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  • 1.
    Alsér, Kristina
    et al.
    Mercatus Engineering.
    Carlstedt, Johan
    Kungliga Ingenjörsvetenskapliga akademien.
    Elmoznino Laufer, Michel
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Sjöström Hederberg, Angeli
    Processum.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad har vi lärt oss och vad återstår?: kunskapskartläggning kring entreprenörskap2019In: Entreprenörskap för en levande landsbygd / [ed] Karl Wennberg, Växjö: Familjen Kamprads stiftelse , 2019, Vol. Sidor 295-322, p. 295-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Anderson, Brian S.
    et al.
    Univ Missouri, MO 64110 USA; Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McMullen, Jeffery S.
    Indiana Univ, IN 47405 USA.
    Editorial: Enhancing quantitative theory-testing entrepreneurship research2019In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 34, no 5, article id UNSP 105928Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this editorial is to discuss methodological advancements to enhance quantitative theory-testing entrepreneurship research. As the impact of entrepreneurship scholarship accelerates and deepens, our methods must keep pace to continue shaping theory, policy, and practice. Like our sister fields in business, entrepreneurship is coming to terms with the replication and credibility crisis in the social sciences, forcing the field to revisit commonly-held assumptions that limit the promise and prospect of our scholarship. Thus, we provide suggestions for reviewers and editors to identify concerns in empirical work, and to guide authors in improving their analyses and research designs. We hope that our editorial provides useful and actionable guidance for entrepreneurship researchers submitting theory-testing papers to Journal of Business Venturing.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Movin, StaffanStiftelsen Marknadstekniskt centrum.Mähring, MagnusStockholm School of Economics, Sweden.Teigland, RobinStockholm School of Economics, Sweden.Wennberg, KarlLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Managing digital transformation2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has arrived.

    Digitalization disrupts markets. Changes in power and structures in a fast-paced environment demands strategic and insightful change. A change leaders must act upon.

    The impact upon organisations is multi-dimensional and profound, affecting both internal and external processes and structures in new and unexpected ways. This book serves as a tool to support managers and other stakeholders in pursuing digital transformation. An inspiring collection of chapters from 27 scholars across various academic disciplines provide several insights, frameworks, and perspectives that will help you leverage and govern organisational change and digital transformation.

    This inspiring collection of current research can assist you in facing key challenges in today’s organisations, in the quest to adapt to ever-evolving business environments. This book examines new demands and behaviours, and discusses how businesses need to adapt and re-organise in order to bridge the gap to the digital customer. These visions and actions on digitalization can help corporations and organisations discover new ways of earning money and delivering value. This is just the beginning.

  • 4.
    Balachandran, Chanchal
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Uman, Timur
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; Kristianstad Univ, Sweden.
    National culture diversity in new venture boards: The role of founders relational demographyIn: Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, ISSN 1932-4391, E-ISSN 1932-443XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Summary This study explains the conditions under which new venture boards are less or more culturally diverse in terms of their directors country of birth. Longitudinal data on 5,515 Swedish ventures suggest that most directors are recruited from founders proximate social settings-neighborhoods in which they reside and past workplaces-and that diversity levels in these social settings strongly predict the national culture diversity in venture boards. Given the rapid internationalization of workplaces and regions around the world, this paper provides important clues regarding how culturally diverse upper echelons are being incorporated into the organizational design of new ventures. Managerial Summary Most New Venture Boards exhibit limited diversity in terms of their directors country of birth, as they are drawn from the venture founders network. Yet, some new venture boards are indeed born diverse. Our study reveals that founders with prior exposure to culturally diverse workplaces and residential neighborhoods are much more likely to design a culturally diverse board at founding. Given the rapid internationalization of workplaces and regions in most countries around the world, our paper provides important clues regarding how national culture diversity in top management emerges and is being incorporated into the organizational design of new ventures.

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  • 5.
    Banitz, Thomas
    et al.
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Hertz, Tilman
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Johansson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Emilie
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Martinez Pena, Rodrigo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Radosavljevic, Sonja
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Schluter, Maja
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Sch Econ, Sweden.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Grimm, Volker
    UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Germany.
    Visualization of causation in social-ecological systems2022In: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 27, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In social-ecological systems (SES), where social and ecological processes are intertwined, phenomena are usually complex and involve multiple interdependent causes. Figuring out causal relationships is thus challenging but needed to better understand and then affect or manage such systems. One important and widely used tool to identify and communicate causal relationships is visualization. Here, we present several common visualization types: diagrams of objects and arrows, X-Y plots, and X-Y-Z plots, and discuss them in view of the particular challenges of visualizing causation in complex systems such as SES. We use a simple demonstration model to create and compare exemplary visualizations and add more elaborate examples from the literature. This highlights implicit strengths and limitations of widely used visualization types and facilitates adequate choices when visualizing causation in SES. Thereupon, we recommend further suitable ways to account for complex causation, such as figures with multiple panels, or merging different visualization types in one figure. This provides caveats against oversimplifications. Yet, any single figure can rarely capture all relevant causal relationships in an SES. We therefore need to focus on specific questions, phenomena, or subsystems, and often also on specific causes and effects that shall be visualized. Our recommendations allow for selecting and combining visualizations such that they complement each other, support comprehensive understanding, and do justice to the existing complexity in SES. This lets visualizations realize their potential and play an important role in identifying and communicating causation.

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  • 6.
    Berglund, Henrik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dimov, Dimo
    University of Bath, School of Management, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Beyond bridging rigor and relevance: The three-body problem in entrepreneurship2018In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 9, p. 87-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Berglund, Henrik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pragmatic entrepreneurs and institutionalized scholars?: on the path-dependent nature of entrepreneurship scholarship2016In: Challenging Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Hans Landström, Annaleena Parhankangas, Alain Fayolle, Phillippe Riott, New York: Routledge, 2016, p. 37-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on a masculine and entrepreneurial identity. Eschewing this gendered and 'white' Western construction the author strives instead for more reflexive and nuanced considerations of entrepreneurship. The chapter highlights particular excerpts taken from the identity narratives of Muslim business women of Turkish descent living in the Netherlands to show how these stories describe quite different ways of experiencing, interpreting and responding to their marginalization. These narrative excerpts focus on some of the underlying relations of power that shapes the entrepreneurial identities of these women. The chapter takes issues with the often taken-for-granted universal subjectivity of 'the entrepreneur' by including the identity categories of ethnicity, gender and religion. An analysis of the women's own stories is used to illustrate the competing tensions in the fashioning of hybrid identities, both for and against assimilation and acceptance in the Dutch socio-political context.

