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  • 1.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Metson, Genevieve
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Enhancing nutrient recycling from excreta to meet crop nutrient needs in Sweden - a spatial analysis2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 10264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased recycling of nutrient-rich organic waste to meet crop nutrient needs is an essential component of a more sustainable food system. However, agricultural specialization continues to pose a significant challenge to balancing crop nutrient needs and the nutrient supply from animal manure and human excreta locally. For Sweden, this study found that recycling all excreta (in 2007) could meet up to 75% of crop nitrogen and 81% of phosphorus needs, but that this would exceed crop potassium needs by 51%. Recycling excreta within municipalities could meet 63% of crop P nutrient needs, but large regional differences and imbalances need to be corrected to avoid over or under fertilizing. Over 50% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus in excreta is contained in just 40% of municipalities, and those have a surplus of excreta nutrients compared to crop needs. Reallocation of surpluses (nationally optimized for phosphorus) towards deficit municipalities, would cost 192 million USD (for 24 079 km of truck travel). This is 3.7 times more than the total NPK fertilizer value being transported. These results indicate that Sweden could reduce its dependence on synthetic fertilizers through investments in excreta recycling, but this would likely require valuing also other recycling benefits.

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  • 2.
    Akram, Usman
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi.
    Quttineh, Nils-Hassan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Optimeringslära.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi.
    Metson, Geneviéve S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi.
    Optimizing Nutrient Recycling From Excreta in Sweden and Pakistan: Higher Spatial Resolution Makes Transportation More Attractive2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling essential plant nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) from organic waste such as human and animal excreta will be an essential part of sustainable food systems and a circular economy. However, transportation is often cited as a major barrier to increased recycling as organic waste is heavy and bulky, and distances between areas of abundant waste may be far from areas with a need for fertilizers. We investigated the effect of increased input data spatial resolution to an optimization model on the weight, distance, and spatial patterns of transport. The model was run in Sweden and in Pakistan to examine cost-effectiveness of transporting excess excreta to areas of crop need after local recycling. Increasing the resolution of input data from political boundaries (municipalities and districts) to 0.083 decimal grids increased the amount of N requiring transport by 12% in Pakistan and increased P requiring transport by 14% in Sweden. The average distance decreased by 67% (to 44 km) in Pakistan but increased by 1 km in Sweden. Further increasing the resolution to 5 km grids in Sweden decreased the average transportation distance by 9 km (down to 123 km). In both countries, increasing resolution also decreased the number of long-distance heavy transports, and as such costs did not increase as much as total distance and weight transported. Ultimately, transportation in Pakistan seemed financially beneficial: the cost of transport only represented 13% of the NPK fertilizer value transported, and total recycling could even cover 78% of additional fertilizer purchases required. In Sweden, the cost of transporting excreta did not seem cost effective without valuing other potential benefits of increased recycling: costs were three times higher than the fertilizer value transported in excreta at the 5 km resolution. In summary, increasing input data resolution created a more realistic picture of recycling needs. This also highlighted more favorable cost to fertilizer value ratios which could make it easier to move forward with industry and government partners to facilitate productive recycling. Our analysis shows that in both countries increased recycling can result in better spatial nutrient balances.

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  • 3.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 12015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

    • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
    • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
    • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

    BRC:s vision är:

    Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

    BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

    For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

    I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

    Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

    I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

    Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

    Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

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    Table Swe
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    Table Eng
  • 4. Andersson, J.
    et al.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Free water surface wetlands for wastewater treatment in Sweden: Nitrogen and phosphorus removal2005Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, nr 9, s. 39-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In South Sweden, free water surface wetlands have been built to treat wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Commonly, nitrogen removal has been the prime aim, though a significant removal of tot-P and BOD7 has been observed. In this study, performance data for 3-8 years from four large (20-28 ha) FWS wetlands have been evaluated. Two of them receive effluent from WWTP with only mechanical and chemical treatment. At the other two, the wastewater has also been treated biologically resulting in lower concentrations of BOD7 and NH4+-N. The wetlands performed satisfactorily and removed 0.7-1.5 ton N ha-1 yr-1 as an average for the time period investigated, with loads between 1.7 and 6.3 ton N ha-1 yr-1. Treatment capacity depended on the pre-treatment of the water, as reflected in the k20-values for N removal (first order area based mode). In the wetlands with no biological pre-treatment, the k20-values were 0.61 and 1.1 m month-1, whereas for the other two they were 1.7 and 2.5 m month-1. P removal varied between 10 and 41 kg ha-1 yr-1, and was related to differences in loads, P speciation and to the internal cycling of P in the wetlands. © IWA Publishing 2005.

  • 5.
    Anh Nguyen, Viet
    et al.
    HUCE, Vietnam.
    Phuong Nguyen, Minh
    VNU Univ Sci, Vietnam.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Do Thi, Hai
    HUMG, Vietnam.
    Thi Kim Bui, Anh
    Vietnam Acad Sci and Technol, Vietnam.
    Design and performance of a coarse media, high hydraulic load polishing wetland for steel industry wastewater2019Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 80, nr 1, s. 59-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design of a constructed wetland (CW) system in an area with limited land availability, resulting in high hydraulic loads. The CW was constructed to act as a buffering/polishing step after stabilization ponds for steel industry wastewater post-treatment. A pilot test with two different filter media (50-100 mm vs 40-60 mm diameter) indicated that a flow rate increase from 49.5 m(3)/h to 122.4 m(3)/h would lead to a head loss increase from 2.9 cm to 8.7 cm, and more than double that for the finer gravel. This was substantially higher than the calculated theoretical values, though the relation with flow rate was similar. Four full scale wetland cells (CW1, CW2, CW3 and CW4) were constructed using the coarser gravel. A design value of total head loss of 1.01 m over the total system length, with a design flow of 36,000 m(3)/day, was expected based on pilot test results. During the first operation year (September 2017 to July 2018), the pond-CW system has received wastewater already meeting required discharge standards. The effluent from the CWs had consistently lower concentrations of all measured variables, and met the predicted values for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen (TN) and NH4+-N. Highest removal efficiencies were achieved for NH4+-N (amp;gt; 90%), Mn (amp;gt; 60%) and Fe (45%) with removal efficiencies for TN (14%), BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (around 30%). Concentrations of phenol, CN- and Cr6+ were below 10, 4 and 3 mu g/l, respectively, in in- and outflows. An appreciated benefit of the wetland was the green element in the industrial landscape.

  • 6.
    Bieroza, Magdalena
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Bergstrom, Lars
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Ulen, Barbro
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Heeb, Anuschka
    Vaxt O Vatten, Sweden.
    Svensson, Jonas
    Swedish Agcy Marine and Water Management, Sweden.
    Malgeryd, Johan
    Swedish Board Agr, S-58232 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hydrologic Extremes and Legacy Sources Can Override Efforts to Mitigate Nutrient and Sediment Losses at the Catchment Scale2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 48, nr 5, s. 1314-1324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combating eutrophication requires changes in land and water management in agricultural catchments and implementation of mitigation measures to reduce phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and suspended sediment (SS) losses. To date, such mitigation measures have been built in many agricultural catchments, but there is a lack of studies evaluating their effectiveness. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of mitigation measures in a clay soildominated headwater catchment by combining the evaluation of long-term and high-frequency data with punctual measurements upstream and downstream of three mitigation measures: limefilter drains, a two-stage ditch, and a sedimentation pond. Long-term hydrochemical data at the catchment outlet showed a significant decrease in P (-15%) and SS (-28%) and an increase in nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, + 13%) concentrations. Highfrequency (hourly) measurements with a wet-chemistry analyzer (total and reactive P) and optical sensor (NO3-N and SS) showed that the catchment is an abundant source of nutrients and sediments and that their transport is exacerbated by prolonged drought and resuspension of stream sediments during storm events. Lime-filter drains showed a decrease in SS by 76% and total P by 80% and an increase in NO3-N by 45% compared with traditional drains, potentially indicating pollution swapping. The effectiveness of two-stage ditch and sedimentation pond was less evident and depended on the prevalent hydrometeorological conditions that drove the resuspension of bed sediments and associated sediment-bound P transport. These results suggest that increased frequency of prolonged drought due to changing weather patterns and resuspension of SS and sediment-bound P during storm events can override the generally positive effect of mitigation measures.

