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  • 1.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Programming as a New Content in Swedish Preschool: What Is It and How Is It Done?2019In: PATT 37 Developing a knowledge economy through technology and engineering education Msida, Malta, June 2019 / [ed] Sarah Pulé and Marc J. de Vries, Department of Technology and Entrepreneurship Education, University of Malta , 2019, p. 39-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017, the Swedish government decided on a new national strategy for digitalisation of the school system. The strategy resulted in a revision of the curricula for Swedish preschool in order to strengthen digitalisation. Although programming is not explicitly mentioned in the curriculum, programming and robots have become a more common feature of preschool teaching. There are intervention studies showing that children can develop programming skills and conceptions. However, studies of programming from a technology education perspective are rare, and there is a need for further research. This study aims to investigate how programming in a preschool context and what the teachers and children do. This study focuses on the interaction between children, teachers and technology. The programming activities in preschool are not a separate activity, but part of a wider context, hence we adapt a sociocultural perspective. The empirical data consist of two group interviews with preschool teachers and one video-recorded programming activity with children aged 4-5 years and their teachers. The data material was analysed using a thematic content analysis to inductively search for patterns in the actions and methods used by teachers and children. This study shows that four aspects of programming were communicated: instructions, sequences, bugs, and language. Moreover, the relationship between humans and the technological artefacts was characterized in three different ways: technology as I) anthropomorphic, II) gender coded, and III) autonomous or non-autonomous. Thus, the programming activities and robot were incorporated in a wider context. Technology (the robot) became a tool to achieve several learning objectives. The technology was not the main focus; the overall message constructed in this teaching setting is that the human controls and uses the technology to achieve specific purposes.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att identifiera eller att känna igen: Långtidseffekter av lärande2011In: Nordiskt forskarsymposium om undervisning i naturvetenskap: Naturvetenskap som kunskap och kultur, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Being able to see the wood for the trees: Expert teachers' observational skills in complex environments explained by a neurocognirive model of learning2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The fundamental things apply... as time goes by: Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and analyse what biology students remembered a long time after being out on an ecology excursion. The students’ memories were tested during a stimulated recall interview and analysed using the dual memory system model of learning.

    Already after 6 months we found that the students had forgotten a lot of the scientific content. Very often they showed a familiarity (recognition) with the situations and objects showed to them but they were unable to identify (recall) and label them. However they did remember some spectacular moment, the sudden appearance of a fox and a moose. They did also remember things and situations when they were active themselves, digging, smelling, using their hands or their feet’s in the difficult balancing and walking on a pet bog. From literature we identified two different types of memories, depending of the question asked: recall and recognition. We connected memories used in recall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and memories used in recognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The Explicit memory has a short retention but the implicit system is very stable and this will explain the difference in recall and recognition abilities. Since the implicit memory incorporates emotional, somatic, markers we were able to explain the specific flashbulb memories. The implicit system is active when we are doing things, using our senses and this may explain why those memories still were strong even after a full year. The strong memories of patterns stored in the implicit system seemed to act as indices to the declarable labels and facts in the explicit system. Implications for research, education and type of assessment are discussed.

  • 5.
    Björklund, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The fundamental things apply... as time goes by: Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze what biology studentsremembered a long time after being out on an ecology excursion. The students’ memorieswere tested during a stimulated recall interview and analyzed using the dual memorysystem model of learning. Already after 6 months we found that the students had forgottena lot of the scientific content. Very often they showed a familiarity (recognition) with thesituations and objects showed to them but they were unable to identify (recall) and labelthem. However they did remember some spectacular moment, the sudden appearance of afox and a moose. They did also remember things and situations when they were activethemselves, digging, smelling, using their hands or their feet’s in the difficult balancingand walking on a pet bog. From literature we identified two different types of memories,depending of the question asked: recall and recognition. We connected memories used inrecall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and memories used inrecognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The Explicit memory has ashort retention but the implicit system is very stable and this will explain the difference inrecall and recognition abilities. Since the implicit memory incorporates emotional, somatic,markers we were able to explain the specific flashbulb memories. The implicit system isactive when we are doing things, using our senses and this may explain why thosememories still were strong even after a full year. The strong memories of patterns stored inthe implicit system seemed to act as indices to the declarable labels and facts in the explicitsystem. Implications for research, education and type of assessment are discussed.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The Dual Memory Systems Model and it's implications for Technology Education2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between the explicit and the implicit memory and learning systems in terms of recent findings in neuropsychology and outlines the implications for technology education in terms of student learning.

