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  • 1. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Akram Hassan, Kahin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    It’s About Time: User-centered Evaluation of Visual Representations for Temporal Data2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal for collecting and analyzing temporal data differs between individuals and their domain of expertise e.g., forecasting might be the goal in meteorology, anomaly detection might be the goal in finance. While the goal differs, one common denominator is the need for exploratory analysis of the temporal data, as this can aid the search for useful information. However, as temporal data can be challenging to understand and visualize, selecting appropriate visual representations for the domain and data at hand becomes a challenge. Moreover, many visual representations can show a single variable that changes over time, displaying multiple variables in a clear and easily accessible way is much harder, and inference-making and pattern recognition often require visualization of multiple variables. Additionally, as visualization aims to gain insight, it becomes crucial to investigate whether the representations used help users gain this insight. Furthermore, to create effective and efficient visual analysis tools, it is vital to understand the structure of the data, how this data can be represented, and have a clear understanding of the user needs. Developing useful visual representations can be challenging, but through close collaboration and involvement of end-users in the entire process, useful results can be accomplished. 

    This thesis aims to investigate the usability of different visual representations for different types of multivariate temporal data, users, and tasks. Five user studies have been conducted to investigate different representation spaces, layouts, and interaction methods for investigating representations’ ability to facilitate users when analyzing and exploring such temporal datasets. The first study investigated and evaluated the experience of different radial design ideas for finding and comparison tasks when presenting hourly data based on an analog clock metaphor. The second study investigated 2D and 3D parallel coordinates for pattern finding. In the third study, the usability of three linear visual representations for presenting indoor climate data was investigated with domain experts. The fourth study continued on the third study and developed and evaluated a visual analytics tool with different visual representations and interaction techniques with domain experts. Finally, in the fifth study, another visual analytics tool presenting visual representations of temporal data was developed and evaluated with domain experts working and conducting experiments in Antarctica. 

    The research conducted within the scope of this thesis concludes that it is vital to understand the characteristics of the temporal data and user needs for selecting the optimal representations. Without this knowledge, it becomes much harder to choose visual representations to help users gain insight from the data. It is also crucial to evaluate the perception and usability of the chosen visual representations. 