  • 7.
    Bodin, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Raburu, Phillip O.
    Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Free water surface constructed wetlands for polishing sugar factory effluent in western Kenya: macrophyte phosphorus recovery and treatment results2006Ingår i: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, 23-29 September 2006 / [ed] Dias, V., Vymazal, J., 2006, s. 709-718Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater treatment and nitrogen and phosphorus (P) recovery in harvested biomass of two macrophyte species receiving two wastewater loading rates was studied in a free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) in Kenya. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Inlets and outlets water samples were analysed for selected water quality parameters. Macrophytes were harvested at around 7 month intervals on three occasions for determination of biomass, P and N content. Area specific removals of TP, TSS and Nh4+-N were higher in the high-load CWs and in the low-load ones, but the relative removal was lower. For Nh4+-N, there was a significantly higher removal in C. papyrus CWs- Each macrophyte species had similar tissue P content independent of mass load suggesting excess available phosphorus in all CWs, as supported by the low N:P ratios. During a 7 month period, the amount of P stored daily in the green biomass of the macrophytes represented 18-29% and 25-100% of the daily removal of TP and TDP, respectively.

  • 8.
    Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Raburu, Philip O.
    Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Moi University, Kenya.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Free water surface constructed wetlands for polishing sugar factory effluent in western Kenya - macrophyte phosporus recovery and treatment resultsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus removal and uptake by two macrophyte species receiving two wastewater loading rates was studied in a free water surface constructed wetland system (FWS CW) in Kenya. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Inlet and outlet water samples were analyzed for selected water quality parameters. The first macrophyte harvest for determination of biomass, P and N content was done after 21 months of operation, followed by two harvests with 7 months intervals. Mass reductions of TP and TDP were higher in the low-load CWs than in the high-load ones. Each macrophyte species had similar tissue P content independent of mass load suggesting excess available phosphorus in all CWs (low N:P ratios). During a 7 month period, the amount of P stored daily in the green biomass of the macrophytes represented 18-29% and 25-100% of the daily removal of TP and TDP, respectively. Still, the CW system was not functioning at optimal conditions for simultaneous wastewater treatment and P recovery. Frequent harvesting along with an enlargement of the CW area would yield higher relative nutrient removal rates, and increase the biomass that could be used by local communities for animal fodder and building material.

  • 9.
    Bojcevska, Hristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Impact of loads, season, and plant species on the performance of a tropical constructed wetland polishing effluent from sugar factory stabilization ponds2007Ingår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 66-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of wastewater loading rates and two macrophyte species on treatment of sugar factory stabilization pond effluent were investigated in a pilot-scale free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW) system in western Kenya. For 12 months, four CWs were operated at a hydraulic loading rate of 75 mm day−1 and four at 225 mm day−1. Half the CWs were planted with Cyperus papyrus and half with Echinochloa pyramidalis. Water samples were taken at the inlets and outlets and analyzed for TP, TDP, NH4-N, and TSS. Mass removal rates of the selected water quality parameters were compared during three periods designated the short rain (period 1), dry (period 2), and long rain (period 3) seasons. There was a significant linear relationship between the mass removal rate of TP, NH4-N, and TSS and the mass load, and season had a significant effect on the mass removal rate of TSS, NH4-N, and TDP. Mass loading rates for TDP were about 78% of those for TP, whereas TDP comprised 78–99% of TP mass outflow rates, indicating a release of dissolved P within the CWs. The only significant difference between the two macrophyte species was associated with mass removal of NH4-N, with more efficient removal in CWs planted with C. papyrus than those with E. pyramidalis. TP mass removal rates were 50–80% higher when a mean water loss for CWs 6–8 during periods 1 and 2 was assumed to represent evapotranspiration for all CWs in period 3 instead of pan evaporation data. This illustrated the importance of accurate estimations of evapotranspiration for pollutant mass removal rates in CWs in tropical climates.

  • 10. Braskerud, B.C.
    et al.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Wedding, B.
    Bakke, R.
    Blankenberg, A.-G. B.
    Ulèn, B.
    Koskiaho, J.
    Can constructed wetlands reduce the diffuse phosphorus loads to eutrophic freshwater in cold temperate regions?2005Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 34, s. 2145-2155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 11.
    Diwan, Vishal
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Tamhankar, Ashok J
    RD Gardi Medical College.
    Khandal, Rakesh K
    Shriram Institute Ind Research.
    Sen, Shanta
    Shriram Institute Ind Research.
    Aggarwal, Manjeet
    Shriram Institute Ind Research.
    Marothi, Yogyata
    RD Gardi Medical College.
    Iyer, Rama V
    RD Gardi Medical College.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stalsby-Lundborg, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institute.
    Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in waters associated with a hospital in Ujjain, India2010Ingår i: BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 10, nr 414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the public health implications of the presence of antibiotic residues in the aquatic environment and their effect on the development of bacterial resistance. While there is information on antibiotic residue levels in hospital effluent from some other countries, information on antibiotic residue levels in effluent from Indian hospitals is not available. Also, concurrent studies on antibiotic prescription quantity in a hospital and antibiotic residue levels and resistant bacteria in the effluent of the same hospital are few. Therefore, we quantified antibiotic residues in waters associated with a hospital in India and assessed their association, if any, with quantities of antibiotic prescribed in the hospital and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli found in the hospital effluent. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a teaching hospital outside the city of Ujjain in India. Seven antibiotics - amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, amikacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and levofloxacin - were selected. Prescribed quantities were obtained from hospital records. The samples of the hospital associated water were analysed for the above mentioned antibiotics using well developed and validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry technique after selectively isolating the analytes from the matrix using solid phase extraction. Escherichia coli isolates from these waters were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, by standard Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute breakpoints. Results: Ciprofloxacin was the highest prescribed antibiotic in the hospital and its residue levels in the hospital wastewater were also the highest. In samples of the municipal water supply and the groundwater, no antibiotics were detected. There was a positive correlation between the quantity of antibiotics prescribed in the hospital and antibiotic residue levels in the hospital wastewater. Wastewater samples collected in the afternoon contained both a higher number and higher levels of antibiotics compared to samples collected in the morning hours. No amikacin was found in the wastewater, but E. coli isolates from all wastewater samples were resistant to amikacin. Although ciprofloxacin was the most prevalent antibiotic detected in the wastewater, E. coli was not resistant to it. Conclusions: Antibiotics are entering the aquatic environment of countries like India through hospital effluent. Indepth studies are needed to establish the correlation, if any, between the quantities of antibiotics prescribed in hospitals and the levels of antibiotic residues found in hospital effluent. Further, the effect of this on the development of bacterial resistance in the environment and its subsequent public health impact need thorough assessment.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    VATEMA Co., Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barbara, Kielbasa
    Agriculture and Economics, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland.
    Ulén, Barbro
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Soil and Environment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    POMInnO Sp. Zo.o., Gdynia, Poland.
    Tonderski, Andrzej
    POMInnO Sp. Zo.o., Gdynia, Poland.
    Generating Applicable Environmental Knowledge among Farmers: Experiences from Two Regions in Poland2017Ingår i: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 41, nr 6, s. 671-690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Raising environmental awareness among farmers is the key to successfully reaching environmental goals. The present study assessed the knowledge development process and the raising of environmental awareness among 30 farmers from Poland exposed to four approaches aimed to reduce phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses to water. The farmers were interviewed with open-ended questions on-farm both before and after the project intervention. As hoped, the farmers attempted to adjust their farm practices to the European Union regulations, which are in some cases supported by subsidies. As a complement, the project offered tools for system-thinking based on farm data and support from agricultural advisors: a) a survey of plant-available P, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and soil pH, resulting in soil maps; b) assessment of nitrogen leaching risks from individual fields; c) compilation of a farm-gate balance. Farmers were positive to soil surveys and maps, but had limited understanding of the nutrient balance concept and calculations. They generally relied on their own experiences regarding fertilization rather than on calculated farm nutrient balances and leaching risks. Farmers’ understanding and willingness to adopt new approaches to improve nutrient efficiency and reduce negative environmental impacts are discussed.

  • 13.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    McConville, Jennifer
    Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Extending the European Union Waste Hierarchy to Guide Nutrient-Effective Urban Sanitation toward Global Food Security: Opportunities for Phosphorus Recovery2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 2, s. 1-13, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With growing urbanization cities become hotspots for nutrients. Food items are imported, and food residues, including excreta and not-eaten food, are often exported to landfill sites and water bodies. However, urban sanitation systems can be designed to achieve a high degree of nutrient recovery and food security while counteracting current nutrient resources depletion, environmental degradation, and wasteful energy use. This article illustrates how an extended solid waste hierarchy also including human excreta and wastewater can guide actions to save and recover phosphorus (P) by the three sectors: food industry, households, and waste utilities. P use in diets and agricultural production is not part of the analysis, despite the potential to save P. Novel systems thinking and material flow analysis show that waste prevention can replace over 40% of mined P presently used for making fertilizers. Reuse and recycling of P in excreta and food waste can replace another 15–30%, depending on P efficiency from mine to plate. Keeping excreta separated from other wastewater facilitates such measure. Incineration and land filling are deemed the least appropriate measures since mainly P is recovered in the ashes. The European Union (EU) waste management policy is analyzed for real barriers and opportunities for this approach. The EU Parliament policy guidelines were watered down in the EU Commission’s Directives, and today most biowastes are still being landfilled or incinerated instead of recovered. An anticipated overcapacity of incineration plants in Europe threatens to attract all combustible materials and therefore, irrevocably, reduce nutrient recovery. On the other hand, reduced generation and enhanced recovery can delay exhaustion of P resources by several centuries and simultaneously reduce environmental degradation.

