me)/m(g) and varies from similar to 1 for Ti (m(Ti)/m(Ar) = 1.20) to similar to 100 for W (m(W)/m(Ar) = 4.60), with J(T,peak) maintained constant at 1 A/cm(2). Time-resolved ion-energy distribution functions confirm that the degree of rarefaction scales with m(Me)/m(g): for heavier TMs, the original sputtered-atom Sigmund-Thompson energy distributions are preserved long after the HiPIMS pulse, which is in distinct contrast to lighter metals for which the energy distributions collapse into a narrow thermalized peak. Hence, precise timing of synchronous substrate-bias pulses, applied in order to reduce film stress while increasing densification, is critical for metal/gas combinations with m(Me)/m(g) near unity, while with m(Me)/m(g) amp;gt;amp;gt; 1, the width of the synchronous bias pulse is essentially controlled by the metal-ion time of flight. The good agreement between results obtained in an industrial system employing 440 cm(2) cathodes and a laboratory-scale system with a 20 cm(2) target is indicative of the fundamental nature of the phenomena.

• 42.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Time evolution of ion fluxes incident at the substrate plane during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of groups IVb and VIb transition metals in Ar/N-22018In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, no 2, article id 020602Article in journal (Refereed)

Reactive transition-metal (TM) nitride film growth employing bias-synchronized high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) requires a detailed knowledge of the time evolution of metal-and gas-ion fluxes incident at the substrate plane in order to precisely tune momentum transfer and, hence, provide the recoil density and energy necessary to eliminate film porosity at low deposition temperatures without introducing significant film stress. Here, the authors use energy- and time-dependent mass spectrometry to analyze the evolution of metal-and gas-ion fluxes at the substrate plane during reactive HiPIMS sputtering of groups IVb and VIb TM targets in Ar/N-2 atmospheres. The time-and energy-integrated metal/gas ion ratio NMe+/Ng+ incident at the substrate is significantly lower for group IVb TMs (ranging from 0.2 for Ti to 0.9 for Hf), due to high N-2 reactivity which results in severely reduced target sputtering rates and, hence, decreased rarefaction. In contrast, for less reactive group VIb metals, sputtering rates are similar to those in pure Ar as a result of significant gas heating and high NMe+/Ng+ ratios, ranging from 2.3 for Cr to 98.1 for W. In both sets of experiments, the peak target current density is maintained constant at 1 A/cm(2). Within each TM group, NMe+/N(g+)scales with increasing metal-ion mass. For the group-VIb elements, sputtered-atom Sigmund-Thompson energy distributions are preserved long after the HiPIMS pulse, in contradistinction to group-IVb TMs for which the energy distributions collapse into narrow thermalized peaks. For all TMs, the N+ flux dominates that of N-2(+) ions, as the molecular ions are collisionally dissociated at the target, and N+ exhibits ion energy distribution functions resembling those of metal ions. The latter result implies that both N+ and Me+ species originate from the target. High-energy Ar+ tails, assigned to ionized reflected-Ar neutrals, are observed with heavier TM targets. Published by the AVS.

• 43.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Naval Air Syst Command, MD 20670 USA. Oak Ridge National Lab, TN 37831 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA; Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of select multi-layered transition metal carbides (MXenes)2016In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 362, p. 406-417Article in journal (Refereed)

In this work, a detailed high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis is presented for select MXenes a recently discovered family of two-dimensional (2D) carbides and carbonitrides. Given their 2D nature, understanding their surface chemistry is paramount. Herein we identify and quantify the surface groups present before, and after, sputter-cleaning as well as freshly prepared vs. aged multi layered cold pressed discs. The nominal compositions of the MXenes studied here are Ti-3 C2Tx,Ti3CNTx, Nb2CTx and Nb4C3Tx where T represents surface groups that this work attempts to quantify. In all the cases, the presence of three surface terminations, O, OH and F, in addition to OH-terminations relatively strongly bonded to H2O molecules, was confirmed. From XPS peak fits, it was possible to establish the average sum of the negative charges of the terminations for the aforementioned MXenes. Based on this work, it is now possible to quantify the nature of the surface terminations. This information can, in turn, be used to better design and tailor these novel 2D materials for various applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