  • 8.
    Bird, Miriam
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS.
    Why family matters: the impact of family resources on immigrant entrepreneurs’ exit from entrepreneurship2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate insights from the social embeddedness perspective with research on immigrant entrepreneurship to theorize on how family resources influence exit from entrepreneurship among previously unemployed immigrant entrepreneurs. Results from a cohort study of immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden reveal that family resources are important for immigrants to integrate economically into a country. We find that having family members in geographical proximity increases immigrant entrepreneurs’ likelihood of remaining in entrepreneurship. Further, family financial capital enhances immigrant entrepreneurs’ likelihood of remaining in entrepreneurship as well as their likelihood of exiting to paid employment. Although often neglected in immigrant entrepreneurship studies, resources accruing from spousal relationships with natives influence entrepreneurs’ exit behavior. We discuss contributions for research on entrepreneurial exit, entrepreneurs’ social embeddedness, and immigrant entrepreneurship.

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    Why Family Matters: The Impact of Family Resources on Immigrant Entrepreneurs’ Exit from Entrepreneurship
  • 9.
    Bird, Miriam
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Center for Family Business, Dufourstrasse 40a, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Center for Entrepreneurship and Business Creation, P. O. Box 6501, S-113 83 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Why family matters: The impact of family resources on immigrant entrepreneurs' exit from entrepreneurship2016In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 18p. 687-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate insights from the social embeddedness perspective with research on immigrantentrepreneurship to theorize on how family resources influence exit from entrepreneurshipamong previously unemployed immigrant entrepreneurs. Results from a cohort study of immigrantentrepreneurs in Sweden reveal that family resources are important for immigrants to integrateeconomically into a country. We find that having family members in geographicalproximity increases immigrant entrepreneurs' likelihood of remaining in entrepreneurship.Further, family financial capital enhances immigrant entrepreneurs' likelihood of remainingin entrepreneurship as well as their likelihood of exiting to paid employment. Although oftenneglected in immigrant entrepreneurship studies, resources accruing from spousal relationshipswith natives influence entrepreneurs' exit behavior. We discuss contributions for research onentrepreneurial exit, entrepreneurs' social embeddedness, and immigrant entrepreneurship.

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  • 10.
    Bomark, Niklas
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sebhatu, Abiel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arora-Jonsson, Stefan
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Organisationsteoretiska perspektiv på skolsegregation2019In: Segregation: Mikromekanismer och makrodynamik / [ed] Peter Hedström, Makadam Förlag, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bradley, Steven W.
    et al.
    Baylor Univ, TX 76798 USA.
    Kim, Phillip H.
    Babson Coll, MA 02157 USA.
    Klein, Peter G.
    Baylor Univ, TX 76798 USA; Norwegian Sch Econ, Norway.
    McMullen, Jeffery S.
    Indiana Univ, IN USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio Inst, Sweden.
    Policy for innovative entrepreneurship: Institutions, interventions, and societal challenges2021In: Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, ISSN 1932-4391, E-ISSN 1932-443X, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 167-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Summary Innovative entrepreneurship, defined as the creation of new products, services, production methods, or business models, is critical for firm, industry, and economic growth and a key determinant of societal well-being. This special issue explores the roles of institutions and government policies in promoting or impeding innovative entrepreneurship. In this introductory editorial, we review theory and evidence on entrepreneurship at the macro-institutional and micro-policy levels, highlighting costs and benefits of alternative institutional environments and targeted policy interventions, as well as interactions within and across levels. We summarize the six papers in the special issue, discuss their contributions to the literature, and suggest how future work can build upon these and other papers to advance our understanding of the conditions and mechanisms underlying successful entrepreneurial innovation. Managerial Summary Innovation and entrepreneurship bring new products and services to market, help firms and industries to grow, and generate improvements in social and economic life. The papers in this special issue explore the background conditions-laws, political processes, regulations, tax policy, subsidies, training programs, and more-that make entrepreneurship and innovation successful. Both "macro" and "micro" policies can stimulate successful entrepreneurial and innovative outcomes, but can also become politicized, be ineffective, and generate unintended consequences. The papers offer lessons to researchers, policymakers, and practitioners about making entrepreneurship and innovation more successful.

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  • 12.
    Brattström, Anna
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Delmar, Frédéric
    Emlyon business school, Ecully, Frankrike.
    Johnson, Alan R.
    Nord University, Bodö, Norge.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A longitudinal project of new venture teamwork and outcomes2020In: Research handbook on entrepreneurial behavior, practice and process / [ed] William B. Gartner, Bruce T. Teague, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2020, p. 309-334Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter present a research project dedicated to better understand how new venture teams work together to achieve desired outcomes. Teams, as opposed to an individual, start a majority of all innovative new ventures. Yet, little research or theory exists in new venture settings about how members interact with each other over time—teamwork—to produce innovative technologies, products, and services. We believe a systematic study of social and psychological processes that underlie new venture teamwork and venture outcomes is timely and important. Unique features of our research project include: (1) a team level focus on social and psychological processes, to assess relations to proximal (e.g., innovation, first sales and team satisfaction), and distal value creation outcomes (e.g., sales growth, raised capital and profits); (2) Combined qualitative and quantitative research methodologies to provide both theory building and theory testing for the relations of interest; and (3) A time-sequential design with data collection every three months over one year to allow us to investigate the relations of interest for new ventures.