     

    The psychological Dual Systems Theory situates the processing of perception, assessment, decision-making and action in two parallel but different cognitive systems. The Declarative/Explicit system is conscious, remembering facts and episodes; it is rational and logical but also limited in complexity and speed. Working Memory’s (WM) capacity, an “end station” of this system, is severely limited. Depending on modality between 4 and 9 variables or steps in a sequence may be handled at once. More will lead to cognitive loading and impasse. Since WM probably is our consciousness, we will not be able to analyse what was dropped out or what happened, we will just get confused. The narrow view of conscious vision, the slow speed and the problems with details and complexity in space and time makes this system less suitable for real time, real complexity work.

     

    The non conscious Implicit System on the other hand does not use Working Memory and will not be hampered by cognitive overload; it’s a pattern recognition system with very fast recognition of earlier encountered situations and objects. It has several important functions:

     

    1- To direct conscious attention to what is important and relevant in a situation.

    2- To give a fast assessment, built upon somatic markers incorporated in memory.

    3- To start an automatic reaction to what is perceived,

     

    The lifespan of this memory system is long, and it seems very hard to erase or to change them. Most of what we usually refer to as skill seems to be connected to learning in this system. The Dual Systems model has recently been supported with neurophysiologic results showing, two different anatomical systems. The somatic markers have been identified, the secondary implicit vision system and concepts such as tacit knowing, automaticity, flow and intuition are starting to be understood. This model gives a new way of understanding what we do in technology education, gives clues of how to promote creativity, holistic learning, system thinking, forward reasoning and more.

  • 7.
    Hultman, Glenn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Schoultz, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Learning and Didactic Science in Education and School (PeDiUS). Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samspelet lärarstuderande-handledare: Den verksamhetsförlagda utbildningen2011In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 118-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hultman, Glenn, Jan Schoultz & Karin Stolpe: Student teachers and mentors: The practical part of teacher education. Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 120–139. Stockholm: ISSN 1401-6788

    This study illuminates the interaction and linkage between the theoretical part of teacher education and the practical part, with a focus on what happens during the latter and how the student teacher makes meaning out of the process. We have looked at research reviews that focus on the Swedish and Scandinavian fields. Our particular interest involves the linkage (organizational linkages) between the university (the student) and the practical field (the school) and the research that says that newcomers are confronted with a new situation, which can lead to an element of surprise, which in turn leads to attempts to fit this into a meaningful whole (i.e. sense making). We use data from experienced teachers’ reflections on their own teacher education and the experience of their own practicum periods, as well as the impressions and reflections of student teachers as expressed in interviews and logged in their journals from their practicum periods. The results show that not only does an adaptation occur, but that there can also be innovative elements in the meaning- making process, in part through the ambitions a student teacher harbours from the theoretical part of the education, and in part through the divergence between one’s own experiences, those of the mentor, and examples of other teachers. The135 G. HULTMAN, J. SCHOULTZ OCH K. STOLPE

    socialization that occurs can be described as a ‘situational apprenticeship’, which means that student teachers interact with the context and the pupils. This is what moulds them, becomes their ‘master’, resulting in a form of apprenticeship. Part of our conclusion is that we find the interaction between the student teacher and his/her mentor to be learning that contains elements of corrections and alternative interpretations.