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  • 14.
    Geranmayeh, Pia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    Swedish National Forens Centre, S-58194 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ulen, Barbro
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Particle deposition, resuspension and phosphorus accumulation in small constructed wetlands2018Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, s. 134-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve understanding of phosphorus (P) retention processes in small constructed wetlands (CWs), we analysed variations in sediment deposition and accumulation in four CWs on clay soils in east-central Sweden. Sediment deposition (in traps) generally exceeded the total suspended solids (TSS) load suggesting that resuspension and wetland base erosion were important. This was confirmed by quantification of particle accumulation (on plates) (1-23 kg m(-2) year(-1)), which amounted to only 13-23% of trap deposition. Spatial mean P concentrations in accumulated sediment on plates (0.09-0.15%) were generally similar to temporal mean P concentrations of particles in water (0.11-0.15%). Deposition/accumulation was minor in one wetland with high hydraulic load (400 m year(-1)), suggesting that such small wetlands are not efficient as particle sinks. Economic support for CWs are given, but design and landscape position are here demonstrated to be important for effective P retention.

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  • 15.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Billgren, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Raburu, P. O.
    Sugar industry effluent treatment in the Lake Victoria basin – a case study of Sugar industry effluent treatment in the Lake Victoria basin: a case study of performance, cost and resource use including local ecosystem services2010Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Grönlund, Erik
    et al.
    Div. of Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Billgren, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Raburu, Phillip O
    Dept. of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Eldoret, Eldoret, Kenya.
    Emergy Assessment of a Wastewater Treatment Pond System in the Lake Victoria Basin2017Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, ISSN 2325-6192, E-ISSN 2325-6206, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 11-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of efforts to reduce the eutrophying load to Lake Victoria, a wastewater treatment system at one of the sugar factories in Kenya was evaluated with the ecosystem ecology method emergy accounting. As a comparison a traditional cost analysis was also performed. The analysis included the local and imported ecosystem services. After preliminary treatment the effluent was discharged into a series of 12 stabilisation ponds. The removal of COD and TSS was high, whereas phosphorus concentrations were reduced by less than 20 %. The monetary costs were dominated by operation and management cost, some of which could probably be reduced by more effective management. The local ecosystem services in emergy terms contributed only 1% (or 1,000 Em$) to the treatment system. Imported ecosystem services in purchased lime contributed more to the treatment system, 22% (or 24,600 Em$). Since the land costs in the area were low, land demanding treatment methods using free local ecosystem services, could be cost effective choices for wastewater management. Ecosystem ecology methods as emergy accountings can guide these choices by revealing the additional contribution of free ecosystem services. Emergy accountings seem to need further clarification regarding differences in micro-/macroeconomic views.

  • 17.
    Hasler, Berit
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Hyytiäinen, Kari
    Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki ,Helsinki, Finland.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Department of Hydrology, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Smart, James C. R.
    School of Environment and Science and the Australian Rivers Institute at Griffith University, Brisban, Australia.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sustainable ecosystem governance under changing climate and land use: An introduction2019Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, s. 1-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Combatting eutrophication is currently a major challenge for policy makers in the Baltic Sea region, and it is likely to remain so in the decades to come. Although total nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea have recently declined, the gap between current loadings and those required to ensure the desired status is still substantial (Reusch et al. 2018). This Special Issue is dedicated to research that helps inform how the eutrophication challenge might best be addressed by improving our understanding of technological constraints, societal drivers of change, land uses, environmental policies, and innovative governance with stakeholder involvement. These issues are important for the current generation and those to come and are issues we must address in order to succeed in reducing nutrient loads to the desired levels to gradually achieve the desired good environmental status of the Baltic Sea. Currently, we witness a new era of water policies across the entire Baltic Sea region. Our changing climate is impacting on precipitation and runoff, and is also the reason why new EU climate policies seek to tie carbon sinks more visibly to carbon sources. Both these aspects have repercussions for water policies. Thus, solving eutrophication challenges requires sharpening of existing policies and instruments, as well as creating new insights and governance approaches with broad stakeholder involvement in a changing environment. In order to design coherent water and climate policies, and target and implement those policies more efficiently, policy makers need to combine new insights regarding the inhabitants in the region, the catchments, and the Baltic Sea itself. Such insights can be expected from soil scientists, agronomists, hydrogeologists, marine ecologists, economists, and social and policy scientists. What is needed is on the one hand effectively targeted governance at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, adapted to differing interests and motivations of citizens living around the Baltic Sea, and on the other hand fine tuning and co-designing of policies at local, national, Baltic Sea regional and EU level. This Special Issue brings together recent research from four BONUS-funded projects—BONUS BALTICAPP, BONUS GO4BALTIC, BONUS MIRACLE and BONUS SOILS2SEA—that comprised part of the ‘Viable Ecosystem’ and ‘Sustainable Ecosystem Services’ BONUS research programmes. The projects addressed these common concerns through somewhat different, but inter-related, themes. Key messages emphasized and discussed in the research papers of this Special Issue are summarized under four interlinked themes: Scenarios for the future, Policies and ecosystem services in water governance, Novel approaches for managing nutrients, and Advanced modelling from field level to the entire Baltic Sea region.

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    Sustainable ecosystem governance under changing climate and land use: An introduction
  • 18.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Jonas
    WRS Uppsala AB, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Efficiency of a constructed wetland for retention of sediment associated phosphorus2011Ingår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 674, nr 1, s. 179-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A constructed wetland (2.1 ha; 2% of catchment area) in southeast Sweden, in a catchment with 35% arable land on clay soils, was investigated with respect to phosphorus (P) retention, focusing on particulate P (PP) and sediment accretion. The aims were to i) estimate P retention and identify the dominating retention processes; ii) investigate how well estimates of P retention based on inflow-outflow measurements compared with the amount of P accumulated in the sediment. In- and outflow of P was measured during four years with continuous flow measurements and flow proportional weekly composite samples. P in the accumulated sediment was estimated based on core samples and analyzed using sequential fractionation. Total P load during four years was 65 kg/ha and intensive sampling events detected 69% as PP. Based on inflow-outflow estimates the mean P retention was 2.8 kg/ha/yr, or 17%, but the amount of P accumulated in the inlet zone  equated 78% of the TP load. This discrepancy showed the need to add studies of sediment accumulation to inflow-outflow estimates for an improved understanding of the P retention. The dominating P forms in the sediment were organic P (38%) and P associated with iron or aluminum (39%), i.e. potentially mobile forms. In areas colonized by Typha latifolia, the amount of P in the upper sediment layer (390 kg) was more than double the total P load of 136 kg. Cycling and release in those areas is a potential source of P that deserves further attention.

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  • 19.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kynkäänniemi, P.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ulén, B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Weisner, S.E.B.
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phosphorus and particle retention in constructed wetlands—A catchment comparison2015Ingår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 80, s. 20-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seven constructed wetlands (0.05–0.69 ha), situated in agricultural catchments (22–267 ha) in the south of Sweden, were studied for two years with two aims: to (i) quantify their function as sinks for particles and phosphorus (P) lost from the catchments, and (ii) investigate to what degree catchment and wetland characteristics and modeled loads (using hydrochemical catchment models) could be used to explain differences in retention between the wetlands. The wetland areas ranged from 0.04 to 0.8% of the respective catchment area, and they were situated in areas dominated by fine-textured soils with relatively high P losses and the main proportion of P transported in particulate form. Net P and particle retention were estimated during two years from annual accumulation of particles on sedimentation plates (40 × 40 cm) on the bottom of the wetlands.

    There was an annual net retention of particles and P, but with a large variation (for particles 13–108 t ha−1 yr−1 and for P 11–175 kg ha−1 yr−1), both between wetlands and between years. The difference between the two years was larger than the difference in mean P retention between the seven wetlands. There was a positive relationship between P and particle retention and three catchment factors, i.e. P status (P-AL) of agricultural soils, average slope in the catchments and the livestock density, and a negative relationship with the agricultural soil clay content. In addition, there was a positive relationship with the wetland length:width ratio. Contrary to expectations, neither the modeled hydraulic load nor P load was significantly correlated with the measured particle and P retention. There was also a positive relationship between P concentration in the sediment and soil P status in the catchment. The results imply that considerable errors are introduced when down-scaling modeled regional nutrient losses to estimate the P loads to small wetlands in agriculturally dominated catchments. A more qualitative approach, using catchment characteristics for identification of hot-spot fields, may be equally good to identify suitable locations for constructed wetlands to reduce diffuse P loads.