    List of papers
    1. A Study on 2D and 3D Parallel Coordinates for Pattern Identification in Temporal Multivariate Data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study on 2D and 3D Parallel Coordinates for Pattern Identification in Temporal Multivariate Data
    Show others...
    2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel coordinates are commonly used for non-temporal multivariate data, but there is little support for their usability for displaying temporal multivariate data. In this paper, we introduce a study evaluating the usability of 2D and 3D parallel coordinates for pattern identification in temporal multivariate data. The results indicate that 3D parallel coordinates have higher usability, as measured with higher accuracy and faster response time as well as subjective ratings, compared to 2D.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IV 2019: IEEE conference proceedings, 2019
    Series
    IEEE International Conference on Information Visualisation, ISSN 2375-0138
    Keywords
    Temporal Data, User Evaluation, 2D Parallel Coordinates, 3D Parallel Coordinates
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159079 (URN)10.1109/IV.2019.00033 (DOI)000507461900024 ()978-1-7281-2838-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    2019 23rd International Conference Information Visualization (IV)
    Available from: 2019-07-22 Created: 2019-07-22 Last updated: 2021-11-14
    2. A Study on Visual Representations for Active Plant Wall Data Analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study on Visual Representations for Active Plant Wall Data Analysis
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: DATA, E-ISSN 2306-5729, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor climate is closely related to human health, well-being, and comfort. Thus, an understanding of the indoor climate is vital. One way to improve the indoor climates is to place an aesthetically pleasing active plant wall in the environment. By collecting data using sensors placed in and around the plant wall both the indoor climate and the status of the plant wall can be monitored and analyzed. This manuscript presents a user study with domain experts in this field with a focus on the representation of such data. The experts explored this data with a Line graph, a Horizon graph, and a Stacked area graph to better understand the status of the active plant wall and the indoor climate. Qualitative measures were collected with Think-aloud protocol and semi-structured interviews. The study resulted in four categories of analysis tasks: Overview, Detail, Perception, and Complexity. The Line graph was found to be preferred for use in providing an overview, and the Horizon graph for detailed analysis, revealing patterns and showing discernible trends, while the Stacked area graph was generally not preferred. Based on these findings, directions for future research are discussed and formulated. The results and future directions of this research can facilitate the analysis of multivariate temporal data, both for domain users and visualization researchers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2019
    Keywords
    visualization; qualitative evaluation; temporal multivariate data; active plant walls, Visualisering; kvalitativ utvärdering; tidsvarierande multivariate data; active plant walls
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157027 (URN)10.3390/data4020074 (DOI)000475303500028 ()
    Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2021-02-26Bibliographically approved
    3. PINGU Principles of Interactive Navigation for Geospatial Understanding
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>PINGU Principles of Interactive Navigation for Geospatial Understanding
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: 2020 IEEE PACIFIC VISUALIZATION SYMPOSIUM (PACIFICVIS), IEEE , 2020, p. 216-225Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring conditions in the periglacial areas of Antarctica helps geographers and geologists to understand physical processes associated with mesoscale land systems. Analyzing these unique temporal datasets poses a significant challenge for domain experts, due to the complex and often incomplete data, for which corresponding exploratory tools are not available. In this paper, we present a novel visual analysis tool for extraction and interactive exploration of temporal measurements captured at the polar station at the James Ross Island in Antarctica. The tool allows domain experts to quickly extract information about the snow level, originating from a series of photos acquired by trail cameras. Using linked views, the domain experts can interactively explore and combine this information with other spatial and non-spatial measures, such as temperature or wind speed, to reveal the interplay of periglacial and aeolian processes. An abstracted interactive map of the area indicates the position of measurement spots to facilitate navigation. The design of the tool was made in tight collaboration with geographers, which resulted in an early prototype, tested in the pilot study. The following version of the tool and its usability has been evaluated in the user study with five domain experts and their feedback was incorporated into the final version, presented in this paper. This version was again discussed with two experts in an informal interview. Within these evaluations, they confirmed the significant benefit of the tool for their research tasks.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2020
    Series
    IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium, ISSN 2165-8765
    Keywords
    Human-centered computing; Visualization; Visualization techniques; Treemaps; Human-centered computing; Visualization; Visualization design and evaluation methods
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-170939 (URN)10.1109/PacificVis48177.2020.7567 (DOI)000578516400027 ()978-1-7281-5697-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis), Tianjin, PEOPLES R CHINA, apr 14-17, 2020
    Available from: 2020-11-01 Created: 2020-11-01 Last updated: 2021-02-26
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  • 2.
    Akram Hassan, Kahin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    On the Performance of Stereoscopic Versus Monoscopic 3D Parallel Coordinates2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents the results from an evaluation of stereoscopic versus monoscopic 3D parallel coordinates. The objective of the evaluation was to investigate if stereopsis increases user performance. The results show that stereoscopy has no effect at all on user performance compared to monoscopy. This result is important when it comes to the potential use of stereopsis within the information visualization community.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Hassan, Kahin Akram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On the Use of Parallel Coordinates for Temporal Multivariate Data2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents the results from a user centered evaluation of visual representations of temporal multivariate data using 2D and3D parallel coordinates. The objective of the evaluation was to investigate whether 2D or 3D representations increase user performance when the data consists of temporal multivariate data and the visual representation contains interactive user tools. The results show that the 3D parallel coordinates representation outperforms 2D parallel coordinates with regards to both accuracy and response time.This result is of interest to the information visualization community, since it shows the usefulness of visual representations of temporal multivariate data.

    Download full text (pdf)
    On the Use of Parallel Coordinates for Temporal Multivariate Data
  • 4.
    Hassan, Kahin Akram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Besançon, Lonni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Study on Visual Representations for Active Plant Wall Data Analysis2019In: DATA, E-ISSN 2306-5729, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor climate is closely related to human health, well-being, and comfort. Thus, an understanding of the indoor climate is vital. One way to improve the indoor climates is to place an aesthetically pleasing active plant wall in the environment. By collecting data using sensors placed in and around the plant wall both the indoor climate and the status of the plant wall can be monitored and analyzed. This manuscript presents a user study with domain experts in this field with a focus on the representation of such data. The experts explored this data with a Line graph, a Horizon graph, and a Stacked area graph to better understand the status of the active plant wall and the indoor climate. Qualitative measures were collected with Think-aloud protocol and semi-structured interviews. The study resulted in four categories of analysis tasks: Overview, Detail, Perception, and Complexity. The Line graph was found to be preferred for use in providing an overview, and the Horizon graph for detailed analysis, revealing patterns and showing discernible trends, while the Stacked area graph was generally not preferred. Based on these findings, directions for future research are discussed and formulated. The results and future directions of this research can facilitate the analysis of multivariate temporal data, both for domain users and visualization researchers.