  • 8.
    Lundström, Mats
    et al.
    Malmö universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Åström, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Konsumtionsuppsatser som ny bedömningspraktik för lärarutbildare [Systematic reviews as new assessment practice for teacher educators]2019In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, ISSN 1401-6788, Vol. 24, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the consequences of the latest Swedish teacher education reform from 2011 is that a student teacher is required to write two student theses during her studies. These student theses should together represent 30 ECTS. One common way to implement this requirement is that the student writes two theses, where the first one is a systematic review of earlier research and the second one a more traditional empirical thesis. This article investigates if this new type of student thesis – that is, systematic reviews written by students as the first part of the requirements for teacher qualification, also involves a new kind of assessment practice for the examiners at the teacher education programmes. In the student thesis the student is supposed to demonstrate skills concerning several formal learning aims of the teacher education to obtain their qualifications. These include to follow the development of knowledge within a field and solve problems. The student thesis is not only important for the individual student to obtain qualifications, but has also been used to evaluate the teacher education programmes. Despite its significance for students and schools of education, very little research has been conducted on practices in the assessment of systematic reviews. Earlier research related to assessment of student theses demonstrates the difficulties with agreement in assessment practice. The results from earlier studies regarding the importance of the examiners’ background present a divided picture. While some research point to the examiners’ own subject or experience as important when judging theses, other studies do not.

  • 9.
    Lundström, Mats
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Åström, Maria
    Karlstads universitet.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science.
    Assessing student theses:: Differences and similarities between examiners from different academic disciplines2016In: Practitioner Research in Higher Education, ISSN 1755-1382, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 217-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The writing of student theses is an important activity at universities and is expected to demonstrate the students’ academic skills. In the teacher-education programme, examiners from different academic disciplines are involved in supervising and examining student theses. Moreover, different subject disciplines have different traditions concerning what is seen as knowledge and the way research is performed, which could result in different assessment practices and judgements. Earlier studies demonstrate a fragmented picture concerning the importance of the examiners’ academic discipline in judging theses. The purpose of this article is to investigate whether examiners from different academic subject disciplines emphasise similar or different criteria when assessing student theses. A total of 66 examiners from six universities with teacher education programmes in Sweden have answered an online Q-survey where they compared different criteria and rank-ordered them. The results demonstrate minor differences between individuals from different academic disciplines: Only two out of the 45 criteria had significant differences between academic discipline groups. Thus, the results indicate that teacher education is a boundary-crossing, multi-disciplinary field which primarily uses generic criteria.

  • 10.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Applying the Dual-Memory System Model to Understand Student Teachers’ Development of Professional VisionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to merge two existing models of professional development. The Dreyfus and Dreyfus five-stage model from novice to expert will be merged with the dual-memory system model. The stages from the Dreyfus model has been complemented and explained by the dual memory system model. The new model is then used to investigate student teachers’ professional vision. In doing so, the present study contributes with empirical findings to the model. The results suggest that professional vision is highly situational due to the forming of implicit memories from specific situations. This means that even a student teacher may expose behaviour which is typical for the competent performer. The role of the mentor is also discussed.

  • 11.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att uppmärksamma det väsentliga: Lärares ämnesdidaktiska förmågor ur ett interaktionskognitivt perspektiv2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate the engagement of teachers’ skills in teaching of science. Three different skills are presented, namely teachers’ professional vision, automatic action and the use of narratives. I introduce an interactive cognitive perspective to investigate teachers’ skills as they appear in the interaction between the teacher, the pupils and the learning environment. Furthermore, the interaction between two different forms of knowledge is also a central part of this thesis. These two forms are the declarable and the intuitive knowledge. The declarable knowledge is processed in the explicit memory system and the intuitive knowledge is connected to the implicit memory system. The dual-memory system model is an important starting point for this thesis, in particular, the interaction between the intuitive and declarable knowledge.

    Both pre-service student teachers and experienced teachers participated in the studies. They taught, told narratives or solved problems in science. A variety of data collection methods have been used. Among these were interviews, both semi-structured and stimulated recall settings, video recordings from teaching and logbooks about teaching written by the student teachers.

    Three different categories of teachers’ professional vision were identified: to discern, to identify and to recognize. To be able to discern critical features in complex environments, the teacher needs to recognize the feature, for example a grass among other types of grass. To discern and to recognize have the same underlying cognitive mechanisms and could be described as intuitive knowledge. The intuitive knowledge is long-lasting. To identify, that is, to be able to label the grass, is a declarable knowledge that is fast degrading.

    The ability to act automatically is based on the same cognitive mechanisms as those involved when teacher discern critical features. Automatic action could hence be described as intuitive knowledge. Furthermore, automatic action strongly depends on the situation. A teacher could act without being conscious of his/her own behavior.

    The intuitive knowledge seems to be important for the ability to tell narratives. The research suggests that narratives could represent long-lasting knowledge structures (intuitive knowledge), even though the specific scientific terms may degrade fast.