  • 20.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindström, G.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI.
    Heeb, A.
    Swedish Board of Agriculture (Jordbruksverket).
    Milver, A.
    Gothenburg University.
    Rönnberg, R.
    Stockholm Vatten, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, L.
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI.
    Can spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability be captured by catchment agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling?2015Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In water management, source areas need to be identified and seasonal variability of nutrient flows assessed to facilitate design of cost-efficient mitigation programs. This study aimed at investigating to what degree sub-catchment spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability could be captured by their agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling.

    An agricultural catchment (160 km2) in Southeast Sweden was investigated with respect to source areas for phosphorus (P), nitrogen and particle losses. The specific aims were to 1) investigate the spatial variability of nutrient and particle concentrations and transport from different sub-catchments, 2) analyze if sub-catchment characteristics could explain differences in nutrient and particle concentration dynamics and overall nutrient losses, and 3) evaluate how well monitored temporal and spatial variability in nutrient concentrations could be simulated by a catchment model (HYPE). The purpose with the latter was to find recommendations for further model development and identify limitations for the use of catchment models in local water management.

    Water flow was measured in two stations during 2009-2011. Grab samples were collected in synoptic sampling campaigns covering 10 sampling points during periods that represented various water flow regimes. Water samples were analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved phosphate (PO4-P), nitrate (NO3-N) and suspended matter (SUSP). The HYPE model was setup with the same detailed agro-geographical data as used for the statistical analyses of spatial and temporal correlations. The results showed that the sub-catchment variability of all measured nutrient concentrations were correlated with agro-geographical characteristics. All fractions of P concentrations were strongly correlated with soil type, whereas NO3-N concentrations were more related to crop factors. With regard to temporal dynamics of monitored concentrations, links to seasonality and water flow were more significant for NO3-N than for TP. Concentrations generated from the water quality model (HYPE) did not capture the subcatchment or temporal variability indicated from monitoring, particularly not for P concentrations. Neither did the modelled correlation between agro-geographical factors and concentrations correspond to that found for monitored concentrations. Some suggestions for model improvement were identified. Although water quality models are useful for local water management when it comes to modelling the impact of e.g. measures or climate change, our results suggest that their value might still be more limited when assessing variability on the subcatchment scale.

  • 21.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tonderski, Karin S.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E.B.
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands2017Ingår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, s. 436-445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands (CWs) in the south of Sweden were analyzed to investigate the effects of water flow and season on inflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and temporal P retention variations in CWs receiving runoff from arable land. The form of P (dissolved or particulate) during different water flows (high and low) and seasons (warm and cold) was investigated using the results of total P (TP) and phosphate analyzed in grab samples that had been collected regularly or occasionally during two to nine years, along with continuous water flow measurements.

    The form of inflow and outflow P (particulate or dissolved P) differed between CWs, and also varied with season and flow. For instance, in three of the CWs, particulate P (PP) dominated the inflow during the cold period with high flow, while during the other periods the proportion of PP was approximately 50%. In one CW situated in a catchment with high clay content, PP dominated both inflow and outflow at all times. The average clay content in catchment top soils was positively correlated to the flow-weighted inflow TP concentrations.

    In three CWs receiving runoff through drainage pipes, the relationship between TP concentrations (TPin) and water flow was positive, both during high and low flow, and during warm and cold period. However, in four CWs that received surface water runoff, the relationship between TPin and water flow was positive during high flow periods (i.e. the 25% sampling occasions with the highest flow), and during low flow and warm period, the relationship was negative in these four wetlands, indicating either anoxic stagnant water upstream or influence from rural wastewater.

    The temporal dynamics of P concentrations mean that in some of the CWs, the main part of the annual P retention may occur during a few days with high water flows. The correlation between concentration and water flow suggests that the water sampling strategy may have a considerable impact on retention estimates, as exemplified by some calculation examples.

  • 22.
    Johannesson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wedding, Bengt
    Ekologgruppen i Landskrona AB, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per-Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Phosphorus load variations and retention in non-point source wetlands in southern SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from seven constructed wetlands receiving runoff from agricultural catchments in the south of Sweden were investigated with respect to phosphorus (P) retention. The seven wetlands differed in size (0.22-2 ha), design, land use and catchment characteristics. The hydraulic load varied between 7 and 725 m yr-1, which reflect the different geographical and hydrological conditions. The overall aim of this study was to increase the understanding of how water flow and inflow P concentration varations affect the P retention in constructed wetlands receiving runoff from arable land. Water flow was measured continuously, and time or flow proportional water samples were taken. Grab samples were taken during high flow periods and also to supplement the automatic water sampling. P retention varied between wetlands, from 1 to 58 kg ha-1 yr-1, and was correlated to the P load (R2=0.9, p<0.05). P retention in the wetlands varied strongly between years, and negative retention was recorded for some years and wetlands. When investigating monthly retention for each wetland, release of P corresponded to either high flow or possible anoxic conditions during low-flow periods in summer or during winter when ice covered the wetlands. Analyses of grab samples revealed a relationship between TP concentration and water flow for most wetlands. In some wetlands, P was transported mainly as particulate P (PP), but in other wetlands, soluble P was the dominating form in both inflow and outflow. Incoming concentrations varied greatly between wetlands (1-2000 μg l-1) which reflected the different catchment characteristics, e.g. land use, soil type and topography.

  • 23.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, P. G.
    Department of Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ekström, A.
    Department of Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Seasonal denitrification potential in wetland sediments with organic matter from different plant species2007Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 183, nr 1-4, s. 25-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetation both physically and biochemically influences denitrification in wetlands. Litter from various plant species supplies various amounts and qualities of organic carbon to denitrifying bacteria, and may thus affect denitrification capacity. We explore whether there is seasonal variation in the denitrification potential in stands of Glyceria maxima, Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia, and Potamogeton pectinatus (the stands differed in terms of which species was predominant). Experiments and measurements investigated whether denitrification potential was related to organic matter and its availability to denitrifying bacteria, suitability for bacterial growth, and amount in the wetland. Availability of organic material, as measured in the slurries, was highest in the G. maxima and P. pectinatus samples, with the highest availability in May and August. However, when the samples were closer to wetland conditions, i.e., intact sediment cores containing litter and organic sediment, the denitrifying capacity was highest in the cores from G. maxima stands, but lowest in P. pectinatus cores. In addition, the denitrification potential of the intact cores was highest in November. Differences in denitrification capacity between the slurries and intact sediment cores, considering the organic material of the plant species and the seasonal pattern, were attributed to differences in the amount of plant litter generated.

  • 24.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, P. G.
    Department of Limnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Premrov, A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tonderski (Sundblad), Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Potential denitrification in wetland sediments with different plant species detritus2005Ingår i: Ecological engineering, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 183-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of detritus originating from different plant species on denitrifying capacity was investigated in a Swedish wastewater treatment wetland. Intact sediment cores containing sediment with a detritus layer were collected from wetland basins dominated by Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, or Elodea canadensis in November 2000 and potential denitrification was measured using the acetylene-inhibition method.

    The cores from stands of E. canadensis showed more than three times higher denitrification capacity than the cores of the other plants. Bacterial abundance per unit dry weight was both highest and lowest in the detritus of P. australis, whereas the C/N ratio was lower in the cores of E. canadensis. This suggests that the submerged plant provided more organic material of high quality to support heterotrophic organisms. It is also possible that the surfaces of E. canadensis offered more or more suitable surfaces for bacterial growth and thereby increased the bacterial population.

    It is apparent that denitrifying bacteria were more favored by E. canadensis detritus than by detritus from the emergent plant species at the time of sampling. Since the turnover of plant detritus varies considerably among species, the seasonal variation in denitrification capacity is likely to be quite different for different plants.