• 44.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science & Engineering and 3A.J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA.
University of Penn, PA 19104 USA Drexel University, PA 19104 USA . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Penn, PA 19104 USA . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. University of Penn, PA 19104 USA Drexel University, PA 19104 USA . Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA.
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Characterization of Two-Dimensional Titanium Metal Carbides (MXenes)2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)

Herein, we report X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis for cold pressed exfoliated 2D nanocrystals of transition metal carbides, MXenes. MXenes are a recently discovered family of 2D materials produced by selective chemical etching of the A element from MAX phases which are ternary metal carbides and nitrides. The latter has the formula of Mn+1AXn, where M is an early transition metal, A is an A-group element, and X is C and/or N. This study is a comparison between two MXenes, Ti3C2Tx and Ti2CTx, where Tx stands for surface termination groups such as –O, –OH, and –F. Ti3C2Tx and Ti2CTx were prepared by immersion of Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlC powders in 50% conc. HF. A thorough XPS analysis was performed through peak fitting of high resolution XPS spectra and valence band, VB, spectra analysis. The effect of Ar sputtering as well as the number of layers n was the primarily interest of this study. According to the peak fitting analysis, both phases contain the following species, Ti–C, C–C, Ti–F, Ti–O and Ti–OH resulting in the following chemical formulas: Ti3C2(OH)x(O)y(F)z and Ti2C(OH)x(O)y(F)z. Comparing the VB spectra with the DOS calculations show the valance band spectra is actually a mixture of MXene with various terminations of OH, O and F. Before Ar+ sputtering both phases show a large percentage of fluorinated-TiO2 which is due to MXene surface oxidation as well as CHx, C-O and COO groups arising from either surface contaminations or due to drying the etched powders in ethanol after washing the powder of the HF acid. According to the VB spectra, it is shown that the fluorinated TiO2 is actually a mixture of anatase and rutile. The number of layers, n, also plays a role; the lower n, the more the MXene is prone to oxidation.

• 45.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA. Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
Variable range hopping and thermally activated transport in molybdenum-based MXenes2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 98, no 10, article id 104202Article in journal (Refereed)

The magnetotransport of freestanding, vacuum filtered, thin films of Mo2CTz, Mo1.33CTz, Mo2TiC2Tz, and Mo2Ti2C3Tz was measured in the 10-300-K temperature (T) range. Some of the films were annealed before measuring their transport properties. Analysis of the results suggest that-with the exception of the heavily defective Mo1.33CTz composition-in the 10- to 200-K temperature regime, variable range hopping between individual MXene sheets is the operative conduction mechanism. For Mo1.33CTz it is more likely that variable range hopping within individual flakes is rate limiting. At higher temperatures, a thermally activated process emerges in all cases. It follows that improved fabrication processes should lead to considerable improvements in the electrical transport of Mo-based MXenes.

• 46.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States. Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava 84104, Slovak Republic. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Nb1.33C (MXene) with Randomly Distributed Vacancies by Etching of the Quaternary Solid Solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX Phase2018In: ACS Applied Nano Materials, ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 2455-2460Article in journal (Refereed)

Introducing point defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can alter or enhance their properties. Here, we demonstrate how etching a laminated (Nb2/3Sc1/3)2AlC MAX phase (solid solution) of both the Sc and Al atoms results in a 2D Nb1.33C material (MXene) with a large number of vacancies and vacancy clusters. This method is applicable to any quaternary, or higher, MAX phase, wherein one of the transition metals is more reactive than the other and could be of vital importance in applications such as catalysis and energy storage. We also report, for the first time, on the existence of solid solution (Nb2/3Sc1/3)3AlC2 and (Nb2/3Sc1/3)4AlC3 phases.