    The pupils, the learning environment and the scientific content together form a whole which the teacher needs to constantly react to during teaching situations. In doing so, both intuitive and declarable knowledge are important.

    List of papers
    1. Student Teachters' Reasoning Patterns while Solving a Contextualized Task on Thermal Phenomena
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Student Teachters' Reasoning Patterns while Solving a Contextualized Task on Thermal Phenomena
    2007 (English)In: Journal of Baltic science education, ISSN 1648-3898, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 44-54Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study three different patterns of reasoning have been identified: linear, star and combined reasoning. As six student teachers were working on a contextualized task on heat and temperature they showed these different patterns of reasoning during an interview situation. The data was analysed using reasoning maps. The patterns are also discussed in relation to the students- subject matter knowledge in this specific area. There are indications that the reasoning pattern is dependent on what kind of scientific subject matter knowledge the student reveals. Star and combined reasoning make it possible to look at the task from different angles and thereby develop fragmented knowledge into more comprehensive knowledge.

    Keywords
    science education
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-44970 (URN)78790 (Local ID)78790 (Archive number)78790 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
    2. Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Applying the dual-memory system model to investigate expert teachers’ observational skills in natural ecological learning environments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Applying the dual-memory system model to investigate expert teachers’ observational skills in natural ecological learning environments
    2012 (English)In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 101-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate two expert ecology teachers’ ability to attend to essential details in a complex environment during a field excursion, as well as how they teach this ability to their students. In applying a cognitive dual-memory system model for learning, we also suggest a rationale for their behaviour. The model implies two separate memory systems: the implicit, non-conscious, non-declarative system and the explicit, conscious, declarative system. This model provided the starting point for the research design. However, it was revised from the empirical findings supported by new theoretical insights. The teachers were video and audio recorded during their excursion and interviewed in a stimulated recall setting afterwards. The data were qualitatively analysed using the dual-memory system model. The results show that the teachers used holistic pattern recognition in their own identification of natural objects. However, teachers’ main strategy to teach this ability is to give the students explicit rules or specific characteristics. According to the dual-memory system model the holistic pattern recognition is processed in the implicit memory system as a non-conscious match with earlier experienced situations. We suggest that this implicit pattern matching serves as an explanation for teachers’ ecological and teaching observational skills. Another function of the implicit memory system is its ability to control automatic behaviour and non-conscious decision-making. The teachers offer the students firsthand sensory experiences which provide a prerequisite for the formation of implicit memories that provides a foundation for expertise.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2012
    Keywords
    Ecology education; Teacher actions; Classification; Pattern recognition; Dualmemory system
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67890 (URN)10.1080/09500693.2011.561505 (DOI)000300301400005 ()
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion: Retelling a narrative as an interplay between implicit and explicit memories
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion: Retelling a narrative as an interplay between implicit and explicit memories
    2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 277-291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the science content remembered by biology students 6 and 12 months after an ecology excursion. The students' memories were tested during a stimulated recall interview. The authors identified three different types of memories: recall, recognition and narratives. The dual memory system model of learning was used to connect recall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and recognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The results show that the students' re-told narratives were scrambled and sometimes distorted. The students used small fragments to create their story and the next fragment of the story primarily depended on the antecedent unit. It is therefore suggested that in telling a narrative there is a constant interplay between the explicit (recall) and implicit (recognition) memory systems. The scientific terms (recall) were often replaced by everyday terms, indicating that the underlying meaning is not connected to the specific terms.

    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67892 (URN)10.1080/00313831.2012.656278 (DOI)000318733000004 ()
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Applying the Dual-Memory System Model to Understand Student Teachers’ Development of Professional Vision
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying the Dual-Memory System Model to Understand Student Teachers’ Development of Professional Vision
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to merge two existing models of professional development. The Dreyfus and Dreyfus five-stage model from novice to expert will be merged with the dual-memory system model. The stages from the Dreyfus model has been complemented and explained by the dual memory system model. The new model is then used to investigate student teachers’ professional vision. In doing so, the present study contributes with empirical findings to the model. The results suggest that professional vision is highly situational due to the forming of implicit memories from specific situations. This means that even a student teacher may expose behaviour which is typical for the competent performer. The role of the mentor is also discussed.