  • 25.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Peder G.
    Dep. of Ecology/Limnology, Lund Univ., Lund, Sweden.
    Martins, Irene
    Dep. of Zoology, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal .
    Neto, João M.
    Dep. of Zoology, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal .
    Leonardson, Lars
    Dep. of Ecology/Limnology, Lund Univ., Lund, Sweden.
    Tonderski (Sundblad), Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Potential nitrification and denitrification on different surfaces in a constructed treatment wetland2004Ingår i: Journal of environmental quality, ISSN 0047-2425, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 2414-2420Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved understanding of the importance of different surfaces in supporting attached nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria is essential if we are to optimize the N removal capacity of treatment wetlands. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the nitrifying and denitrifying capacity of different surfaces in a constructed treatment wetland and to assess the relative importance of these surfaces for overall N removal in the wetland. Intact sediment cores, old pine and spruce twigs, shoots of Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.), and filamentous macro-algae were collected in July and November 1999 in two basins of the wetland system. One of the basins had been constructed on land that contained lots of wood debris, particularly twigs of coniferous trees. Potential nitrification was measured using the isotope-dilution technique, and potential denitrification was determined using the acetylene-inhibition technique in laboratory microcosm incubations. Nitrification rates were highest on the twigs. These rates were three and 100 times higher than in the sediment and on Eurasian watermilfoil, respectively. Potential denitrification rates were highest in the sediment. These rates were three times higher than on the twigs and 40 times higher than on Eurasian watermilfoil. The distribution of denitrifying bacteria was most likely due to the availability of organic material, with higher denitrification rates in the sediment than on surfaces in the water column. Our results indicate that denitrification, and particularly nitrification, in treatment wetlands could be significantly increased by addition of surfaces such as twigs.

  • 26.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Weisner, Stefan E B
    Halmstad University.
    Thiere, Geraldine
    Halmstad University.
    Svensson, Jonas M
    Halmstad University.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Halmstad University.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of vegetation and hydraulic load on seasonal nitrate removal in treatment wetlands2009Ingår i: ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN 0925-8574, Vol. 35, nr 5, s. 946-952Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimising nitrate removal and identifying critical factors for nitrate removal in wetlands is an important environmental task in the effort to achieve better surface water quality. In this study, eighteen free water surface wetlands with similar shape and size (22 m(2) each) received groundwater with a high nitrate-N concentration (about 11 mg l(-1)). The effects of two hydraulic loads, 0.13 m d(-1) and 0.39 m d(-1), and three vegetation types - emergent, submersed and freely developing vegetation - on the nitrate-N removal were investigated through mass inflow and outflow measurements. No significant difference in nitrate removal between the different hydraulic loads could be detected. Significantly higher area-specific nitrate removal and first-order area-based rate coefficients were found in the basins with emergent vegetation, with no difference between the basins with submersed and freely developing vegetation. The nitrate-N removal increased as the wetlands matured and the vegetation grew denser, emphasizing the role of dense emergent vegetation for nitrate removal at high nitrate concentrations.

  • 27.
    Kynkäänniemi, P.
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johannesson, Karin M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ulén, B.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Assessment of particle deposition and accumulation in newly constructed wetlands receiving agricultural runoff2015Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed variations in sediment deposition and accumulation to improve understanding of retention processes in small wetlands constructed on clay soils. Sediment deposition (in traps) and accumulation (on plates) was measured in four wetlands in east-central Sweden.

    Particle deposition generally exceeded (up to eight-fold) the total particle load to the wetlands, especially in the spring-summer period, suggesting that the settled particles in the traps were generated from internal processes. The particles probably originated from erosion of the bottom and sides of the wetlands, or from production of organic material which deposited in the traps.

    Particle resuspension was evident in all wetlands and considered an important process. Only 13-23% of the deposited material in the traps remained on the plates in the wetlands. Both particle deposition and accumulation was very low in one wetland receiving high hydraulic load (HL, 400 m yr-1), suggesting that such high-loaded wetlands are not efficient as particle sinks in clay soil areas. In the other wetlands, more than 80% of the total sediment accumulation occurred in the initial parts of the wetlands (which represented the first 20% of the total wetland area), indicating the importance of designing wetlands with an initial wetland section that is easy accessed for sediment removal as maintenance.

    The results from this study point to the importance of internal processes and resuspension for annual particle accumulation in constructed wetlands.

  • 28.
    Kynkäänniemi, Pia
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ulén, Barbro
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Torstensson, Gunnar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phosphorus retention in a newly constructed wetland receiving agricultural tile drainage2013Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 596-605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One measure used in Sweden to mitigate eutrophication of watersis the construction of small wetlands (free water surface wetland forphosphorus retention [P wetlands]) to trap particulate phosphorus(PP) transported in ditches and streams. Th is study evaluated Pretention dynamics in a newly constructed P wetland serving a 26-haagricultural catchment with clay soil. Flow-proportional compositewater samples were collected at the wetland inlet and outlet over 2yr (2010–2011) and analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved P (DP),particulate P (PP), and total suspended solids (TSS). Both wintershad unusually long periods of snow accumulation, and additionaltime-proportional water samples were frequently collected duringsnowmelt. Infl ow TP and DP concentrations varied greatly (0.02–1.09 mg L−1) during the sampling period. During snowmelt in 2010,there was a daily oscillation in P concentration and water fl ow inline with air temperature variations. Outfl ow P concentrationswere generally lower than infl ow concentrations, with net P lossesobserved only in August and December 2010. On an annual basis,the wetland acted as a net P sink, with mean specifi c retentionof 69 kg TP, 17 kg DP, and 30 t TSS ha−1 yr−1, corresponding toa reduction in losses of 0.22 kg TP ha−1 yr−1 from the agriculturalcatchment. Relative retention was high (36% TP, 9% DP, and36% TSS), indicating that small constructed wetlands (0.3% ofcatchment area) can substantially reduce P loads from agriculturalclay soils with moderately undulating topography.

  • 29.
    Land, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm Environm Inst, Sweden.
    Graneli, Wilhelm
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Florida Gulf Coast Univ, FL 34112 USA; Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Inst Marine Environm, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Carl Christian
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Mitsch, William J.
    Florida Gulf Coast Univ, FL 34112 USA.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Verhoeven, Jos T. A.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    How effective are created or restored freshwater wetlands for nitrogen and phosphorus removal? A systematic review2016Ingår i: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikel-id 9Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eutrophication of aquatic environments is a major environmental problem in large parts of the world. In Europe, EU legislation (the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive), international conventions (OSPAR, HELCOM) and national environmental objectives emphasize the need to reduce the input of nutrients to freshwater and marine environments. A widely used method to achieve this is to allow water to pass through a created or restored wetland. However, the large variation in measured nutrient removal rates in such wetlands calls for a systematic review. Methods: Searches for primary studies were performed in electronic databases and on the internet. One author performed the screening of all retrieved articles at the title and abstract level. To check that the screening was consistent and complied with the agreed inclusion/exclusion criteria, subsets of 100 articles were screened by the other authors. When screening at full-text level the articles were evenly distributed among the authors. Kappa tests were used to evaluate screening consistency. Relevant articles remaining after screening were critically appraised and assigned to three quality categories, from two of which data were extracted. Quantitative synthesis consists of meta-analyses and response surface analyses. Regressions were performed using generalized additive models that can handle nonlinear relationships and interaction effects. Results: Searches generated 5853 unique records. After screening on relevance and critical appraisal, 93 articles including 203 wetlands were used for data extraction. Most of the wetlands were situated in Europe and North America. The removal rate of both total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) is highly dependent on the loading rate. Significant relationships were also found for annual average air temperature (T) and wetland area (A). Median removal rates of TN and TP were 93 and 1.2 g m(-2) year(-1.), respectively. Removal efficiency for TN was significantly correlated with hydrologic loading rate (HLR) and T, and the median was 37 %, with a 95 % confidence interval of 29-44 %. Removal efficiency for TP was significantly correlated with inlet TP concentration, HLR, T, and A. Median TP removal efficiency was 46 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 37-55 %. Although there are small differences in average values between the two quality categories, the variation is considerably smaller among high quality studies compared to studies with lower quality. This suggests that part of the large variation between studies may be explained by less rigorous study designs. Conclusions: On average, created and restored wetlands significantly reduce the transport of TN and TP in treated wastewater and urban and agricultural runoff, and may thus be effective in efforts to counteract eutrophication. However, restored wetlands on former farmland were significantly less efficient than other wetlands at TP removal. In addition, wetlands with precipitation-driven HLRs and/or hydrologic pulsing show significantly lower TP removal efficiencies compared to wetlands with controlled HLRs. Loading rate (inlet concentrations x hydraulic loading rates) needs to be carefully estimated as part of the wetland design. More research is needed on the effects of hydrologic pulsing on wetlands. There is also a lack of evidence for long-term (&gt;20 years) performance of wetlands.