  • 13.
    Criaco, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Rotterdam School of Managementm Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Sieger, Philipp
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chirico, Francesco
    Centre for Family Enterprise and Ownership (CeFEO), Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden; Tecnológico de Monterrey EGADE Business School, San Pedro Garza Garcia, Mexico.
    Minola, Tommaso
    Department of Economics and Technology Management, University of Bergamo, Dalmine, Italy; Center for Young and Family Enterprise (CYFE), University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.
    Parents’ performance in entrepreneurship as a “double-edged sword” for the intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship2017In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 49, p. 841-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate how perceived parents’ performance in entrepreneurship (PPE) affects the entrepreneurial career intentions of offspring. We argue that while perceived PPE enhances offspring’s perceived entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility because of exposure mechanisms, it inhibits the translation of both desirability and feasibility perceptions into entrepreneurial career intentions due to upward social comparison mechanisms. Thus, perceived PPE acts as a double-edged sword for the intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship. Our predictions are tested and confirmed on a sample of 21,895 individuals from 33 countries. This study advances the literature on intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship by providing a foundation for understanding the social psychological conditions necessary for such transmission to occur

  • 14.
    Demir, Robert
    et al.
    Ratio Institute, Sweden; Lancaster University Management School, United Kingdom.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    McKelvie, Alexander
    Whitman School of Management, Syracuse University, New York, USA.
    The Strategic Management of High-Growth Firm: A Review and Theoretical Conceptualization2017In: Long range planning, ISSN 0024-6301, E-ISSN 1873-1872, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 431-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars’ knowledge of the factors behind high-growth firms remains fragmented. This paper provides a systematic review of the empirical literature concerning high-growth firms with a focus on the strategic aspects contributing to growth. Based on our review of 39 articles, we identify five drivers of high growth: human capital, strategy, human resource management, innovation, and capabilities. These drivers are combined to develop a conceptual model of high-growth firms that includes potential contingency factors among the five drivers. We also propose a research agenda to deepen the study of high-growth firms in strategic management.

  • 15. DeTienne, Dawn R.
    et al.
    Wennberg, KarlLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Research handbook of entrepreneurial exit2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With contributions from authors around the globe, Research Handbook of Entrepreneurial Exit explores this most important phenomenon in the entrepreneurial journey. This book presents a comprehensive review of the current issues in entrepreneurial exits, and provides theoretical and methodological insights for future research. It explores the historical perspective and discusses topics such as gender and exit, retirement, psychological barriers, emotional aspects, venture capital funding firm relocation and exit from social ventures.

  • 16.
    DeTienne, Dawn
    et al.
    Colorado State University, CO 80523 USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Stockholm School Econ, Sweden.
    Studying exit from entrepreneurship: New directions and insights2016In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 151-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on entrepreneurial exit has established itself as a more recognized component of the entrepreneurial process and a distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research. Despite the progress made, there still exists important topics within entrepreneurial exit where scholarly understanding is scant. This special issue discusses new and open topics of research on entrepreneurial exit. Three papers examine three such topics including pricing intentions of exiting entrepreneurs, exit considerations among angel investors, and the relationship between exit and failure in new ventures.

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  • 17.
    Efendic, Nedim
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Fredrik W.
    Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Growth in first- and second-generation immigrant firms in Sweden2016In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 1028-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the burgeoning literature on immigrant entrepreneurship, there is a dearth of research on the social and economic factors shaping the performance of immigrant-run firms. Drawing upon human and social capital theory and assimilation theory, we investigate differences in performance measured as revenue growth in a comparative study of native and immigrant CEOs. Following 50,002 small firms in Sweden over four years, we find distinct patterns in both firm size and revenue growth between firms managed by immigrants and by natives. While firms run by second-generation immigrants from OECD countries exhibit higher growth rates than natives, the reverse is true for second generation immigrants from non-OECD countries, suggesting that economic integration in terms of immigrants’ small business growth in Sweden is characterized by segmented rather than universal assimilation.

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  • 18.
    Elert, Niklas
    et al.
    Research Institute Ind Econ IFN, Sweden.
    Andersson, Fredrik W.
    Stat Sweden, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School Econ, Sweden.
    The impact of entrepreneurship education in high school on long-term entrepreneurial performance2015In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 111, p. 209-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the long-term impact of entrepreneurship education and training in high school on entrepreneurial entry, performance, and survival. Using propensity score matching, we compare three Swedish cohorts from junior Achievement Company Program (JACP) alumni with a matched sample of similar individuals and follow these for up to 16 years after graduation. We find that while JACP participation increases the long-term probability of starting a firm as well as entrepreneurial incomes, there is no effect on firm survival.

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  • 19.
    Elert, Niklas
    et al.
    Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Sweden.
    Sjoo, Karolin
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio, Sweden.
    When Less Is More: Why Limited Entrepreneurship Education May Result in Better Entrepreneurial Outcomes2020In: International Review of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-32, article id #1618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship research suggests that entrepreneurship education and training can bridge the gender gap in entrepreneurship, but little empirical research exists assessing the validity and impact of such initiatives. We examine a large government-sponsored entrepreneurship education program aimed at university students in Sweden. While a pre-study indicates that longer university courses are associated with short-term outcomes such as increased self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions, results from a more comprehensive study using a pre-post design suggest little effect from these extensive courses on long-term outcomes such as new venture creation and entrepreneurial income. In contrast, we do find positive effects on these long-term outcomes from more limited but more specific training interventions, especially for women. Our study suggests that less extensive but more tailored interventions can be more beneficial than longer or more extensive interventions in promoting entrepreneurship in general, and entrepreneurship of underrepresented groups in particular. We discuss implications for theory, education, and policy.

  • 20.
    Frederiksen, Lars
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Balachandran, Chanchal
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mobility and Entrepreneurship: Evaluating the Scope of Knowledge-Based Theories of Entrepreneurship2016In: Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, ISSN 1042-2587, E-ISSN 1540-6520, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 359-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge-based theories of entrepreneurship infer transfer of knowledge from the effect of labor mobility on entrepreneurial entry. Yet, simple selection or situational mechanisms that do not imply knowledge transfer may influence entrepreneurial entry in similar ways. We argue that the extent to which such alternative mechanisms operate, labor mobility predicts entry but not subsequent performance for entrepreneurs. Analyses of matched employee–employer data from Sweden suggest that high rates of geographical and industry mobility increase individuals’ likelihood of entrepreneurial entry but have no effects on their entrepreneurial performance. This indicates that the relationship between labor mobility and entrepreneurial entry do not necessarily imply knowledge transfer.