    Keywords
    Dual-memory system model, Professional vision, implicit memory, Student teacher
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-67894 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-05-02 Created: 2011-05-02 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
  • 12.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Science student teachers' use of communicative support to make meaning of abstract phenomena in the area of energy2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe what kind of communicative support student teachers use to concretise abstract phenomena in the content area of energy. Three student teachers attending the teacher training program at a university for Swedish primary school were asked to associate energy with other concepts in two interviews; the first interview before and the second after a four weeks teaching practice where the students taught the content of energy. The analysis of the transcribed interviews showed that the students used three different kinds of experiences to make meaning: examples from everyday life, examples from science and examples from own studies of science. The results indicate that the communication support functions both as a facilitator of communication as well as a support for the students’ own learning. The use of communication support was more frequent in the second interview, after the four weeks of teaching practice. To integrate experiences as a communicative support is suggested as a way to develop a scientific language.

  • 13.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Student teachers' thoughts on a teaching sequence of heat and temperature2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how student teachers plan and carry out a teaching sequence of heat and temperature. Three students’ log-books, lesson plans and assessments and an interview with one of the students have been analysed to describe what thoughts the students had before, during and after accomplishing the task as part of their practice course. The results show that the student teachers are well on their way in developing their PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge). The practice course is a good opportunity for the student to work on both their subject matter knowledge and their PCK. The students’ own level of ambition and pre-knowledge seems to influence how much they can profit by the practice course. There is also important to have a meaningful and distinct task from the university to work on during the school practice.

  • 14.
    Stolpe, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teacher training students' attainment of some thermal concepts in a teaching perspective2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Being able to see the wood for the trees: Expert teachers' observational skills in complex environments explained by a neurocognitive model of learning2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Applying the dual-memory system model to investigate expert teachers’ observational skills in natural ecological learning environments2012In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 101-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate two expert ecology teachers’ ability to attend to essential details in a complex environment during a field excursion, as well as how they teach this ability to their students. In applying a cognitive dual-memory system model for learning, we also suggest a rationale for their behaviour. The model implies two separate memory systems: the implicit, non-conscious, non-declarative system and the explicit, conscious, declarative system. This model provided the starting point for the research design. However, it was revised from the empirical findings supported by new theoretical insights. The teachers were video and audio recorded during their excursion and interviewed in a stimulated recall setting afterwards. The data were qualitatively analysed using the dual-memory system model. The results show that the teachers used holistic pattern recognition in their own identification of natural objects. However, teachers’ main strategy to teach this ability is to give the students explicit rules or specific characteristics. According to the dual-memory system model the holistic pattern recognition is processed in the implicit memory system as a non-conscious match with earlier experienced situations. We suggest that this implicit pattern matching serves as an explanation for teachers’ ecological and teaching observational skills. Another function of the implicit memory system is its ability to control automatic behaviour and non-conscious decision-making. The teachers offer the students firsthand sensory experiences which provide a prerequisite for the formation of implicit memories that provides a foundation for expertise.

  • 17.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Species identification elaborated from a dual memory system approach2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species identification is part of the biology education and is argued to be important for students to understand biodiversity and evolution. However, there is not enough time for thestudents to develop their ability to identify species within the biology courses. In this paper,we argue for a different model for teaching this topic. The idea comes from the ability to recognize a bird just from its appearance, known among ornithologists as jizz. This conceptcould theoretically being connected to the dual memory system model that implies thathuman beings have two different way of processing information, System 1 and System 2. System 1 operates as a pattern matching process in which already experienced situations arematched against a new situation. Video recordings from an biology field excursion, astimulated recall with the teacher of the excursion and interviews with the students show that the teacher use pattern matching as he recognize species during the excursion. However, healso highlights the important role of the environment to be able to identify plants. In histeaching, he also mentions one typical characteristic for the student as a way to consciously confirm the first, rapid pattern matching. The results indicate that it might be fruitful to teachcarefully selected species to students. Furthermore, even if the students do not remember the exact species name, they recognized the species and they more often remembered the groupor family of the species, even six months after the excursion. This shows the greatimportance of teaching plant identification (or recognition) not only theoretically, but primarily outdoors.

