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  • 1.
    Dahlbäck, Nils
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stjernberg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kristiansson (Forsblad), Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Two ways of grounding the discussion on extended cognition2011In: Expanding the Space of Cognitive Science: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of theCognitive Science Society / [ed] Laura Carlson, Christoph Hoelscher, Thomas F. Shipley, Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2011, p. 2347-2352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We question two of the basic foundations of the Extended Mind hypothesis originally formulated by Clark and Chalmers, i.e. that all cognition is organism centered and that the important theoretical issues that the debate surrounding the Extended Mind hypothesis can fruitfully be resolved by to a large extent rely on invented examples of cognitive activities as the empirical foundation. We suggest that one way to proceed is to frame the hypothesis within the larger theoretical framework of activity theory, and another is to conduct extensive field studies of extended cognitive processes. We illustrate our position with examples of how these can be used to reformulate some of the aspects of the Extended Mind hypothesis.

  • 2.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Implications of dysphoria on driving ability: A study using a driving simulator paradigm2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project of enhancing traffic safety is a continuous effort that will not cease in its aspirations. In fact, as technology evolves and additional digital artifacts are implemented into our cars, the attention to traffic safety becomes even more important. Driving a car through urban and rural environments is a cognitively challenging task that especially tax attentional resources, and as more artifacts compete for our attention during driving, the adherence to traffic safety is vital. Thus, factors that influence driving ability, such as sleep, nutrition and – perhaps - emotions are of great interest. An earlier study by Bulmash et al. (2006) hypothesized that individuals with Major Depressive Disorder would perform worse than controls in a study using a driving simulator; their hypothesis was confirmed. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate whether dysphoric individuals show reduced driving performance relative to controls. The notion of dysphoria refers to mild depression in a non-clinical sense. This was investigated using a driving simulator that measured Lateral Positioning (Standard Deviation of Lateral Position - SDLP) on the road, Brake Reaction Time (BRT) and performance on a secondary task (Peripheral Detection Task - PDT). Dysphoric individuals were identified using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). The hypothesis was partly confirmed, as dysphoric individuals did indeed show more variable positioning on the road. However, performance differences on PDT and BRT were not significant. The results indicate that the negative influence of mood on driving ability is not a discrete phenomenon primarily manifested in individuals with clinical depression, but is rather a continuous phenomenon. The results should be of special interest to clinicians that evaluate individuals with depressive tendencies, as well as the academic community in general since the insights into the impact of emotions on cognitive performance are inconclusive and still not clearly understood. These results might also be of interest in other domains of high complexity, where human performance is of great importance, such as Command and Control, nuclear power plants and control rooms in general.

  • 3.
    Skagerlund, Kenny
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Maps in the Head and Maps in the Hand: The interplay between external spatial representations and individual spatial abilities during navigation in a naturalistic environment2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary purpose of the current study was to investigate how individuals navigate in an unfamiliar environment while using a map. What are the dynamical processes transpiring when an agent navigates in the environment using a tool to his aid? The emphasis was more specifically on the dynamic interaction between agent and artifact that together worked according to the Principle of Ecological Assembly (PEA) (Clark, 2008) and how this dynamical interaction could be analyzed from a situated problem-solving perspective. Moreover, the fact that individuals rely on cognitive artifacts in different circumstances is a quite trivial statement, but the related and less scrutinized question concerns temporality of cognitive work – when does the process of ecological assembly emerge during a problem-solving situation? Using cognitive ethnography as methodological approach to investigate the aforementioned research question, 17 research participants took part in this study that took place at the campus area of UC San Diego. The participants were given a physical map that represents the UCSD campus, and were given the primary task to reach a target destination from their current location within the campus area. It was found that individual sense of direction predicted the probability with which the ecological assembly was initiated, supporting the underlying assumption that the formal probability (P) of ecological assembly in any given domain relies on a set of variables where individual proficiency at any given task is a continuous variable. The hypothesis was confirmed in conjunction with a set of peripheral but relevant and interesting findings regarding how individuals increase the cognitive congeniality (Kirsh, 1996) of their environment during thehighly interactive problem-solving activity. An unexpected finding was also that individuals relying primarily on route knowledge during navigation, rather than survey knowledge, more frequently spontaneously aligned the map in synchrony with the surrounding environment while navigating, suggesting a different registration process preference between map as pictorial external representation and the world.

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