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  • 1.
    Andersson, E Kristin
    et al.
    Aneurin Bevan Health Board Bwrdd Lechyd.
    Moss, T P
    University of West England.
    Imagery and implementation intention: A randomised controlled trial of interventions to increase exercise behaviour in the general population2011In: PSYCHOLOGY OF SPORT AND EXERCISE, ISSN 1469-0292, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 63-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The studys main objective was to investigate a potential role of pre-conscious processes in exercise behaviour change by comparing the efficiency of two exercise interventions (guided imagery and manipulation of implementation intention). Design: A randomised control trial was carried out with participants allocated to one of four conditions (guided imagery, implementation intention, relaxation, or control). Method: Outcome variables (exercise behaviour, exercise self-efficacy and exercise motivation), were measured pre- and post-intervention. Imagery ability was measured as a potential confounding variable of intervention efficiency. Using provided exercise diaries, fifty sedentary participants (34F, 16M) monitored their physical activity for two weeks. Average of the participants was 29 years (range 19-56). Results: A one-way MANCOVA suggested that 13% of the variation in the linear combination of the dependent variables was accounted for by group allocation. Univariate tests confirmed that significant differences existed between both intervention groups and control group (Implementation Intention - Control (p = 0.048): effect size (d) = 0.92), Guided Imagery - Control (p = 0.012: effect size (d) = 1.46). Conclusions: This study succeeded in increasing exercise behaviour using guided imagery and implementation intention interventions. These are self-managed, economic and practical interventions which may be further developed for particular populations or behaviours. The results may challenge the subjective expected utility basis of social cognition models of health behaviour, as it highlights the importance of considering both conscious and pre-conscious processes antecedent to behaviour change.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Implementing healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study evaluating a team initiative2015In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 15, no 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Non-communicable diseases are a leading cause of death and can largely be prevented by healthy lifestyles. Health care organizations are encouraged to integrate healthy lifestyle promotion in routine care. This study evaluates the impact of a team initiative on healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design compared three intervention centres that had implemented lifestyle teams with three control centres that used a traditional model of care. Outcomes were defined using the RE-AIM framework: reach, the proportion of patients receiving lifestyle promotion; effectiveness, self-reported attitudes and competency among staff; adoption, proportion of staff reporting regular practice of lifestyle promotion; implementation, fidelity to the original lifestyle team protocol. Data collection methods included a patient questionnaire (n = 888), a staff questionnaire (n = 120) and structured interviews with all practice managers and, where applicable, team managers (n = 8). The chi square test and problem-driven content analysis was used to analyse the questionnaire and interview data, respectively.

    Results:Reach: patients at control centres (48%, n = 211) received lifestyle promotion significantly more often compared with patients at intervention centres (41%, n = 169). Effectiveness: intervention staff was significantly more positive towards the effectiveness of lifestyle promotion, shared competency and how lifestyle promotion was prioritized at their centre. Adoption: 47% of staff at intervention centres and 58% at control centres reported that they asked patients about their lifestyle on a daily basis. Implementation: all intervention centres had implemented multi-professional teams and team managers and held regular meetings but struggled to implement in-house referral structures for lifestyle promotion, which was used consistently among staff.

    Conclusions:Intervention centres did not show higher rates than control centres on reach of patients or adoption among staff at this stage. All intervention centres struggled to implement working referral structures for lifestyle promotion. Intervention centres were more positive on effectiveness outcomes, attitudes and competency among staff, however. Thus, lifestyle teams may facilitate lifestyle promotion practice in terms of increased responsiveness among staff, illustrated by positive attitudes and perceptions of shared competency. More research is needed on lifestyle promotion referral structures in primary care regarding their configuration and implementation.

  • 3.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dissemination strategy for Lean thinking in health care2014In: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, ISSN 0952-6862, E-ISSN 1758-6542, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 391-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about dissemination strategies for Lean thinking throughout multiple healthcare organisations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The Östergötland county council, Sweden (CCÖ ) was chosenas a case study for an healthcare Lean-thinking dissemination strategies. Document analysis and interviews were used and results were compared with similar strategies employed by staff at the National Health Service Institute for Innovation (NHSI) and improvement in Great Britain and the Odense University Hospital in Denmark.

    Findings – The Lean improvement programme was introduced to tackle challenges such as anageing society, rising care expectations and budgetary and economic constraints. It was designedas a long-term programme to create added value for patients and employee involvement. The dissemination strategy was: forming clear visions and objectives; piloting; training potential adopters; and formal dissemination. The CCÖ strategy was focused primarily on managers and was not meant to involve all staff until the implementation stage. Staff at the NHS attempted to address nurses’ needs during dissemination, which questioned whether the CCÖ managers’ dissemination strategy is sustainable.

    Practical implications – This paper inspires healthcare managers and decision makers who aim to disseminate Lean production in their organisations.

    Originality/value – There are many case studies describing Lean implementation in single healthcare organisations, but little is known about effective dissemination and implementation strategies in large healthcare systems. The authors, therefore, suggest activities for developing and implementing dissemination strategies in multiple healthcare organisations.