  • 18.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Björklund, Lars-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Students' long-term memories from an ecology field excursion: Retelling a narrative as an interplay between implicit and explicit memories2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 277-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the science content remembered by biology students 6 and 12 months after an ecology excursion. The students' memories were tested during a stimulated recall interview. The authors identified three different types of memories: recall, recognition and narratives. The dual memory system model of learning was used to connect recall to the explicit memory system (declarative knowledge), and recognition to the implicit memory system (tacit knowledge). The results show that the students' re-told narratives were scrambled and sometimes distorted. The students used small fragments to create their story and the next fragment of the story primarily depended on the antecedent unit. It is therefore suggested that in telling a narrative there is a constant interplay between the explicit (recall) and implicit (recognition) memory systems. The scientific terms (recall) were often replaced by everyday terms, indicating that the underlying meaning is not connected to the specific terms.

  • 19.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Frejd, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Peer Collaboration and Conceptual Understanding of Speciation among Primary Pupils2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate how peer collaboration affects individual pupils’ conceptions of speciation. Earlier research on evolution has primarily focused on children’s conceptions using individual and/or written examination. In this study, individual interviews and group discussions have been performed with eight 9-years old pupils who lack formal education on evolution. The results show that the pupils develop their conceptions on speciation in group discussions compared to individual interviews. This result suggests that also younger pupils improve their conceptual understanding in peer collaboration.

  • 20.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Frejd, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wallner, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Translating Modalities: Preschool Teachers' Work with Children's Meaning Making in Science2015In: Science Education Research: Engaging Learners for a Sustainable Future (Proceedings of ESERA 2015): Part 15, Strand 15, Early years science education / [ed] Jari Lavonen, Kalle Juuti, Jarkko Lampiselkä, Anna Uitto & Kaisa Hahl, Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki, 2015, p. 2608-2615Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children in preschool encounter sensations in their daily activities that could be interpreted as scientific phenomena. As part of these encounters, social interaction and meaning making are important elements in making science available to the children. Children in preschool rely on multimodal communication since they have not yet developed a verbal language. Therefore, this study aims at taking a multimodal perspective to investigate meaning making in science in a preschool setting. Data was collected using observations and audio recordings from one Swedish preschool with 18 children between 1-5 years old and three preschool teachers. Data was analyzed using semantic relationships. However, these relationships were investigated not only within verbal utterances, but in gestures and embodied activities as well. The results show that the preschool teacher verbalizes children’s embodied actions and gestures. In doing so, the teacher not only offers words for children’s activities, but also makes the activities, and participants’ meaning making, explicit to all children in the group. Hence, the teacher is translating modalities. Furthermore, this study shows the importance of attending a multimodal perspective in preschool settings. If attention is only given to children’s verbal output, there is a risk of underestimating their competence in emergent science meaning making. Instead, a multimodal perspective reveals children’s competent meaning making in interaction.

  • 21.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, GunnarLinköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Från forskning till fysikundervisning: Bidrag från konferensen i Malmö 14-15 mars 20162016Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nationellt resurscentrum för fysik (NRCF) arbetar med att sprida forskningsresultat liksom beprövad erfarenhet till fysiklärare med syfte att förändra och stärka fysikundervisningen i svensk skola (förskola, grundskola och gymnasieskola). Med samma syfte arbetar vi också med att utveckla och sprida forsknings baserade utvecklingsarbeten. Vårt arbete är en del i att överbrygga gapet mellan såväl naturvetenskaps-/fysikdidaktisk forskning och skolans praktik, som gapet mellan aktuell fysikforskning och fysik så som ämnet ofta beskrivs i skolan.