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  • 21.
    Fu, Kun
    et al.
    Loughborough Univ Technol, England.
    Larsson, Anne-Sophie
    Ratio Inst, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Habitual entrepreneurs in the making: how labour market rigidity and employment affects entrepreneurial re-entry2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 465-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the impact of country-level labour market regulations on the re-entry decision of experienced entrepreneurs, whereby they become habitual entrepreneurs. Multilevel logit models on entry decisions among 15,709 individuals in 29 European countries show that labour market regulations have a positive influence on the decision to re-enter into entrepreneurship. This positive impact is stronger among individuals holding wage jobs at the time of re-entry compared to those that do not. Our results indicate that novice and habitual entrepreneurs may respond very differently to labour market rigidity. We discuss and provide tentative explanations for these differences and outline potential policy implications.

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  • 22.
    Fu, Kun
    et al.
    Loughborough Univ, England.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Falkenhall, Bjorn
    Swedish Pharm Assoc, Sweden.
    Productive entrepreneurship and the effectiveness of insolvency legislation: a cross-country study2020In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 383-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the association between the effectiveness of insolvency regulations and entrepreneurship using multilevel modeling of about 300,000 individuals in 27 countries over the 2005-2010 period. We investigate the relationship between three different measures of "resolving insolvency" (time, cost, and recovery rate) from the World Bank and four different measures of entrepreneurship from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, controlling for relevant individual- and country-level facets. We find that opportunity-driven and innovation-oriented entrepreneurs are more severely affected by onerous insolvency regulations than necessity-motivated entrepreneurs. However, entrepreneurs envisioning rapid employment growth are not affected by onerous insolvency regulations. We discuss contributions to comparative entrepreneurship research and public policy.

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  • 23.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Ratio Inst, Sweden.
    Korpi, Martin
    Ratio Inst, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Entrepreneurship and income inequality2018In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 145, p. 275-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship research highlights entrepreneurship as a simultaneous source of enhanced income mobility for some but a potential source of poverty for others. Research on inequality has furthered new types of models to decompose and problematize various sources of income inequality, but attention to entrepreneurship as an increasingly prevalent occupational choice in these models remains scant. This paper seeks to bridge these two literatures using regression-based income decomposition among entrepreneurs and paid workers distinguishing between self-employed (SE) and incorporated self-employed (ISE) individuals in Sweden. We find that the proportion of self-employed in the workforce increases income dispersion by way of widening the bottom end of the distribution, whereas the proportion of incorporated self-employed contributes to income dispersion at the top end of the distribution. Implications for research are discussed. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 24.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Ratio, Sverige.
    Korpi, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Sverige.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio, Sverige.
    Entreprenörskap och inkomstspridning: hur företagare påverkar ojämlikheten2017In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 1, p. 53-59Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen om inkomstojämlikhet har utvecklat modeller för att analysera inkomstspridning men har underlåtit att inkludera entreprenörskap – ett allt vanligare yrkesval. Vi undersöker hur antalet och typen av företagare påverkar inkomstskillnaderna i Sverige. Vi finner en tydlig polariseringseffekt av andelen företagare i arbetskraften: Egenföretagare ökar inkomstspridningen genom att flertalet har låga inkomster relativt löntagare, medan det omvända gäller för aktiebolagsföretagare. Påverkan sker således främst i svansarna av fördelningen, och den tycks vara som störst för egenföretagare.

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  • 25.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Causal mechanisms in organization and innovation studies2017In: Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice, ISSN 1447-9338, E-ISSN 2204-0226, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 91-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline the guiding ideas behind mechanisms-based theorizing in analytical sociology as a fruitful alternative to economics-inspired research on identification of causal effects, and discuss the potential of mechanisms-based theorizing for further development in organization and innovation studies. We discuss the realist stance on providing broader explanations as an identifying characteristic of the mechanism approach, its focus on the dynamic processes through which outcomes to be explained are brought about, and outline theoretical and methodological implications for organization and innovation studies.

  • 26.
    Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Causal mechanisms in organization and innovation studies2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline the guiding ideas behind mechanisms-based theorizing in analytical sociology as a fruitful alternative to economics-inspired research on identification of causal effects, and discuss the potential of mechanisms-based theorizing for further development in organization and innovation studies. We discuss the realist stance on providing broader explanations as an identifying characteristic of the mechanism approach, its focus on the dynamic processes through which outcomes to be explained are brought about, and outline theoretical and methodological implications for organization and innovation studies.

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    Causal Mechanisms in Organization and Innovation Studies
  • 27.
    Karlson, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandstrom, Christian
    Ratio Inst, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bureaucrats or Markets in Innovation Policy? - a critique of the entrepreneurial stateIn: The Review of Austrian Economics, ISSN 0889-3047, E-ISSN 1573-7128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes stock of recent suggestions that the state apparatus is a central and underappreciated actor in the generation, diffusion and exploitation of innovations enhancing growth and social welfare. We contrast such a view of "the entrepreneurial state" with theories and empirical evidence of the microeconomic processes of innovation in the modern economy which focus on well-functioning markets, free entry and competition among firms, and independent entrepreneurship as central mechanisms in the creation and dissemination of innovations. In doing so, we identify several deficiencies in the notion of an entrepreneurial state by showing that (i) there is weak empirical support in the many hundreds empirical studies and related meta analyses evaluating the effectiveness of active industrial and innovative policies, that (ii) these policies do not take account of the presence of information and incentive problems which together explain why attempts to address purported market failures often result in policy failures, and that (iii) the exclusive focus on knowledge creation through R&D and different forms of firm subsidies ignores the equally important mechanisms of knowledge dissemination and creation through commercial exploitation in markets. We discuss how a more theoretically well-founded focus on the state as investing in knowledge generation and securing the conditions of free and competitive markets will lead to a more innovative economy.

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  • 28.
    Kazlou, Aliaksei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How kinship resources alleviate structural disadvantage: self-employment duration among refugees and labor migrants2023In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 16-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Economic integration of refugees remains a challenge for developed countries. Although refugees differ greatly from labor migrants in available resources and motivation toward self-employment, prevailing studies on minority and ethnic entrepreneurship tend to lump these different categories of migrants together. Based on theories of migrants economic embeddedness, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the extent to which family- and kinship-based resources affect self-employment duration among refugees and labor migrants. Design/methodology/approach Based on Cox regression models, this longitudinal study estimates the self-employment duration of 10,519 refugees and 2,503 labor migrants starting businesses in Sweden in the period 2006-2012. Findings Results reveal that while refugees are at a disadvantage to labor migrants in terms of self-employment duration, their higher level of family embeddedness in part helps them overcome these disadvantages. For refugees but not for labor migrants, co-location in an ethnic enclave also lowers the risk of them becoming unemployed after a spell in entrepreneurship. Originality/value This original paper provides empirical and theoretical contributions to research on migrants self-employment success. It also discusses contributions for research on entrepreneurs social embeddedness and refugees entrepreneurship.

