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  • 1.
    Askari, Sadegh
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Germany.
    Mariotti, Davide
    Ulster Univ, North Ireland.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Benedikt, Jan
    Christian Albrechts Univ Kiel, Germany.
    Keraudy, Julien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Low-Loss and Tunable Localized Mid-Infrared Plasmons in Nanocrystals of Highly Degenerate InN2018Inngår i: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 18, nr 9, s. 5681-5687Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasmonic response of free charges confined in nanostructures of plasmonic materials is a powerful means for manipulating the light-material interaction at the nanoscale and hence has influence on various relevant technologies. In particular, plasmonic materials responsive in the mid-infrared range are technologically important as the mid-infrared is home to the vibrational resonance of molecules and also thermal radiation of hot objects. However, the development of the field is practically challenged with the lack of low-loss materials supporting high quality plasmons in this range of the spectrum. Here, we demonstrate that degenerately doped InN nanocrystals (NCs) support tunable and low-loss plasmon resonance spanning the entire midwave infrared range. Modulating free-carrier concentration is achieved by engineering nitrogen-vacancy defects (InN1-x, 0.017 amp;lt; x amp;lt; 0.085) in highly degenerate NCs using a nonequilibrium gas-phase growth process. Despite the significant reduction in the carrier mobility relative to intrinsic InN, the mobility in degenerate InN NCs (amp;gt;60 cm(2)/(V s)) remains considerably higher than the carrier mobility reported for other materials NCs such as doped metal oxides, chalcogenides, and noble metals. These findings demonstrate feasibility of controlled tuning of infrared plasmon resonances in a low-loss material of III-V compounds and open a gateway to further studies of these materials nanostructures for infrared plasmonic applications.

  • 2.
    Atakan, Aylin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Keraudy, Julien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mäkie, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Björk, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Impact of the morphological and chemical properties of copper-zirconium-SBA-15 catalysts on the conversion and selectivity in carbon dioxide hydrogenation2019Inngår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 546, s. 163-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A hybrid catalyst consisting of Zr-doped mesoporous silica (Zr-SBA-15) supports with intergrown Cu nanoparticles was used to study the effects of a catalysts chemical states on CO2 hydrogenation. The chemical state of the catalyst was altered by using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) or sodium metasilicate (SMS) as the silica precursor in the synthesis of the Zr-SBA-15 framework, and infiltration (Inf) or evaporation induced wetness impregnation (EIWI) as the Cu loading method. As a result, the silica precursor mainly affects the activity of the catalyst whereas the Cu loading method alters the selectivity of the products. TEOS materials exhibit a higher catalytic activity compared to SMS materials due to different Zr dispersion and bonding to the silica matrix. EIWI catalysts display selectivity for methanol formation, while the Inf ones enable methanol conversion to DME. This is correlated to a higher Zr content and lower Cu oxidation states of EIWI prepared catalysts. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Atakan, Aylin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mäkie, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Söderlind, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Keraudy, Julien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johansson, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Synthesis of a Cu-infiltrated Zr-doped SBA-15 catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation into methanol and dimethyl ethert2017Inngår i: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 19, nr 29, s. 19139-19149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A catalytically active nanoassembly comprising Cu-nanoparticles grown on integrated and active supports (large pore Zr-doped mesoporous SBA-15 silica) has been synthesized and used to promote CO2 hydrogenation. The doped mesoporous material was synthesized using a sal-gel method, in which the pore size was tuned between 11 and 15 nm while maintaining a specific surface area of about 700 m(2) g (1). The subsequent Cu nanoparticle growth was achieved by an infiltration process involving attachment of different functional groups on the external and internal surfaces of the mesoporous structure such that 7-10 nm sized Cu nanoparticles grew preferentially inside the pores. Chemisorption showed improved absorption of both CO2 and H-2 for the assembly compared to pure SBA-15 and 15% of the total CO2 was converted to methanol and dimethyl ether at 250 degrees C and 33 bar.