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  • 30.
    Land, Magnus
    et al.
    Mistra EviEM, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    Department of Biology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Hoffmann, Carl Christian
    Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Mitsch, William J
    Florida Gulf Coast University, Naples Florida, USA .
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Verhoeven, Jos T A
    Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Netherlands.
    How effective are created or restored freshwater wetlands for nitrogen and phosphorus removal? A systematic review protocol2013Ingår i: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 2, nr 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eutrophication of aquatic environments is a major environmental problem in large parts of the world.In Europe, EU legislation (the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive),international conventions (OSPAR, HELCOM) and national environmental objectives emphasize the need to reducethe input of plant nutrients to freshwater and marine environments. A widely used method to achieve this is to letwater pass through a constructed or restored wetland (CW). However, the large variation in measured nutrientremoval rates in such wetlands calls for a systematic review. The objective of this review is to quantify nitrogen andphosphorus removal rates in constructed or restored wetlands and relate them to wetland characteristics, loading characteristics, and climate factors. Wetlands are created to treat water from a number of different sources. Sources that will be considered in this review include agricultural runoff and urban storm water run-off, as well as aquaculture wastewater and outlets from domestic wastewater treatment plants, with particular attention to thesituation in Sweden. Although the performance of wetlands in temperate and boreal regions is most relevant tothe Swedish stakeholders a wider range of climatic conditions will be considered in order to make a thorough evaluation of climatic factors.

    Methods: Searches for primary studies will be performed in electronic databases as well as on the internet. Oneauthor will perform the screening of all retrieved articles at the title and abstract level. To check that the screeningis consistent and complies with the agreed inclusion/exclusion criteria, subsets of 100 articles will be screened by the other authors. When screening at full-text level the articles will be evenly distributed among the authors. Kappatests will be used to evaluate screening consistency. Data synthesis will be based on meta-regression. The nutrient removal rates will be taken as response variables and the effect modifiers will be used as explanatory variables. More specifically, the meta-regression will be performed using generalized additive models that can handle nonlinear relationships and major interaction effects. Furthermore, subgroup analyses will be undertaken to elucidate statistical relationships that are specific to particular types of wetlands.

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  • 31. Lepistö, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, L.
    Arheimer, B.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Effect of geographical factors, forestry activities and deposition on nitrogen load from small forested catchments1995Ingår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 84, s. 81-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Lind, Linus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Audet, Joachim
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hoffmann, Carl Christian
    Aarhus University, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Nitrate removal capacity and nitrous oxide production in soil profiles of nitrogen loaded riparian wetlands inferred by laboratory microcosms2013Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 60, s. 156-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Riparian wetlands located in agricultural catchments may often receive a high nitrate (NO3) load because of the leaching of nutrients derived from upland farming activities. Nitrate can be removed in wetland soils by denitrification which is the reduction of NO3 to the gaseous forms nitrous oxide (N2O) and dinitrogen (N2). However, the release of N2O is detrimental to the environment because N2O is a potent greenhouse gas. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the factors controlling the production of N2O and at evaluating the risk for N2O emissions from riparian wetland soils. In a laboratory setup, we simulated an upward flow of NO3 enriched groundwater through intact soil cores collected from four wetlands with contrasting soil characteristics. The results showed a rapid reduction of the NO3 fluxes, supporting the effectiveness of wetlands for removal of N. However, during the reduction of NO3 transient accumulation of N2O was observed, but the N2O concentration decreased with declining NO3 availability. In this study, the NO3 load was revealed as the only significant factor controlling both NO3 reduction and N2O production. Our results confirm the capacity of wetlands to remove large amounts of N, but it also showed that substantial emission of N2O might occur if the reduction of NO3 is not complete, a matter to be considered when diverting N rich waters toward wetlands.

  • 33.
    Mander, Ulo
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Estonia; National Research Institute Science and Technology Environm and Agriculture Irstea, France.
    Tournebize, Julien
    National Research Institute Science and Technology Environm and Agriculture Irstea, France.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Verhoeven, Jos T. A.
    University of Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Mitsch, William J.
    Florida Gulf Coast University, FL 34112 USA.
    Editorial Material: Planning and establishment principles for constructed wetlands and riparian buffer zones in agricultural catchments in ECOLOGICAL ENGINEERING, vol 103, issue , pp 296-3002017Ingår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, s. 296-300Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In a great number of scientific articles on water quality improvement using constructed wetlands (CW) and riparian buffers zones (RBZ) at catchment scale, contradictory results are found. In most cases this is due to underestimating or even ignoring the role of the hydrological factor for water quality improvement. It has often resulted in biased estimates of buffering systems efficiency at catchment scale and, consequently, has caused planning and establishment failures, mistakes and inconsistencies in legislative acts and finally, it has influenced stakeholders willingness to support these eco-technological measures. In this paper we present a short but critical overview of the potential of CWs and RBZs in water quality improvement at catchment scale and highlight the most important aspects to be considered when planning, establishing and managing these systems. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Mara, D.
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nguyen, V.A.
    Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Tonderski, A.
    Enviston, Ekängsvägen 45, SE-582 75, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gulyas, H.
    Institute of Wastewater Management, Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorfer Straße 42, D-21073, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Selection of sustainable sanitation arrangements2007Ingår i: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 305-318Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the Millennium Development Goal for sanitation around 440,000 people will have to be provided with adequate sanitation every day during 2001-2015, and the corresponding figure to meet the WHO/UNICEF target of "sanitation for all" by 2025 is around 480,000 people per day during 2001-2025. The provision of sanitation services to such huge numbers necessitates action on an unprecedented scale. This is made even more difficult by the general lack of knowledge on the part of professionals and the intended beneficiaries about which sanitation arrangement is the most appropriate under which circumstances. A sanitation selection algorithm, which considers all the available sanitation arrangements, including ecological sanitation and low-cost sewerage, and which is firmly based on the principles of sustainable sanitation, is developed as a guide to identify the most appropriate arrangement in any given situation, especially in poor and very poor rural and periurban areas in developing countries. © IWA Publishing 2007.

  • 35.
    McConville, Jennifer
    et al.
    Department of Architecture, Chalmes University of Technology, Sweden.
    Drangert, Jan-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Envisonmental Engineering, Uppsala.
    Neset, Tina-Simone
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Rauch, Sebastien
    Department of Civil and Envisonmental Engineering, Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strid, Ingrid
    Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish UNiversity of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Closing the food loops: guidelines and criteria for improving nutrient management2015Ingår i: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As global consumption expands, the world is increasingly facing threats to resource availability and food security. To meet future food demands, agricultural resource efficiency needs to be optimized for both water and nutrients. Policy makers should start to radically rethink nutrient management across the entire food chain. Closing the food loop by recycling nutrients in food waste and excreta is an important way of limiting the use of mineral nutrients, as well as improving national and global food security. This article presents a framework for sustainable nutrient management and discusses the responsibility of four key stakeholder groups—agriculture, the food industry, consumers, and waste management—for achieving an effective food loop. In particular, we suggest a number of criteria, policy actions, and supporting strategies based on a cross-sectoral application of the waste hierarchy.

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  • 36.
    Mendes, Lipe Renato Dantas
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Iversen, Bo Vangso
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Kjaergaard, Charlotte
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Phosphorus retention in surface-flow constructed wetlands targeting agricultural drainage water2018Ingår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 120, s. 94-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) are potential cost-efficient solutions to mitigate phosphorus (P) loads from agricultural areas to surface waters. Hydraulic and phosphorus loading rates (HLR and PLR) are critical parameters that regulate P retention in these systems. The present study aimed to assess P retention from agricultural drainage discharge by three new CWs in Denmark during three years. The CWs presented different geologies, and received event-driven drainage discharge. The relations of HLR, PLR, dominant P forms, and iron (Fe) inputs to P retention were also investigated. The drainage discharge varied seasonally and average annual HLR ranged from 17 to 60 m yr(-1) for the three CWs. PLR varied concomitantly to HLR with average annual PLR from 2.8 to 13.5 g m(-2) yr(-1), where specific total P (TP) retention followed its variations. Specific TP retention responded differently to HLR and PLR in the CWs, depending on the dominant P forms at the inlet water. The CWs worked as P sinks and presented similar or higher retentions than other Nordic CWs with similar loads. PLR explained most of the variation in specific TP retention (52-72%), whereas HLR only explained 20-34%. Specific TP retention responded more promptly to PLR when the inlet water was dominated by particulate P (PP), since it is more easily retained than dissolved P. TP retention efficiency varied more irregularly and the annual retention ranged from 24 to 66%. It presented weak correlations to HLR and PLR, and depended on the dominant P forms and major retention mechanisms, as well as P biogeochemical stability. Thus, increasing TP retention efficiency occurred under higher stability of sediment bound P, as supported by higher total Fe:PP molar ratios at the inlet water. The supply of P sorbents by drainage discharge, soil redox conditions and Fe:P molar ratios are considered key parameters controlling the biogeochemical stability of P, and thus the long-term P retention performance in CWs.