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  • 29.
    Kim, Phillip H.
    et al.
    Babson Coll, MA 02157 USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Croidieu, Gregoire
    Grenoble Ecole Management, France.
    UNTAPPED RICHES OF MESO-LEVEL APPLICATIONS IN MULTILEVEL ENTREPRENEURSHIP MECHANISMS2016In: Academy of Management Perspectives, ISSN 1558-9080, E-ISSN 1943-4529, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 273-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial action is embedded within a variety of complex social structures, not all of which can be as easily defined or measured as macro-institutional or micro-individual characteristics. Nonetheless, these multilayered structures collectively hold rich insights-before now underexamined-into the actual causal mechanisms that affect entrepreneurial actions and outcomes. To address this problem, we call on researchers to broaden their levels of analysis and direct their focus to meso-level structures. Although meso-level social structures are widely studied independently, these intermediate levels are seldom integrated into existing multilevel models. We argue that meso-level structures offer untapped riches for enhancing multilevel entrepreneurial mechanisms and discuss how social groups, associations, and other collectives operating at a meso level can play a more distinct, integrative role between the two ends of the institutional spectrum. To provide practical guidance for pursuing such investigations, we adapt Colemans bathtub model to form a robust framework that integrates micro, meso, and macro levels of analysis. Our framework helps alleviate the shortcomings produced by an overdependence on either solely macro- or micro-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and offers fresh insights, as the intermediate level is more deeply integrated into this new framework.

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  • 30.
    Kim, Phillip H
    et al.
    Babson College, USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Croidieu, Grégoire
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Grenoble Ecole de Management, France.
    Hidden in plain sight: untapped riches of meso-level entrepreneurship mechanisms2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial action is embedded within a variety of complex social structures, not all of which can be as easily defined or measured as macro-institutional or micro-individual characteristics, but collectively hold rich insights into the actual causal mechanisms influencing action. To address this problem, we call upon researchers to broaden their levels of analysis and direct their focus to mesolevel structures. Although meso-level social structures are widely studied independently, these intermediate levels are seldom integrated into existing multi-level models. We argue that meso-level structures offer untapped riches for enhancing multi-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and discuss how social groups, associations, and other collectives operating at a meso-level can play a more distinct integrative role in between the two ends of the institutional spectrum. To provide practical guidance for pursuing such investigations, we adapt Coleman’s Bathtub model to form a robust framework that integrates micro, meso, and macro levels of analysis. Our framework helps alleviate the shortcomings produced by an overdependence on either solely macro- or micro-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and brings the hidden intermediate level into plain sight.

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    Hidden in Plain Sight: Untapped Riches of Meso-Level Entrepreneurship Mechanisms
  • 31.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Lundmark, Erik
    Macquarie Business School, Macquarie University, NSW, 2109, Sydney, Australia.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bank, Nata
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Incubator specialization and size: Divergent paths towards operational scale2020In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 151, p. 1-13, article id 119821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on incubators show that size is important in achieving efficiency and networking benefits for clients. However, little research has focused on what factors influence incubator size. We theorize and show partial support for size benefits to incubator specialization. Analyses of the relationship between size and four distinct specialization strategies in a sample of 96 European incubators show that incubator size is positively related to a strategic focus on universities and research institutes as recruitment channels and to a focus on sustainability, but unrelated to industry focus. Incubator size was found to be negatively related to a regional focus. While sustainability focused incubators tended to not find recruitment challenging, paradoxically, among those who did, the most frequently reported challenges were related to finding tenants that focus on sustainability. Post-hoc analyses revealed that tenants with a focus other than sustainability often dominate sustainability-oriented incubators, suggesting that sustainability may be more of a legitimating strategy than an explicit selection criterion.

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    Incubator specialization and size: Divergent paths towards operational scale
  • 32.
    Larsson, Johan P.
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Ratio Institute Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Syracuse University, NY 13244 USA.
    Wright, Mike
    Imperial Coll London, England; Swiss Federal Institute Technology, Switzerland.
    Location choices of graduate entrepreneurs2017In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 1490-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review complementary theoretical perspectives on location choices of university graduate entrepreneurs derived from the individual-opportunity nexus and local embeddedness perspectives on entrepreneurship. Analysis of the full population of 215,388 graduates from Swedish institutions of higher education between 2002 and 2006 provides support for both location choice perspectives. Overall, 63% of graduate entrepreneurs start businesses locally in their region of graduation while 37% start businesses elsewhere. The likelihood of starting locally is substantially higher in metropolitan regions, if the graduate was born locally or has university peer entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial family members in the region of graduation. Implications for theory and public policy are discussed.

  • 33.
    Liss, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio Institute, Stockholm.
    Korpi, Martin
    Ratio institute, Stockholm; EHFF, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Ratio institute, Stockholm; Stockholm School of Economics.
    Absolute income mobility and the effect of parent generation inequality: An extended decomposition approach2023In: European Economic Review, ISSN 0014-2921, E-ISSN 1873-572X, Vol. 152, article id 104359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use full-population data to study trends in intergenerational absolute income mobility, measured as the ratio of children earning more than their parents, for 11 Swedish cohorts born 1972–1983. Absolute mobility during this period increases from 72% to 84% for men and from 76% to 86% for women—higher figures than in most other countries studied. To explain these results, we outline a novel decomposition strategy that accounts for cohort variation in parent-generation income inequality. All else equal, if income inequality is higher in the parent generation, more economic growth is required to achieve any given level of absolute mobility. We discuss implications for comparative research in intergenerational income mobility.