  • 4.
    Cemin, Felipe
    et al.
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Tsukamoto, Makoto
    Tokyo Metropolitan Univ, Japan.
    Keraudy, Julien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Antunes, Vinicius Gabriel
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Brazil.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alvarez, Fernando
    Univ Estadual Campinas, Brazil.
    Minea, Tiberiu
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Low-energy ion irradiation in HiPIMS to enable anataseTiO(2) selective growth2018Inngår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 51, nr 23, artikkel-id 2353011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) has already demonstrated great potential for synthesizing the high-energy crystalline phase of titanium dioxide (rutile Ti-O2) due to large quantities of highly energetic ions present in the discharge. In this work, it is shown that the metastable anatase phase can also be obtained by HiPIMS. The required deposition conditions have been identified by systematically studying the phase formation, microstructure and chemical composition as a function of mode of target operation as well as of substrate temperature, working pressure, and peak current density. It is found that films deposited in the metal and transition modes are predominantly amorphous and contain substoichiometric TiOx compounds, while in compound mode they are well-crystallized and present only O2- ions bound to Ti4+, i.e. pure TiO2. Anatase TiO2 films are obtained for working pressures between 1 and 2 Pa, a peak current density of similar to 1 A cm(-2) and deposition temperatures lower than 300 degrees C. Rutile is favored at lower pressures (amp;lt; 1 Pa) and higher peak current densities (amp;gt;2 A cm(-2)), while amorphous films are obtained at higher pressures (greater than or similar to 5 Pa). Microstructural characterization of selected films is also presented.

  • 5.
    Keraudy, Julien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. IRT Jules Verne, France; IMN Jean Rouxel, France.
    Athouel, L.
    IMN Jean Rouxel, France.
    Hamon, J.
    IMN Jean Rouxel, France.
    Girault, B.
    Univ Nantes, France.
    Gloaguen, D.
    Univ Nantes, France.
    Richard-Plouet, M.
    IMN Jean Rouxel, France.
    Jouan, P. -Y.
    IMN Jean Rouxel, France.
    Electrochemical characteristics of NixN thin films deposited by DC and HiPIMS reactive magnetron sputtering2019Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, s. 659-664Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the DC and HiPIMS reactive magnetron deposition process using a pure nickel target (99.995%) in an Ar-N-2 gas mixture with varied nitrogen gas flow and bias voltage (floating or -100 V). The characterization of the NiN films has been carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). XRD measurements have highlighted the deformation of the Ni cubic cell as a function of nitrogen content, and a mixture of nitrided phases (Ni4N, Ni3N and Ni2N) appears for 20% N-2 in the discharge. XPS and EDX are well correlated and permit us to determine three zones: metallic between 0 and 20% N-2, Ni4N between 20% and 42% N-2 and finally Ni3N for N-2 above 50%. These three zones are in good agreement with deposition rates and optical emission spectroscopy measurements. Cyclic voltammetry has been performed in a conventional three-electrode cell using neutral, alkaline and acidic aqueous electrolytes. The NixN electrochemical behavior shows a pseudocapacitive charge storage mechanism in LiNO3 and KOH electrolytes using an appropriate voltage window, suitable for supercapacitors, whereas NixN exhibits reversible faradaic redox peaks beyond one potential in KOH, depicting NixN film as a battery-type electrode.

  • 6.
    Keraudy, Julien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shimizu, Tetsuhide
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Tokyo Metropolitan Univ, Japan.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jouan, P-Y
    Univ Nantes, France.
    Phase separation within NiSiN coatings during reactive HiPIMS discharges: A new pathway to grow NixSi nanocrystals composites at low temperature2018Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 454, s. 148-156Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The precise control of the growth nanostructured thin films at low temperature is critical for the continued development of microelectronic enabled devices. In this study, nanocomposite Ni-Si-N thin films were deposited at low temperature by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. A composite Ni-Si target (15 at.% Si) in combination with a Ar/N-2 plasma were used to deposit films onto Si(0 01) substrates, without any additional substrate heating or any post-annealing. The films microstructure changes from a polycrystalline to nanocomposite structure when the nitrogen content exceeds 16 at.%. X-ray diffraction and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy analyses reveal that the microstructure consists of nanocrystals, NixSi (x amp;gt; 1) 7-8 nm in size, embedded in an amorphous SiN x matrix. It is proposed that this nanostructure is formed at low temperatures due to the repeated-nucleation of NixSi nanocrystals, the growth of which is restricted by the formation of the SiNx phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the trace presence of a ternary solid solution mainly induced by the diffusion of Ni into the SiNx matrix. Four-probe electrical measurements reveal all the deposited films are electrically conducing.