• 47.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Sodium hydroxide and vacuum annealing modifications of the surface terminations of a Ti3C2 (MXene) epitaxial thin film2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 64, p. 36785-36790Article in journal (Refereed)

We investigate, and quantify, changes in structure and surface terminations of epitaxial thin films of titanium carbide (Ti3C2) MXene, when treated by sodium hydroxide solution followed by vacuum annealing at 550 degrees C. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we show that NaOH treatment produce an increase in the c-lattice parameter together with an increase in the O terminations and a decrease in the F terminations. There is also an increase in the percentage of the binding energy of Ti-species in Ti 2p XPS region, which suggests an increase in the overall oxidation state of Ti. After subsequent annealing, the c-lattice parameter is slightly reduced, the overall oxidation state of Ti is decreased, and the F surface terminations are further diminished, leaving a surface with predominantly O as the surface terminating species. It is important to note that NaOH treatment facilitates removal of F at lower annealing temperatures than previously reported, which in turn is important for the range of attainable properties.

• 48.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SUNY Buffalo, NY 14260 USA. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
Electronic and optical characterization of 2D Ti2C and Nb2C (MXene) thin films2019In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 31, no 16, article id 165301Article in journal (Refereed)

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and/or nitrides (MXenes) are a new class of 2D materials, with extensive opportunities for property tailoring due to the numerous possibilities for varying chemistries and surface terminations. Here, Ti2AlC and Nb2AlC MAX phase epitaxial thin films were deposited on sapphire substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were then etched in LiF/HCl solutions, yielding Li-intercalated, 2D Ti2CTz and Nb2CTz films, whose terminations, transport and optical properties were characterized. The former exhibits metallic conductivity, with weak localization below 50 K. In contrast, the Nb-based film exhibits an increase in resistivity with decreasing temperature from RT down to 40K consistent with variable range hopping transport. The optical properties of both films were determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry in the 0.75 to 3.50 eV range. The results for Ti2Clz films confirm the metallic behavior. In contrast, no evidence of metallic behavior is observed for the Nb2CT(z) film. The present work therefore demonstrates that one fruitful approach to alter the electronic and optical properties of MXenes is to change the nature of the transition metal.

• 49.
Permascand AB, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Permascand AB, Sweden.
Corrosion of ruthenium dioxide based cathodes in alkaline medium caused by reverse currents2014In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 146, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)

A reverse current obtained during power shutdowns in industrial processes, such as chlor-alkali production or alkaline water electrolysis, is deleterious for hydrogen evolving ruthenium dioxide (Ru02) based cathodes. It has been observed that RuO2 coatings after a power shutdown, necessary for e.g. maintenance, are severely damaged unless polarization rectifiers are employed. In this work we show why these types of cathodes are sensitive to reverse currents, i.e. anodic currents, after hydrogen evolution. RuO2 coatings deposited on nickel substrates were subjected to different electrochemical treatments such as hydrogen evolution, oxygen evolution, or reverse currents in 8 M NaOH at 90 degrees C. Polarity inversion was introduced after hydrogen evolution to simulate the effect of reverse currents. Because of chemical interaction with hydrogen, a significant amount of the RuO2 coating was transformed into hydroxylated species during cathodic polarization. Our study shows that these hydroxylated phases are highly sensitive to electrochemical corrosion during anodic polarization after extended hydrogen evolution.

• 50.
Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China. Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA. Chinese Academic Science, Peoples R China. National Institute Mat Science, Japan. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Drexel University, PA 19104 USA.
Mo2Ga2C: a new ternary nanolaminated carbide2015In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 51, no 30, p. 6560-6563Article in journal (Refereed)

We report the discovery of a new hexagonal Mo2Ga2C phase, wherein two Ga layers - instead of one - are stacked in a simple hexagonal arrangement in between Mo2C layers. It is reasonable to assume this compound is the first of a larger family.

1234 1 - 50 of 151
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