    Under 2015 formades tanken på en konferens, som, i linje med det här arbetet, skulle fokusera på att överbrygga gapet mellan forskning och fysikundervisning. Hur kan nv-didaktiska forskningsresultat komma till nytta till exempel i konkret utveckling av fysikundervisning i skolan? Och hur kan aktuell fysikforskning bli något elever i skolan får ta del av? Vi bestämde oss för att döpa konferensen till ”Från forskning till fysikundervisning”. Fokus för konferensen bestämdes alltså vara forskningsbaserade utvecklingsarbeten och olika sätt som forskning kan påverka och utveckla fysikundervisning i skolan. Vi bjöd in fyra huvudtalare: Professor Anita Roychoudhury från USA, Professor Ellen Karoline Henriksen från Norge, Professor Peter Heering från Tyskland och Professor Cedric Linder från Uppsala. Till vår glädje tackade samtliga ja. Huvudtalarna hjälpte oss att rama in och fokusera på praktiknära aspekter av den nv-/fysikdidaktiska forskningen med tydliga implikationer för undervisning på olika nivåer i skolan. Vi bjöd även in NATDID som medarrangör.

    Konferensens målgrupp var lärare som undervisar i fysik från lågstadiet till och med gymnasiet, lärarutbildare som utbildar dessa lärargrupper och forskare i fysikdidaktik. Vi ville också under konferensen avsätta tid för diskussioner och erfarenhetsutbyte i olika konstellationer. Vi ville att konferensen skulle fungera som en mötesplats där till exempel forskare kunde få större inblick i skolans och lärarnas vardag och problem, och lärare få större inblick i den nv-/fysikdidaktiska forskning som finns och hur den kan komma till användning i skolan.

    Detta var första gången den här typen av konferens som fokuserar på relationen forskning och fysikundervisning anordnades i Sverige och det är alltid svårt att veta hur stort intresset skulle vara. Vi blev mycket glada över det gensvar vi fick – både i form av anmälningar och i form av de samtal vi fick vara med om under konferensen. Konferensen ägde rum den 13-14 mars 2016 på Malmö museum, med en vetenskapshistorisk utställning som granne, vilket passade väldigt bra ihop med Peter Heerings föredrag om Storytelling. Totalt hade vi 74 deltagare från Luleå i norr till Ystad i söder, och därtill våra internationella gäster. Ungefär hälften av deltagarna var lärare, de flesta på högstadiet eller gymnasiet, men flera lärare från låg- och mellanstadiet deltog också. Bland övriga deltagare kom de flesta från olika lärosäten. Det fanns alltså många möjligheter till utbyte mellan forskare, lärare och lärarutbildare.

    Många av konferensens deltagare berättade att de uppskattade konferensen och det fokus på fysikundervisning den hade. Vi hoppas på att kunna genomföra en ny liknande konferens om några år. Hoppas vi ses igen då och att vi då kan vara ännu fler! Under tiden kan vi inspireras av de texter som skrivits med utgångspunkt i några av konferensens presentationer! Vi vill slutligen tacka NATDID för stöd under konferensen och för att den här konferensboken blev möjlig! 

    Lund 10 oktober 2016 

    Lena Hansson och Ann-Marie Pendrill

    Nationellt resurscentrum för fysik

  • 22.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teknikdidaktisk forskning för lärare: Bidrag från en forskningsmiljö2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok är en antologi om forskning kring teknikdidaktik, utgiven i samarbete mellan Nationellt centrum för naturvetenskapernas och teknikens didaktik (NATDID), forskningsmiljön Teknik, naturvetenskap och didaktik (TekNaD), och Centrum för tekniken i skolan (CETIS), vid Linköpings universitet. Syftet med boken är att lärare och andra som är intresserade av teknikdidaktik ska kunna ta del av exempel på forskning som görs inom detta område. Texterna kan användas på flera olika sätt, till exempel som inspiration för undervisning, som ett sätt att vidga vyerna inom något område och få nya perspektiv, samt naturligtvis som källa till konkreta idéer och tips om undervisning. Därigenom bidrar den här boken till möjligheter att bygga undervisning på vetenskaplig grund.

    Boken är sammansatt av olika forskares texter. Som ni kommer att märka finns det en bred variation i texternas karaktärer. Dels beror det på att det är många olika inriktningar av forskning med bland bidragen, från analyser av be-rättelser i barnböcker till undersökningar av lärares och elevers attityder. Dels beror det på att forskningen bakom bidragen har kommit olika långt, där vissa texter sammanfattar projekt som pågått under många år medan andra representerar doktoranders inledande kartläggning av området för kommande avhandlingsarbete.