  • 7.
    Keraudy, Julien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. IRT, France; University of Nantes, France.
    Delfour-Peyrethon, Brice
    University of Nantes, France.
    Ferrec, Axel
    University of Nantes, France.
    Garcia Molleja, Javier
    University of Nantes, France; Yachay Tech, Ecuador.
    Richard-Plouet, Mireille
    University of Nantes, France.
    Payen, Christophe
    University of Nantes, France.
    Hamon, Jonathan
    University of Nantes, France.
    Corraze, Benoit
    University of Nantes, France.
    Goullet, Antoine
    University of Nantes, France.
    Jouan, Pierre-Yves
    University of Nantes, France.
    Process- and optoelectronic-control of NiOx thin films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering2017Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 121, nr 17, artikkel-id 171916Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, based on the analyses of the discharge behavior as well as final properties of the deposited Ni-O films during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge, we have demonstrated that monitoring the oxygen flow rate leads to 4 different regimes of discharge. Tuning the oxygen partial pressure allows deposition of a large range of chemical compositions from pure nickel to nickel-deficient NiOx (xamp;gt; 1) in the poisoned mode. Investigation of the plasma dynamics by time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy suggests that the discharge behavior in the poisoned mode principally comes from the higher contribution of both oxygen and argon ions in the total ionic current, leading to a change in the ion induced secondary electron emission coefficient. Additionally, material characterizations have revealed that optoelectronic properties of NiOx films can be easily tuned by adjusting the O/Ni ratio, which is influenced by the change of the oxygen flow rate. Stoichiometric NiO films (O/Ni ratio similar to 1) are transparent in the visible range with a transmittance similar to 80% and insulating as expected with an electrical resistivity similar to 10 6 Omega cm. On the other hand, increasing the O/Niamp;gt; 1 leads to the deposition of more conductive coating (p similar to 10 Omega cm) films with a lower transmittance similar to 50%. These optoelectronic evolutions are accompanied by a band-gap narrowing 3.65 to 3.37 eV originating from the introduction of acceptor states between the Fermi level and the valence band maximum. In addition, our analysis has demonstrated that nickel vacancies are homogeneously distributed over the film thickness, explaining the p-type of the films. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 8.
    Keraudy, Julien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. IRT, France; University of Nantes, France.
    Ferrec, Axel
    University of Nantes, France.
    Richard-Plouet, Mireille
    University of Nantes, France.
    Hamon, Jonathan
    University of Nantes, France.
    Goullet, Antoine
    University of Nantes, France.
    Jouan, Pierre-Yves
    University of Nantes, France.
    Nitrogen doping on NiO by reactive magnetron sputtering: A new pathway to dynamically tune the optical and electrical properties2017Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 409, s. 77-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    N-doped nickel oxide (NiO:N) thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by reactive DC magnetron sputtering in Ar/O-2/N-2 gas atmosphere with a series of N-2/O-2 gas ratio ranging from 0 to 80%. X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed that the films are constituted of Ni1_xO grains and showed enhanced polycrystalline features with increasing N-doping concentration. For the first time, we report here that N-doping in the Ni-deficient NiO (Ni1-xO) film leads to a band-gap narrowing from 3.6 to 2.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements proved that up to 4 atomic percent (at.%) nitrogen can be incorporated at least at the surface of the NiO:N samples. In addition, XPS valence band spectra and UV-vis transmission measurements have demonstrated that the band-gap narrowing may originates from the contribution of an intermediate band (IB) similar to 2.4 eV just above the valence band maximum and the up-shifting of the valence band edge (similar to 0.3 eV) due to the introduction of occupied N 2p states. Local I-V measurements, carried out by conductive AFM (C-AFM), have revealed that the extrinsic doping of N atoms within the oxide can be a good way to precisely control the electrical conductivity of such p-type materials. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Keraudy, Julien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Oerlikon Surface Solut AG, Liechtenstein.
    Viloan, Rommel Paulo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Raadu, Michael A.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Brenning, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden; Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bipolar HiPIMS for tailoring ion energies in thin film deposition2019Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 359, s. 433-437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of a positive pulse following a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) pulse are studied using energy-resolved mass spectrometry. This includes exploring the influence of a 200 mu s long positive voltage pulse (U-rev = 10-150 V) following a typical HiPIMS pulse on the ion-energy distribution function (IEDF) of the various ions. We find that a portion of the Ti+ flux is affected and gains an energy which corresponds to the acceleration over the full potential U-rev. The Ar+ IEDF on the other hand illustrates that a large fraction of the accelerated Ar+, gain energies corresponding to only a portion of U-rev. The Ti+ IEDFs are consistent with the assumption that practically all the TO-, that are accelerated during the reverse pulse, originates from a region adjacent to the target, in which the potential is uniformly increased with the applied potential U-rev while much of the Ar+ originates from a region further away from the target over which the potential drops from U-rev to a lower potential consistent with the plasma potential achieved without the application of U-rev. The deposition rate is only slightly affected and decreases with U-rev, reaching 90% at U-rev = 150 V. Both the Ti IEDF and the small deposition rate change indicate that the potential increase in the region close to the target is uniform and essentially free of electric fields, with the consequence that the motion of ions inside the region is not much influenced by the application of U-rev. In this situation, Ti will flow towards the outer boundary of the target adjacent region, with the momentum gained during the HiPIMS discharge pulse, independently of whether the positive pulse is applied or not. The metal ions that cross the boundary in the direction towards the substrate, and do this during the positive pulse, all gain an energy corresponding to the full positive applied potential U-rev.