    Download full text (pdf)
    A Study on Visual Representations for Active Plant Wall Data Analysis
  • 5.
    Hassan, Kahin Akram
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    A Study on 2D and 3D Parallel Coordinates for Pattern Identification in Temporal Multivariate Data2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parallel coordinates are commonly used for non-temporal multivariate data, but there is little support for their usability for displaying temporal multivariate data. In this paper, we introduce a study evaluating the usability of 2D and 3D parallel coordinates for pattern identification in temporal multivariate data. The results indicate that 3D parallel coordinates have higher usability, as measured with higher accuracy and faster response time as well as subjective ratings, compared to 2D.

  • 6.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hassan, Kahin Akram
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics.
    Pang, Zhibo
    Corporate Research, ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics.
    A Data-Centric Internet of Things Framework Based on Azure Cloud2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 53839-53858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has been found pervasive use cases and become a driving force to constitute a digital society. The ultimate goal of IoT is data and the intelligence generated from data. With the progress in public cloud computing technologies, more and more data can be stored, processed and analyzed in cloud to release the power of IoT. However, due to the heterogeneity of hardware and communication protocols in the IoT world, the interoperability and compatibility among different link layer protocols, sub-systems, and back-end services have become a significant challenge to IoT practices. This challenge cannot be addressed by public cloud suppliers since their efforts are mainly put into software and platform services but can hardly be extended to end devices. In this paper, we propose a data-centric IoT framework that incorporates three promising protocols with fundamental security schemes, i.e., WiFi, Thread, and LoRaWAN, to cater to massive IoT and broadband IoT use cases in local, personal, and wide area networks. By taking advantages of the Azure cloud infrastructure, the framework features a unified device management model and data model to conquer the interoperability challenge. We also provide implementation and a case study to validate the framework for practical applications.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Liu, Yu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hassan, Kahin Akram
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Weister, Ola
    Vertical Plants System Sweden AB, Norrrköping, Sweden.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Active Plant Wall for Green Indoor Climate Based on Cloud and Internet of Things2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 33631-33644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An indoor climate is closely related to human health, well-being and comfort. Thus, indoor climate monitoring and management are prevalent in many places, from public offices to residential houses. Our previous research has shown that an active plant wall system can effectively reduce the concentrations of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds and stabilize the carbon dioxide concentration in an indoor environment. However, regular plant care is restricted by geography and can be costly in terms of time and money, which poses a significant challenge to the widespread deployment of plant walls. In this article, we propose a remote monitoring and control system that is specific to the plant walls. The system utilizes the Internet of Things technology and the Azure public cloud platform to automate the management procedure, improve the scalability, enhance user experiences of plant walls, and contribute to a green indoor climate.

  • 8.
    Oremus, Zoltan
    et al.
    Masaryk Univ, Czech Republic.
    Hassan, Kahin Akram
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chmelik, Jiri
    Masaryk Univ, Czech Republic.
    Knazkova, Michaela
    Masaryk Univ, Czech Republic.
    Byska, Jan
    Masaryk Univ, Czech Republic.
    Raidou, Renata Georgia
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Kozlikova, Barbora
    Masaryk Univ, Czech Republic.
    PINGU Principles of Interactive Navigation for Geospatial Understanding2020In: 2020 IEEE PACIFIC VISUALIZATION SYMPOSIUM (PACIFICVIS), IEEE , 2020, p. 216-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring conditions in the periglacial areas of Antarctica helps geographers and geologists to understand physical processes associated with mesoscale land systems. Analyzing these unique temporal datasets poses a significant challenge for domain experts, due to the complex and often incomplete data, for which corresponding exploratory tools are not available. In this paper, we present a novel visual analysis tool for extraction and interactive exploration of temporal measurements captured at the polar station at the James Ross Island in Antarctica. The tool allows domain experts to quickly extract information about the snow level, originating from a series of photos acquired by trail cameras. Using linked views, the domain experts can interactively explore and combine this information with other spatial and non-spatial measures, such as temperature or wind speed, to reveal the interplay of periglacial and aeolian processes. An abstracted interactive map of the area indicates the position of measurement spots to facilitate navigation. The design of the tool was made in tight collaboration with geographers, which resulted in an early prototype, tested in the pilot study. The following version of the tool and its usability has been evaluated in the user study with five domain experts and their feedback was incorporated into the final version, presented in this paper. This version was again discussed with two experts in an informal interview. Within these evaluations, they confirmed the significant benefit of the tool for their research tasks.

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