    Texterna har gemensamt att de är skrivna specifikt för lärare1. Vid NATDID kallar vi detta för professionsvetenskapliga texter och strävar efter att det ska vara en medelväg mellan vetenskapligt och populärvetenskapligt skrivande. Det innebär å ena sidan att texterna ska vara lätta att läsa för personer utanför akademin, och å andra sidan att de ska använda de termer och begrepp som ingår i lärares professionsspråk.  

  • 23.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Höst, GunnarLinköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.Larsson, AndreasLinköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forum för forskningsbaserad NT-undervisning: Bidrag från konferensen FobasNT18 13 – 14 mars 2018 i Norrköping2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forum för forskningsbaserad NT-undervisning (FobasNT) är en konferens som arrangeras av Nationellt centrum för naturvetenskapernas och teknikens didaktik (NATDID). Konferensen vänder sig till lärare och forskare inom de naturvetenskapliga ämnena och teknik, med syftet att skapa dialog och erfarenhetsutbyte om hur undervisning kan utvecklas genom att basera den på forskning och beprövad erfarenhet.

    FobasNT18 gick av stapeln den 13-14 mars 2018 och samlade cirka hundra deltagare från hela Sverige i Norrköping. Ungefär hälften av deltagarna var forskare och/eller lärarutbildare medan den andra hälften var lärare, pedagoger på muséer och Science centers eller myndighetspersoner från bland annat Skolverket och Skolinspektionen. Blandningen av olika professioner möjliggjorde spännande möten och samtal där undervisning om naturvetenskap och teknik var det gemensamma intresset.

    Konferensens större teman kretsade kring hållbar utveckling och digitala verktyg i undervisningen. Detta avspeglas i de bidrag som finns representerade i den här boken, men också i de båda huvudtalarna: Helge Gresch, professor från universitetet i Münster, Tyskland som bjöd på en föreläsning med titeln Dealing with student conceptions in science classrooms: Results of a video-study on teleological explanations in the context of evolution och Ulrika Ryan, universitetsadjunkt och doktorand vid Malmö universitet som pratade om Att undervisa med digitala verktyg. Ulrika Ryans föreläsning videofilmades och finns att se via NATDID:s hemsida.

    Konferensen Forum för forskningsbaserad NT-undervisning är ett forum där deltagarna aktivt får delta i samtal kring forskning i relation till undervisningspraktik. För att uppmuntra detta samlades deltagarna i mindre grupper efter huvudtalarnas föreläsningar, för att utifrån sina egna erfarenheter diskutera vad de ville veta mer om. Varje grupp hade en samtalsledare som efter diskussionerna samlade ihop frågor, vilka sedan fördes vidare till en moderator. Därefter fick huvudtalaren med hjälp av moderatorn kommentera, fördjupa och besvara deltagarnas frågor och diskussionspunkter.

  • 24.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Stadig Degerman, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assocationsverktyg som ett sätt att studera studenters diskussion kring naturvetenskapliga begrepp2008In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This article aims to describe a new tool, the association tool, to collect data of students- discussions on scientific concepts. We have tested the association tool in two different situations. In the first, the association tool was used by student teachers in group-work. The students (two groups, which con- sisted of two and three students respectively) were asked to associate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a concept with which they are familiar, with other concepts. In the second situation, the association tool was used in an interview situation dealing with the concepts of energy and heat. Three student teachers were interviewed. Both situations were videotaped and the transcripts were analysed quali- tatively and quantitatively to show different ways of using the association tool. The association tool yielded rich data on the discussions of the concepts useinteractions in group-work and an interview situation.

  • 25.
    Stolpe, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Strömdahl, Helge
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Student Teachters' Reasoning Patterns while Solving a Contextualized Task on Thermal Phenomena2007In: Journal of Baltic science education, ISSN 1648-3898, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 44-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study three different patterns of reasoning have been identified: linear, star and combined reasoning. As six student teachers were working on a contextualized task on heat and temperature they showed these different patterns of reasoning during an interview situation. The data was analysed using reasoning maps. The patterns are also discussed in relation to the students- subject matter knowledge in this specific area. There are indications that the reasoning pattern is dependent on what kind of scientific subject matter knowledge the student reveals. Star and combined reasoning make it possible to look at the task from different angles and thereby develop fragmented knowledge into more comprehensive knowledge.

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