  • 10.
    Villamayor, Michelle M
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Keraudy, Julien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Oerlikon Balzers, Liechtenstein.
    Shimizu, Tetsuhide
    Tokyo Metropolitan Univ, Japan.
    Viloan, Rommel Paulo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Univ Paris Saclay, France.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Low temperature (T-s/T-m < 0.1) epitaxial growth of HfN/MgO(001) via reactive HiPIMS with metal-ion synchronized substrate bias2018Inngår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, nr 6, artikkel-id 061511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of refractory transition-metal nitride thin films by means of physical vapor deposition has been a recurring theme in advanced thin-film technology for several years. In the present study, 150-nm-thick epitaxial HfN layers are grown on MgO(001) by reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with no external substrate heating. Maximum film-growth temperatures T-s due to plasma heating range from 70 to 150 degrees C, corresponding to T-s/T-m = 0.10-0.12 (in which T-m is the HfN melting point in K). During HiPIMS, gas and sputtered metal-ion fluxes incident at the growing film surface are separated in time due to strong gas rarefaction and the transition to a metal-ion-dominated plasma. In the present experiments, a negative bias of 100 V is applied to the substrate, either continuously during the entire deposition or synchronized with the metal-rich portion of the ion flux. Two different sputtering-gas mixtures, Ar/N-2 and Kr/N-2, are employed in order to probe effects associated with the noble-gas mass and ionization potential. The combination of x-ray diffraction, high-resolution reciprocal-lattice maps, and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analyses establishes that all HfN films have a cube-on-cube orientational relationship with the substrate, i.e., [001](HfN)parallel to[001](MgO) and (100)(HfN)parallel to(100)(MgO). Layers grown with a continuous substrate bias, in either Ar/N-2 or Kr/N-2, exhibit a relatively high mosaicity and a high concentration of trapped inert gas. In distinct contrast, layers grown in Kr/N-2 with the substrate bias synchronized to the metal-ion-rich portion of HiPIMS pulses have much lower mosaicity, no measurable inert-gas incorporation, and a hardness of 25.7 GPa, in good agreement with the results for epitaxial HfN(001) layers grown at T-s = 650 degrees C (T-s/T-m = 0.26). The room-temperature film resistivity is 70 mu Omega cm, which is 3.2-10 times lower than reported values for polycrystalline-HfN layers grown at T-s = 400 degrees C. (c) 2018 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

  • 11.
    Viloan, Rommel Paulo B.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gu, Jiabin
    School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, PR China.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Keraudy, Julien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Liuhe
    School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, PR China.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bipolar high power impulse magnetron sputtering for energetic ion bombardment during TiN thin film growth without the use of a substrate bias2019Inngår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, artikkel-id 137350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of applying a positive voltage pulse (Urev = 10–150 V) directly after the negative high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) pulse (bipolar HiPIMS) is investigated for the reactive sputter deposition of TiN thin films. Energy-resolved mass spectroscopy analyses are performed to gain insight in the effect on the ion energy distribution function of the various ions. It is demonstrated that the energy of a large fraction of the ions can be tuned by a reverse target potential and gain energy corresponding to the applied Urev. Microscopy observations and x-ray reflectometry reveal densification of the films which results in an increase in the film hardness from 23.9 to 34 GPa as well as an increase in compressive film stress from 2.1 GPa to 4.7 GPa when comparing conventional HiPIMS with bipolar HiPIMS (Urev = 150 V).

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