  • 34.
    Liss, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Utvärdering av LuMiNk Akademin2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport undersöker LuMiNk Akademin (hädanefter “LuMiNk”) som är ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Linköpings universitet (LiU), Mirum galleria och Norrköpings kommun. Projektet startades hösten 2015 med niondeklassare från Söderportens skola i Norrköping där elever regelbundet träffar rekryterade studenter från olika programutbildningar på Linköpings universitet med syftet att ge stöd i studierna och inspirera till fortsatta studier. Då Söderportens högstadieverksamhet hösten 2017 flyttade till Klingsborgsskolan följde LuMiNk med och är alltså numera verksamt på Klingsborgsskolan.

    Rapporten har som syfte att kvantitativt utvärdera effekten av projektet samt ge rekommendationer till LuMiNks styrelsegrupp. Data på avgångna elever från Klingsborgsskolan har använts för att skatta huruvida deras betyg, val efter högstadiet samt närvaro påverkats av att gå programmet. Detta görs genom att de elever på Klingsborgsskolan som gått programmet jämförs med de som inte deltagit i programmet. Den mån som eleverna som deltog i LuMiNk (LuMiNk-gruppen) höjt sina betyg relativt de som inte deltagit programmet (kontrollgruppen) tar vi som indikation på vilken effekt som programmet har.

    Resultaten visar att de som gått LuMiNk haft signifikant höjda betyg i ämnena engelska, so, no, svenska som andraspråk samt höjda meritvärden relativt kontrollgruppen. Vi finner dock inte att de som gått LuMiNk höjt sina betyg relativt kontrollgruppen i varken matematik eller i praktiska ämnen.

    LuMiNk-gruppen har under hela terminen högre skolnärvaro än kontrollgruppen men eftersom det inte sker någon noterbar divergering mellan grupperna under terminens gång kan vi inte visa på att LuMiNk lett till högre närvaro i skolan.

    Eftersom ett syfte med LuMiNk är att inspirera till eftergymnasiala studier har vi följt upp hur det gått för elever som tidigare gick ut högstadiet från Söderporten för att på så sätt undersöka huruvida LuMiNk-gruppen i högre grad väljer att gå högskoleförberedande program jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Vi finner att LuMiNk-elever i dubbelt så hög grad väljer högskoleförberedande program jämfört med kontrollgruppen.

    Eftersom LuMiNk är ett program som eleverna själva väljer att söka till kan det förekomma så kallad ’självselektering’. Detta kan exempelvis innebära att redan mer ambitiösa elever väljer att söka LuMiNk, och att den uppmätta relativa ökningen i betyg och frekvens att gå högskoleförberedande program på gymnasiet hade skett även utan LuMiNk. Detta försöker vi att kontrollera för genom att kontrollera för skillnader i elevkompositionen mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen, använda oss av kompletterande statistiska modeller samt genom att jämföra de skattade effekterna med en skapad variabel för förväntad effekt per ämne. Vi bedömer efter ha genomfört dessa tillvägagångssätt att LuMiNk med hög sannolikhet faktiskt bidragit till den relativa skillnaden i betygstrenden mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen.

    Skillnaden i sannolikhet mellan LuMiNk- och kontrollgruppen att välja ett högskoleförberedande gymnasieprogram är behäftat med högre osäkerhet då tillgängliga data inte möjliggör lika omfattande statistiska modeller som för betygsvariabeln. Om vi dock kontrollerar för skillnader i elevkompositionen gällande betyg innan LuMiNk, kön, samt huruvida en elev kom till Sverige under grundskoletiden eller ej kvarstår dock en tämligen stor skillnad i sannolikheten att välja ett högskoleförberedande program (9 procent) mellan LuMiNk-gruppen och kontrollgruppen.

    Vidare har enkätsvar, närvaro vid LuMiNks läxhjälpstillfällen samt tidigare forskning studerats för att komplettera resultaten från effektstudien. Svaren från enkäterna visar inte på att LuMiNk-eleverna verkar välja att gå till LuMiNk på grund av brister i hemmamiljön, utan snarare att de finner LuMiNk stimulerande. Eleverna rapporterar vidare att de får mycket hjälp med studierna på LuMiNk jämfört med hemma. LuMiNks studiemiljö har eleverna olika åsikter om. Vissa uttrycker att miljön är något för stökig medan andra elever just uppskattar miljöombytet från skolan till en mer avslappnad miljö.

    Statistik på generell skolnärvaro och tidigare forskning som gjorts på läxhjälpsprojekt visar att äldre elever ofta har lägre närvaro och är svårare att locka till deltagande i läxhjälpsprojekt. Det är därför positivt att närvaron på LuMiNk-tillfällena generellt sett är hög samtidigt som ungefär hälften av eleverna på skolan valt att gå LuMiNk. Den höga närvaron bekräftar enkätsvaren att LuMiNk är populärt bland eleverna.

    Tidigare forskning visar på att det inte är självklart att läxläsningsprojekt ger effekt på studieresultat. Vi bedömer att LuMiNks tydliga struktur där eleverna förpliktigar sig att ha hög närvaro och den tydliga kopplingen till skolan bidrar till att LuMiNk tillhör de läxläsningsprojekt som faktiskt visar ha effekt på studieresultaten.

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    Utvärdering av LuMiNk Akademin
  • 35.
    McKelvie, Alexander
    et al.
    Syracuse University, NY 13244 USA.
    Brattström, Anna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    How young firms achieve growth: reconciling the roles of growth motivation and innovative activities2017In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 273-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth orientation is important for understanding why some young firms grow but not others, but research remains silent on the intermediary mechanisms mediating the growth orientation-firm growth relationship. We study 282 Swedish firms and show that various innovative activities mediate the growth orientation-firm growth relationship. These mediating innovative activities include informal activities and the launch of new products, but not formal Ramp;D. Our findings offer a more complete explanation for how growth orientation translates into realized growth, serving to reconcile empirical inconsistencies about the relationship between innovation and young firm growth.

  • 36.
    Minniti, Maria
    et al.
    Syracuse Univ, NY USA.
    Andersson, Martin
    Blekinge Inst Technol BTH, Sweden; Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden; Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Sweden.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum, Sweden; Royal Inst Technol KTH, Sweden.
    Delmar, Frederic
    EMLYON Business Sch, France; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rickne, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thorburn, Karin
    Univ Penn, PA 19104 USA; Norwegian Sch Econ NHH, Norway.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenkula, Mikael
    Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, Sweden.
    Boyan Jovanovic: recipient of the 2019 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2019In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 547-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2019 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research has been awarded to Professor Boyan Jovanovic at New York University in the USA. Boyan Jovanovic has developed pioneering research that advances our understanding of the competitive dynamics between incumbent firms and new entrants, entrepreneurial learning and selection processes, and the importance of entrepreneurship for the economy. Key perspectives in his research are that the entrepreneur makes employment choices based on the comparative advantage of his or her skills and that entrepreneurial firms are vehicles of technological change and knowledge diffusion that influence industry dynamics and, in turn, economic growth.