  • 37.
    Mendes, Lipe Renato Dantas
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kjaergaard, Charlotte
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark; SEGES, Denmark.
    Phosphorus accumulation and stability in sediments of surface-flow constructed wetlands2018Ingår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 331, s. 109-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) are systems that replicate the nutrient reduction processes of natural wetlands and are considered suitable measures to reduce the nutrient losses from agricultural drainage discharge to surface waters. The present study aimed to investigate the biogeochemical stability of phosphorus (P) in three CWs. Intact soil cores were collected from each CW zone and included the soil and the sediment layer (average 28 mm thickness) formed by deposition of the incoming sediments with the water flow. Soil and sediment layer were analysed geochemically, including bulk density, pH, and total contents of carbon, nitrogen, P as well as different extracts of iron (Fe), aluminium and P. In situ measurements of soil redox potential, dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature were carried out in the CWs during 16 months. Grab water samples were collected across the CWs for determination of P species, total Fe, sulphate and pH. Soil core analysis revealed that the major P storage in the CWs was attributed to retention of Fe-bound P in the sediment layer. The Fe and total P (TP) retention differed significantly between CWs (11-63 g Fe m(-2) yr(-1) and 1-9 g TP m(-2) yr(-1)). Amorphous Fe oxides constituted the major P sorbent fraction in the soil and sediments of all CWs, and the higher P sorption capacity in the sediment layer demonstrated the continuous supply of P sorbents to this layer. The stability of Fe bound P in the anaerobic sediments seemed to be controlled by the high molar ratios of bicarbonate-dithionite extractable Fe (Fe-BD) to associated P, which varied from 21 to 49, and the presence of an aerobic sediment-water

  • 38.
    Ngyen, V-A
    et al.
    Hanoi University of Civil Engineering.
    Morel, A.
    Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Baffled septic tank with anaerobic filter (BASTAF) and vertical subsurface flow costructed wetland for domestic wastewater treatment in Vietnam.2010Ingår i: Water Practice & Technology, ISSN 1751-231X, Vol. 5, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The decentralized wastewater management utilizing existing infrastructure and low-cost natural treatment processes has a large potential in Vietnam. Centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are often not affordable. Currently the septic tank is the most common on-site wastewater treatment facility in Vietnam. Nevertheless it has a limited treatment performance. The Improved Septic Tank, also known as Baffled Septic Tank with or without Anaerobic Filter (BASTAF or BAST) represents a valuable and promising alternative to the conventional septic tank. Results of laboratory- and pilot-scale research on BAST and BASTAF systems show that at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days the 3-chamber BAST followed by Anaerobic Filter significantly increased the removal efficiencies in terms of BOD, COD and TSS in comparison with a conventional septic tank of the same size. Average treatment efficiencies of 80–90% in terms of BOD, COD and TSS can be achieved. Another component of the study showed that post-treatment of BASTAF effluent in a 2-stage vertical flow constructed wetland (CW) planted with locally available macrophytes allowed the achievement of level A, Vietnamese standard for wastewater discharge in terms of COD, BOD5, TSS, TN, NH4-N and T-P. Results of this study are now being implemented in different provinces inVietnam.

  • 39. Nordlund, E.
    et al.
    Duker, A.
    Karlsson, S.
    Ledin, A.
    Sandén, P.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Structure and content of pollutants in temporal surface sediments in small watersheds1999Ingår i: Chemical speciation and bioavailability, ISSN 0954-2299, E-ISSN 2047-6523, Vol. 7, s. 57-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 40.
    Okoth Raburu, Phillip
    et al.
    University of Eldoret, Kenya.
    Onderi Masese, Frank
    University of Eldoret, Kenya.
    Sundblad Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Use of macroinvertebrate assemblages for assessing performance of stabilization ponds treating effluents from sugarcane and molasses processing2017Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 189, nr 2, artikel-id 79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater discharge from sugarcane processing is a significant pollutant of tropical aquatic ecosystems. For most developing countries, monitoring of the level of pollutants is done mostly through chemical analysis, but this does not reflect potential impacts on aquatic assemblages. In addition, laboratory facilities for accurate concentration measurements are often not available for regular monitoring programs. In this study, we investigated the use of benthic macroinvertebrates for biological monitoring in western Kenya. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in stabilization ponds treating wastewater from sugarcane- and molassesbased processing plants to assess their composition and abundance in relation to different concentrations of chemical variables. Optimum concentrations and tolerance values were identified for various taxa, and a biotic index was developed that combined tolerance values (ranked between 0 and 10) for the various macroinvertebrate taxa. A succession in composition and distribution of macroinvertebrate taxa was observed from the inlet to the outlet of the pond systems. Diptera dominated in the first ponds that had high concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), and nutrients, while intolerant Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) appeared as the concentrations dropped in subsequent ponds. The effluent quality was classified as "good","fair," and "poor," corresponding with biotic index value ranges 0-3.50, 3.51-6.50, and 6.51-10, respectively. During validation, the index grouped sites with respect to levels of measured environmental variables. The study revealed that the developed biotic index would help in monitoring the quality of sugarcane processing and molasses effluents before release into recipient aquatic ecosystems, replacing the need for costly chemical analyses.

  • 41.
    Reusch, Thorsten B. H.
    et al.
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Dierking, Jan
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Andersson, Helen C.
    Swedish Meteorol and Hydrol Inst, Sweden.
    Bonsdorff, Erik
    Abo Akad Univ, Finland.
    Carstensen, Jacob
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Czajkowski, Mikolaj
    Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Hasler, Berit
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    Hinsby, Klaus
    Geol Survey Denmark and Greenland, Denmark.
    Hyytiainen, Kari
    Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jomaa, Seifeddine
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Jormalainen, Veijo
    Univ Turku, Finland.
    Kuosa, Harri
    Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Finland.
    Kurland, Sara
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Laikre, Linda
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    MacKenzie, Brian R.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Margonski, Piotr
    Natl Marine Fisheries Res Inst, Poland.
    Melzner, Frank
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res Kiel, Germany.
    Oesterwind, Daniel
    Inst Balt Sea Fisheries, Germany.
    Ojaveer, Henn
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Refsgaard, Jens Christian
    Geol Survey Denmark and Greenland, Denmark.
    Sandstrom, Annica
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Gerald
    Thuenen Inst Farm Econ, Germany.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Zandersen, Marianne
    Aarhus Univ, Denmark.
    The Baltic Sea as a time machine for the future coastal ocean2018Ingår i: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 4, nr 5, artikel-id eaar8195Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal global oceans are expected to undergo drastic changes driven by climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressures in coming decades. Predicting specific future conditions and assessing the best management strategies to maintain ecosystem integrity and sustainable resource use are difficult, because of multiple interacting pressures, uncertain projections, and a lack of test cases for management. We argue that the Baltic Sea can serve as a time machine to study consequences and mitigation of future coastal perturbations, due to its unique combination of an early history of multistressor disturbance and ecosystem deterioration and early implementation of cross-border environmental management to address these problems. The Baltic Sea also stands out in providing a strong scientific foundation and accessibility to long-term data series that provide a unique opportunity to assess the efficacy of management actions to address the breakdown of ecosystem functions. Trend reversals such as the return of top predators, recovering fish stocks, and reduced input of nutrient and harmful substances could be achieved only by implementing an international, cooperative governance structure transcending its complex multistate policy setting, with integrated management of watershed and sea. The Baltic Sea also demonstrates how rapidly progressing global pressures, particularly warming of Baltic waters and the surrounding catchment area, can offset the efficacy of current management approaches. This situation calls for management that is (i) conservative to provide a buffer against regionally unmanageable global perturbations, (ii) adaptive to react to new management challenges, and, ultimately, (iii) multisectorial and integrative to address conflicts associated with economic trade-offs.

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  • 42.
    Sharpley, Andrew N.
    et al.
    University of Arkansas, AR 72701 USA.
    Bergstrom, Lars
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Helena
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Bechmann, Marianne
    Bioforsk, Norway.
    Bolster, Carl H.
    ARS, KY 42104 USA.
    Borling, Katarina
    Swedish Board Agriculture, Sweden.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Jarvie, Helen P.
    Centre Ecol and Hydrol, England.
    Schoumans, Oscar F.
    Alterra Wageningen UR, Netherlands.
    Stamm, Christian
    Eawag, Switzerland.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ulen, Barbro
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Risto
    MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Finland.
    Withers, Paul J. A.
    Bangor University, Wales.
    Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction2015Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, s. S163-S179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.

