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  • 1.
    Gutefeldt, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Hedman, Christina A
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Thyberg, Ingrid S M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Bachrach-Lindström, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Spångeus, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Upper extremity impairments in type 1 diabetes with long duration: common problems with great impact on daily life2019In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 633-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence, activity limitations and potential risk factors of upper extremity impairments in type 1 diabetes in comparison to controls.

    METHODS: In a cross-sectional population-based study in the southeast of Sweden, patients with type 1 diabetes <35 years at onset, duration ≥20 years, <67 years old and matched controls were invited to answer a questionnaire on upper extremity impairments and activity limitations and to take blood samples.

    RESULTS: Seven hundred and seventy-three patients (ages 50 ± 10 years, diabetes duration 35 ± 10 years) and 708 controls (ages 54 ± 9 years) were included. Shoulder pain and stiffness, hand paraesthesia and finger impairments were common in patients with a prevalence of 28-48%, which was 2-4-folds higher than in controls. Compared to controls, the patients had more bilateral impairments, often had coexistence of several upper extremity impairments, and in the presence of impairments, reported more pronounced activity limitations. Female gender (1.72 (1.066-2.272), p = 0.014), longer duration (1.046 (1.015-1.077), p = 0.003), higher body mass index (1.08 (1.017-1.147), p = 0.013) and HbA1c (1.029 (1.008-1.05), p = 0.007) were associated with upper extremity impairments.

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared to controls, patients with type 1 diabetes have a high prevalence of upper extremity impairments, often bilateral, which are strongly associated with activity limitations. Recognising these in clinical practise is crucial, and improved preventative, therapeutic and rehabilitative interventions are needed. Implications for rehabilitation Upper extremity impairments affecting the shoulder, hand and fingers are common in patients with type 1 diabetes, the prevalence being 2-4-fold higher compared to non-diabetic persons. Patients with diabetes type 1 with upper extremity impairments have more pronounced limitations in daily activities compared to controls with similar impairments. Recognising upper extremity impairments and activity limitations are important and improved preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitation methods are needed.

  • 2.
    Gutefeldt, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Hedman, Christina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Bachrach Lindström, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Spångeus, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Dysregulated growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in adult type 1 diabetes with long duration2018In: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 424-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ContextIn type 1 diabetes (T1D), dysregulation of the GH-IGF-1 axis has been reported. Whether this is related to upper extremity impairments (UEI) is unknown. ObjectiveExamine differences in GH-IGF-1 axis between T1D on subcutaneous insulin treatment and matched controls without diabetes and possible associations between GH-IGF-1 axis and UEI. DesignCross-sectional population-based study. Patients with T1D, onset amp;lt;35years, duration 20years, amp;lt;67years old and controls were invited to answer questionnaires and take blood samples. SubjectsA total of 605 patients with T1D and 533 controls accepted to participate. OutcomesFasting levels of IGF-1, IGF-1 Z-score, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, C-peptide, GH and UEI. ResultsPatients with T1D had lower IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 and higher IGFBP-1 and GH than controls. The difference in IGF-1 persisted with age. Insulin dose was associated with increasing IGF-1 Z-score but even at a very high insulin dose (amp;gt;1U/kg) IGF-1 Z-score was subnormal compared to controls. IGF-1 Z-score was unaffected by glycaemic control (HbA1c) but increased with residual insulin secretion, (C-peptide 1-99 pmol/L). IGFBP-1 was associated with fasting blood glucose, negatively in controls and positively in patients with T1D probably reflecting insulin resistance and insulin deficiency, respectively. There was no association between lower IGF-1 Z-score and UEI in T1D. ConclusionIn adult T1D with fair glycaemic control, the GH-IGF-1 axis is dysregulated exhibiting GH resistance, low IGF-1 and elevated IGFBP-1. Subcutaneous insulin cannot normalize these changes while endogenous insulin secretion has marked effects on IGF-1 pointing to a role of portal insulin.

  • 3.
    Manousou, Sofia
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Kungälvs Hosp, Sweden.
    Johansson, Birgitta
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chmielewska, Anna
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Med Univ Warsaw, Poland.
    Eriksson, Janna
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gutefeldt, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Tornhage, Carl-Johan
    Skaraborg Hosp, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Molnlycke Hlth Care Ctr, Sweden.
    Malmgren, Helge
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hulthen, Lena
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Domellof, Magnus
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Filipsson, Helena Nystrom
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Role of iodine-containing multivitamins during pregnancy for childrens brain function: protocol of an ongoing randomised controlled trial: the SWIDDICH study2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 4, article id e019945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Iodine is essential for normal brain development. Moderate and severe fetal iodine deficiency results in substantial to serious developmental delay in children. Mild iodine deficiency in pregnancy is associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, but evidence from randomised trials is lacking. The aim of the Swedish Iodine in Pregnancy and Development in Children study is to determine the effect of daily supplementation with 150 mu g iodine during pregnancy on the offsprings neuropsychological development up to 14 years of age. Methods and analysis Thyroid healthy pregnant women (n=1275: age range 18- 40 years) at amp;lt;= 12 weeks gestation will be randomly assigned to receive multivitamin supplements containing 150 mu g iodine or non-iodine-containing multivitamin daily throughout pregnancy. As a primary outcome, IQ will be measured in the offspring at 7 years (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-V). As secondary outcomes, IQ will be measured at 3.5 and 14 years, psychomotor development at 18 months and 7 years, and behaviour at 3.5, 7 and 14 years. Iodine status (urinary iodine concentration) will be measured during pregnancy and in the offspring at 3.5, 7 and 14 years. Thyroid function (thyroid hormones, thyroglobulin), and deiodinase type 2 polymorphisms will be measured during pregnancy and in the offspring at 7 and 14 years. Structural MRI or other relevant structural or functional brain imaging procedures will be performed in a subgroup of children at 7 and 14 years. Background and socioeconomic information will be collected at all follow-up times. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Ethics Committee in Goteborg, Sweden (Diary numbers: 431-12 approved 18 June 2012 (pregnancy part) and 1089-16 approved 8 February 2017 (children follow-up)). According to Swedish regulations, dietary supplements are governed by the National Food Agency and not by the Medical Product Agency. Therefore, there is no requirement for a monitoring committee and the National Food Agency does not perform any audits of trial conduct. The trial will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The participating sites will be contacted regarding important protocol changes, both orally and in writing, and the trial registry database will be updated accordingly. Study results will be presented at relevant conferences, and submitted to peer-reviewed journals with open access in the fields of endocrinology, paediatrics and nutrition. After the appropriate embargo period, the results will be communicated to participants, healthcare professionals at the maternal healthcare centres, the public and other relevant groups, such as the national guideline group for thyroid and pregnancy and the National Food Agency.

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