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  • 37.
    Mähring, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Demir, Robert
    Lancaster University Management School, UK.
    Reaping value from digitalization in swedish manufacturing firms: untapped opportunities?2018In: Managing digital transformation / [ed] Per Andersson, Staffan Movin, Magnus Mähring, Robin Teigland, Karl Wennberg, Stockholm: SSE Institute for Research, Stockholm School of Economics , 2018, p. 41-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Müller, Tim Sven
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Valdez, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Right-wing populism and social distance towards Muslims in Sweden: results from a nation-wide vignette study2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New right-wing extremist parties all over Europe have been described as adopting a master framethat combines xenophobia and anti-political establishment populism (Rydgren 2004). In Sweden the Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna, SD) have emerged as the dominating newright-wing extremist party that was able to more than double their share of votes from the 2010 tothe 2014 parliamentary elections (2010: 5.7%, 2014: 12.9%). We conducted a vignette study in arepresentative sample of the Swedish population shortly before and after the 2014 nationalelections, which helps us to analyse the social distance between the majority population and theMuslim minority. We are explicitly taking into account the prevalence of right-wing populistattitudes in the population and their support for SD in the 2010 and 2014 elections. Our resultsshow that; (1) anti-minority attitudes (held by 36% of the population) but not anti-establishmentattitudes (held by 37% of the population) predict increased social distance to Muslims and eventowards persons that are only presented as having a foreign name, (2) SD voters hold drasticallymore negative views about Muslims than does any other voter group, (3) the vote for SD is purelydriven by anti-minority sentiments, not anti-establishmentarism. In conclusion, while SD mightpresent its cause in the language of anti-establishment populism and their voters mightlegitimise their voting choice by this principle, SD voters’ intentions are fundamentallyrooted in xenophobia.

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  • 39.
    Ponomareva, Yuliya
    et al.
    Autonomous Univ Barcelona, Spain.
    Uman, Timur
    Jonkoping Int Business Sch, Sweden.
    Bodolica, Virginia
    Amer Univ Sharjah, U Arab Emirates.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Sch Econ, Sweden.
    Cultural diversity in top management teams: Review and agenda for future research2022In: Journal of world business (Print), ISSN 1090-9516, E-ISSN 1878-5573, Vol. 57, no 4, article id 101328Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its growing social relevance, research on cultural diversity in top management teams (TMTs) has been sparse and fragmented. To build a firm foundation and facilitate the development of this field, we review and synthesize 106 key articles published between 1997 and 2021. Our study provides a comprehensive field map explicating the antecedents and influence of TMT cultural diversity, showing that cultural diversity constitutes a distinct and important aspect of TMT diversity that has significant implications for a variety of outcomes. By critically assessing the field, we identify key research gaps and promising areas for future research.

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  • 40.
    Rickne, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ruef, Martin
    Duke Univ, NC USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The socially and spatially bounded relationships of entrepreneurial activity: Olav Sorenson-recipient of the 2018 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 515-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the academic contributions of Olav Sorenson, recipient of the 2018 Global Award for Entrepreneurship Research. His work has advanced scholarly understanding of how entrepreneurship and innovation are strongly embedded in socially and spatially bounded relationships. Based on meticulous empirical studies using a broad range of methods, he has challenged conventional models of new firms location choices, explained patterns of and determinants of knowledge diffusion, and considered how social networks can lead to economic advantages. This article discusses Sorensons work specifically focusing on three themes-(i) the geography of entrepreneurial activity, (ii) social capital, and (iii) the evolution of learning and innovation-highlighting scholarly contributions and insights for management practice and public policy.

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  • 41.
    Sandström, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bureaucrats or markets in innovation policy2019 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Sandström, Christian
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wallin, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Zherlygina, Yulia
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Public policy for academic entrepreneurship initiatives: a review and critical discussion2018In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 1232-1256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a critical review and discussion of current literature on technology transfer and academic entrepreneurship. Drawing upon the notion of robustness in social systems and public choice theory, we review, code, and taxonomize 166 studies in order to assess the likelihood that these initiatives will generate innovation and economic growth. We find that academic entrepreneurship initiatives are characterized by conflicting goals, weak incentive structures for universities and academics, and are contextually dependent on several factors, e.g. strong vs. weak universities. Our results therefore suggest that there are critical boundary conditions that are unlikely to be fulfilled when universities and governments enact policies to support academic entrepreneurship. Policymakers therefore need to be cautious in the potential design of such mechanisms. We discuss how technology transfer from universities might be better achieved through alternative mechanisms such as contract research, licensing, consulting and increased labor mobility among researchers.

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  • 43.
    Sebhatu, Abiel
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics Institute for Research .
    Lakomaa, Erik
    Stockholm School of Economics, Institute for Economic and Business History Research.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Stockholm School of Economics Institute for Research .
    Arbetsmiljö och konkurrens i svenska skolor2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar sambandet mellan konkurrens och arbetsmiljö i skolan, det senare en fråga som har stor relevans genom trenden av ökat anmält missnöje, olyckor, våld och andra grova arbetsmiljöproblem i skolan. I Sverige saknas i stor utsträckning forskning om våld i skolor, detsamma gäller långtidsstudier om arbetsmiljöns betydelse. Det finns emellertid omfattande socialmedicinsk och socialpsykologisk forskning där man baserat på enkäter och intervjuer undersökt arbetsmiljö och hälsa bland svenska elever. Resultaten av dessa studier indikerar att skolors psykosociala arbetsmiljö i hög utsträckning påverkar både elevers välbefinnande och deras skolprestationer. Upplevd arbetsmiljö tenderar även att samvariera med skolans elevsammansättning. Dessa befintliga studier om arbetsmiljö och våld i skolor är regelmässigt baserade på tvärsnittsdata över elever, men de inkluderar sällan variabler kopplade till skolan som organisationsform eller hur konkurrens mellan skolor påverkar såväl elevsammansättning som arbetsmiljö. Det innebär att det finns ett behov av studier som även tar hänsyn till detta.