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  • 43. Stålnacke, P.
    et al.
    Grimvall, A.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Tonderski, Andrzej
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Estimation of the riverine loads of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Baltic Sea1999Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 58, s. 173-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 44. Stålnacke, P.
    et al.
    Grimvall, A.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Wilander, A.
    Trends in nitrogen transport in Swedish rivers1999Ingår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 59, s. 47-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Stendahl, Jenny S. K.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Overland flow systems for treatment of landfill leachates: Potential nitrification and structure of the ammonia-oxidising bacterial community during a growing season2007Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 127-138Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Overland flow systems are useful for treating landfill leachates, because they provide favourable conditions for nitrification and they are easy to maintain. However, little is known about the microbial communities in such systems or the nitrification capacity of those microorganisms. In this study, seasonal variations in potential nitrification and in community composition of nitrifying bacteria were investigated in two overland flow areas receiving leachate from landfills at Korslöt and Hagby, Sweden. Samples were collected in the settling ponds sediment and at two depths in the overland flow areas (the macrophyte litter layer and the rhizosphere) in May, August and November 2003. A short-term incubation method was used to measure potential oxidation of ammonia and nitrite (designated PAO and PNO). The ammonia-oxidising bacterial (AOB) community was investigated using a 16S rRNA gene approach that included PCR amplification and analysis of PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), followed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis.

    PAO was determined in the range 5–2700 (NO2−+NO3−)-N g−1 dw d−1 and PNO in the range 60–2000 μg NO2−-N g−1 dw d−1. At Korslöt, PAO and PNO showed similar temporal variation in the different ecosystems, whereas no such relationship was noticed at Hagby. Considering both sites, there was no obvious change in the composition of the AOB community over the growing season. However, the composition did differ between the ecosystems: Nitrosomonas-like sequences were more common in the ponds, and in the litter layers they were found as often as Nitrosospira-like sequences, whereas Nitrosospira-like sequences were more common in the rhizospheres. Altogether, we found nine different AOB sequences, five Nitrosomonas-like and four Nitrosospira-like, which belonged to clusters 0, 2, 3b, 6a, 6b and 7. There was no apparent relationship between the number of AOB populations and the PAO in different soil layers and sediments.

  • 46.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Ammonia oxidation and the corresponding bacterial communities in two overland flow areas treating landfill leachate or wastewater2011Ingår i: Overland Flow and Surface Runoff / [ed] Tommy S W Wong, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, s. 346-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A high diversity of ammonium oxidising bacteria (AOB) has been observed in overland flow areas (OFA) treating ammonia-rich landfill leachate. The current section aimed to explore if treatment OFAs in general supports more diverse AOB communities than conventional treatment systems, or if it is a result of effluent composition. The potential ammonium oxidation and the AOB community composition were studied during three seasons in an OFA where one part received wastewater and the other landfill leachate. The AOB communities were investigated using group-specific PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene, and analysed by DGGE and nucleotide sequencing. The potential ammonia oxidation, studied by short-time slurry incubation, was higher in the landfill OFA than in the wastewater area and highest in the litter layer. Higher activity correlated with the appearance of Nitrosomonas sp. belonging to cluster 7. Both overland flow areas supported a more diverse AOB community than in common wastewater treatment plants. Fifteen different AOB sequences were detected, but only three were observed in both OFAs, pointing to the impact of the effluent quality and/or the hydraulic load. The wastewater OFA, which received a higher load of effluents with 5-10 times lower ammonia concentrations, was dominated by AOB populations that are usually found in less favourable conditions.

  • 47.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Development of the community structure and activity of ammoniaoxidising bacteria in overland flow systems used to treat landfill leachates2009Ingår i: Journal of Applied Microbiology, ISSN 1364-5072, E-ISSN 1365-2672Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonium in landfill leachates can be nitrified in overland flow areas (OFA). We studied OFAs to investigate if changes occur in the ammonium oxidizing community as the ecosystem develops, and the influence of different operating conditions. Samples were collected from the macrophyte litter layers, the rhizospheres and the sediments in their associated settling ponds in May, August, and November during four years. Potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) was investigated by a short-term slurry incubation method. The composition of the ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) communities was investigated by PCR, using a group-specific primer pair, followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent sequencing.

    A shift from a Nitrosomonas community to a mixture of Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira was and a gradual increase in PAO was observed, but only in the litter layer in the youngest OFA. Both OFAs had diverse AOB communities belonging to six different clusters. Nitrosomonas clusters predominated in the OFA with higher PAO, whereas Nitrosospira clusters were more common in the OFA with lower PAO. There was a seasonal increase of AOB populations in the OFA that was not in use during winter, and a more stable composition of the AOB community and the PAO in the OFA with year-round application. Keywords: Ammonia-oxidising bacterial community; Landfill leachates; Nitrification; Overland flow; 16S rDNA; Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

  • 48.
    Sundberg, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindgren, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Medicinsk mikrobiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Potential nitrification and denitrification and the corresponding composition of the bacterial communities in a compact constructed wetland treating landfill leachates2007Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 56, nr 3, s. 159-166Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Constructed wetlands can be used to decrease the high ammonium concentrations in landfill leachates. We investigated nitrification/denitrification activity and the corresponding bacterial communities in landfill leachate that was treated in a compact constructed wetland, Tveta Recycling Facility, Sweden. Samples were collected at three depths in a filter bed and the sediment from a connected open pond in July, September and November 2004. Potential ammonia oxidation was measured by short-term incubation method and potential denitrification by the acetylene inhibition technique. The ammonia-oxidising and the denitrifying bacterial communities were investigated using group-specific PCR primers targeting 16S rRNA genes and the functional gene nosZ, respectively. PCR products were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and nucleotide sequencing. The same degree of nitrification activity was observed in the pond sediment and at all levels in the filter bed, whereas the denitrification activity decreased with filter bed depth. Denitrification rates were higher in the open pond, even though the denitrifying bacterial community was more diverse in the filter bed. The ammonia-oxidising community was also more varied in the filter bed. In the filter bed and the open pond, there was no obvious relationship between the nitrification/denitrification activities and the composition of the corresponding bacterial communities.

  • 49.
    Sundblad-Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Recycling of wastewater nutrients in a wetland filter1988Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis demonstrates the possibility of using wastewater nutrients for plant biomass production and concomitantly achieving year-round wastewater treatment. As part of a joint research project, the emphasis in this thesis is on nutrient recycling capacity relative to treatment efficiency.

    An artificial wetland system was studied in experimental field lysimeters. Wastewater was infiltrated into soil planted with reed sweetgrass (Glyceria maxima). In natural stands of this grass, harvesting two or three times per year had a negative impact on biomass yields. This was attributed to a reduced amount of carbohydrates stored in the rhizomes, resulting in the formation of thinner shoots in harvested stands. In contrast to this, high biomass yields were obtained with two harvests per year in the wetland filter.

    Crop removal of nitrogen and phosphorus amounted to a maximum of 55% and 28% of the amount applied during a growing season. Year-round wastewater application would decrease the relative removal because no plant uptake occurrs during the winter months. However, applied nutrients are also transferred to the soil, thus contributing to the nutrient recycling capacity of the system. This may determine the longevity of a wet! and filter as a method of wastewater treatment, since the soil is gradually saturated with phosphorus. Another factor of importance for the long-term limitations is the observed decrease in soil permeability.

    Treatment efficiency of phosphorus and BOD7 met the required limits for wastewater emissions in Sweden. An average 60% removal of nitrogen was achieved, which is significantly more than in a conventional tertiary treatment plant. The costs for reaching this treatment level were estimated to be lower for a wet land filter than for the existing treatment systems for urban areas up to 1000 inhabitants. The feasibility for this conceptual change of better resource management with regard to present Swedish wastewater treatment strategy is discussed.

  • 50.
    Svedin, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tonderski, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cold Season Nitrogen Removal in a High Loaded Free Water Surface Wetland with Emergent Vegetation2008Ingår i: WASTEWATER TREATMENT, PLANT DYNAMICS AND MANAGEMENT IN CONSTRUCTED AND NATURAL WETLANDS / [ed] Vymazal, J, dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2008, s. 223-236Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to quantify nitrogen removal in high loaded free water surface wetlands dominated by emergent vegetation. It was undertaken in two subsystems of the full-scale wetland Alhagen in Nynäshamn, Sweden. Time proportional samples were taken at the inlets and outlets for 2 weeks in September and November 2005, respectively, and the water flow was monitored. The samples were analysed for ammonium-N (NH4×-N), nitrate-N (NO3-N), nitrite-N (NO2-N) and total-N, and the mass nitrogen removal was calculated. Sediment cores were randomly collected to measure potential denitrification, and the result was related to the actual mass nitrogen removal. Zero total-N removal could be detected in the subsystem with 6 hours hydraulic retention time (HRT). In the one with 3–4 days HRT, the total-N removal rates were 0.6 g N m–2 day–1 in September and 0.2 g N m–2 day–1 in November. The potential denitrification rate was 8 times higher than the observed removal in September and 48 times higher in November. This deviation was likely related both to relatively high oxygen levels and to the amount of available organic carbon.

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