  • 44.
    Sebhatu, Abiel
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics & Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Institutional Pressure and Failure Dynamics in the Swedish Voucher School Sector2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 7, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct a comparative case study following the growth and decline of the two largest private school organizations in Sweden from the voucher school deregulation in 1992 until the bankruptcy of one of the organization in 2013. Using archival data, hand-coded data on media exposure, interviews with managers and company press releases we explore institutional pressure and school organizations’ responses to institutional conformity and resistance. Both case organizations constitute private equity managed business groups but rely on distinct growth strategies and differential types of political and market-based ties to powerful stakeholders. Our results explain how organizational responses to institutional pressure are intimately tied to organizational structure, and furthermore how conformity may not translate into survival-enhancing conditions as earlier theorized

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  • 45.
    Sebhatu, Abiel
    et al.
    Cornell university.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konkurrens, vinster och kvalitet i svenska friskolor2015In: Vinster, välfärd och entreprenörskap / [ed] Johan Eklund, Stockholm: Entreprenörskapsforum , 2015, p. 89-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Sebhatu, Abiel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Sch Econ, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Sch Econ, Sweden; Ratio Inst, Sweden.
    Arora-Jonsson, Stefan
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Univ Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland.
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Explaining the homogeneous diffusion of COVID-19 nonpharmaceutical interventions across heterogeneous countries2020In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, no 35, p. 21201-21208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the adoption of nonpharmaceutical interventions in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given the complexity associated with pandemic decisions, governments are faced with the dilemma of how to act quickly when their core decision-making processes are based on deliberations balancing political considerations. Our findings show that, in times of severe crisis, governments follow the lead of others and base their decisions on what other countries do. Governments in countries with a stronger democratic structure are slower to react in the face of the pandemic but are more sensitive to the influence of other countries. We provide insights for research on international policy diffusion and research on the political consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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  • 47.
    Sebhatu, Abiel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Center for Education and Leadership Excellence, Postal: Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Center for Education and Leadership Excellence, Postal: Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm.
    Lakomaa, Erik
    Institute for Economic and Business History Research (EHFF), Postal: Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Dep. of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    More Schools, Less Trouble? Competition and Schools’ Work Environment, Sweden 1999–20112021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We bridge research on work environment and competition among schools using detailed data on complaints and incidents of disorder and violence in all Swedish schools 1999-2011. Findings suggest that competition is associated with lower levels of complaints across educational levels. For lower secondary schools, municipalities with high levels of school competition experience higher levels of violence in schools. To assess the causal effects of competition on work environment, we compare municipalities that have introduced competition with those that have not in a difference–in–difference framework, finding that only school complaints in upper secondary schools decrease after competition is introduced.

  • 48.
    Shepherd, Dean A.
    et al.
    Univ Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Suddaby, Roy
    Univ Victoria, Canada; Univ Liverpool, England.
    Wiklund, Johan
    Syracuse Univ, NY 13244 USA.
    What Are We Explaining? A Review and Agenda on Initiating, Engaging, Performing, and Contextualizing Entrepreneurship2019In: Journal of Management, ISSN 0149-2063, E-ISSN 1557-1211, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 159-196Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurship is multifaceted. The purpose of this review is to acknowledge and critically assess the many and varied dependent variables (DVs) of entrepreneurship over the last 17 years. By focusing exclusively on systematically reviewing entrepreneurships DVs, this paper maps out, classifies, and provides order to the phenomena that scholars consider part of this self-defined field of research. Using a systematic selection process and an inductive approach to categorization, we offer a meta-framework for organizing entrepreneurships DVs. On the basis of this meta-framework, entrepreneurship involves the (a) initiation, (b) engagement, and (c) performance of entrepreneurial endeavors embedded in (d) environmental conditions in which an entrepreneurial endeavor is the investment of resources into the pursuit of a potential opportunity. For each category, we offer both a review of the different DVs and opportunities for future research.

  • 49.
    Stough, Roger
    et al.
    George Mason University, VA 22201 USA.
    Welter, Friederike
    Institute Mittelstandsforsch Bonn, Germany; University of Siegen, Germany.
    Block, Joern
    University of Trier, Germany; Erasmus University, Netherlands.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Basco, Rodrigo
    University of Witten Herdecke, Germany.
    Family business and regional science: "Bridging the gap"2015In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 208-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this special issue is to stimulate research on the interaction between the fields of family business and regional science. Despite their overlapping themes and the high relevance of family firms for many regions, the two academic fields have emerged independently from each other, and little exchange exists. We discuss not only the role family firms play within the region in order to enhance our understanding of the ways family firms may (or may not) contribute to regional economic development but also the effect of socio-spatial and institutional context on firm behavior and performance. The set of empirical and theoretical articles included in this special issue represents an important early step bridging insights between the two fields. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 50.
    Toft-Kehler, Rasmus
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark; Symbion Entrepreneurial Learning Lab, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden; The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kim, Phillip
    Wisconsin School of Business, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.
    Practice makes perfect: Entrepreneurial-experience curves and venture performance2014In: Journal of Business Venturing, ISSN 0883-9026, E-ISSN 1873-2003, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 453-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tackles the puzzle of why increasing entrepreneurial experience does not always lead to improved financial performance of new ventures. We propose an alternate framework demonstrating how experience translates into expertise by arguing that the positive experience–performance relationship only appears to expert entrepreneurs, while novice entrepreneurs may actually perform increasingly worse because of their inability to generalize their experiential knowledge accurately into new ventures. These negative performance implications can be alleviated if the level of contextual similarity between prior and current ventures is high. Using matched employee–employer data of an entire population of Swedish founder-managers between 1990 and 2007, we find a non-linear relationship between entrepreneurial experience and financial performance consistent with our framework. Moreover, the level of industry, geographic, and temporal similarities between prior and current ventures positively moderates this relationship. Our work provides both theoretical and practical implications for entrepreneurial experience—people can learn entrepreneurship and pursue it with greater success as long as they have multiple opportunities to gain experience, overcome barriers to learning, and build an entrepreneurial-experience curve.

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