  • 4.
    Festin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Kristenson, Margareta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Choice of measure matters: A study of the relationship between socioeconomic status and psychosocial resources in a middle-aged normal population2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0178929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychosocial resources may serve as an important link to explain socioeconomic differences in health. Earlier studies have demonstrated that education, income and occupational status cannot be used interchangeably as indicators of a hypothetical latent social dimension. In the same manner, it is important to disentangle the effect of measuring different constructs of psychosocial resources. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse if associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and psychosocial resources differ depending on the measures used. A cross-sectional population-based study of a random sample (n = 1007) of middle-aged individuals (45-69 years old, 50% women) in Sweden was performed using questionnaire and register data. SES was measured as education, occupation, household income and self-rated economy. Psychosocial resources were measured as social integration, social support, mastery, self-esteem, sense of coherence (SOC) and trust. Logistic regression models were applied to analyse the relationships controlling for the effects of possible confounders. The measures of SES were low or moderately correlated to each other as were the measures of psychosocial resources. After controlling for age, sex, country of birth and employment status, household income and self-rated economy were associated with all six psychosocial resources; occupation was associated with three (social integration, self-esteem and trust) and education with two (social integration and self-esteem). Social integration and self-esteem showed a significant and graded relationship with all SES measures; trust was associated with all SES measures except education, whereas SOC and mastery were only associated with household income and self-rated economy. After controlling for other SES measures, no associations with psychosocial resources remained for education or occupation. In conclusion, associations between SES and psychosocial resources did differ depending on the measures used. The findings illustrate the importance of the choice of measure when investigating SES as well as psychosocial resources.

  • 5.
    Marcusson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Nord, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sverker, Annette M.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
    Olaison, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hellstrom, Ingrid
    Norrkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Böttiger, Ylva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Dong, Huan-Ji
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyth, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Operations management Region Östergötland, Research and Development Unit.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Operations management Region Östergötland, Research and Development Unit.
    Proactive healthcare for frail elderly persons: study protocol for a prospective controlled primary care intervention in Sweden2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e027847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The provision of healthcare services is not dedicated to promoting maintenance of function and does not target frail older persons at high risk of the main causes of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a proactive medical and social intervention in comparison with conventional care on a group of persons aged 75 and older selected by statistical prediction.

    Methods and analysis In a pragmatic multicentre primary care setting (n=1600), a prediction model to find elderly (75+) persons at high risk of complex medical care or hospitalisation is used, followed by proactive medical and social care, in comparison with usual care. The study started in April 2017 with a run-in period until December 2017, followed by a 2-year continued intervention phase that will continue until the end of December 2019. The intervention includes several tools (multiprofessional team for rehabilitation, social support, medical care home visits and telephone support). Primary outcome measures are healthcare cost, number of hospital care episodes, hospital care days and mortality. Secondary outcome measures are number of outpatient visits, cost of social care and informal care, number of prescribed drugs, health-related quality of life, cost-effectiveness, sense of security, functional status and ability. We also study the care of elderly persons in a broader sense, by covering the perspectives of the patients, the professional staff and the management, and on a political level, by using semistructured interviews, qualitative methods and a questionnaire.

    Ethics and dissemination Approved by the regional ethical review board in Linköping (Dnr 2016/347-31). The results will be presented in scientific journals and scientific meetings during 2019–2022 and are planned to be used for the development of future care models.

  • 6.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, E Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Leijon, Matti E.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development, Department of Health and Care Development.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    A Text Message-Based Intervention Targeting Alcohol Consumption Among University Students: User Satisfaction and Acceptability Study.2018In: JMIR Human Factors, E-ISSN 2292-9495, Vol. 5, no 3, article id e23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Heavy consumption of alcohol among university students is a global problem, with excessive drinking being the social norm. Students can be a difficult target group to reach, and only a minority seek alcohol-related support. It is important to develop interventions that can reach university students in a way that does not further stretch the resources of the health services. Text messaging (short message service, SMS)-based interventions can enable continuous, real-time, cost-effective, brief support in a real-world setting, but there is a limited amount of evidence for effective interventions on alcohol consumption among young people based on text messaging. To address this, a text messaging-based alcohol consumption intervention, the Amadeus 3 intervention, was developed.

    OBJECTIVE: This study explored self-reported changes in drinking habits in an intervention group and a control group. Additionally, user satisfaction among the intervention group and the experience of being allocated to a control group were explored.

    METHODS: Students allocated to the intervention group (n=460) were asked about their drinking habits and offered the opportunity to give their opinion on the structure and content of the intervention. Students in the control group (n=436) were asked about their drinking habits and their experience in being allocated to the control group. Participants received an email containing an electronic link to a short questionnaire. Descriptive analyses of the distribution of the responses to the 12 questions for the intervention group and 5 questions for the control group were performed.

    RESULTS: The response rate for the user feedback questionnaire of the intervention group was 38% (176/460) and of the control group was 30% (129/436). The variation in the content of the text messages from facts to motivational and practical advice was appreciated by 77% (135/176) participants, and 55% (97/176) found the number of messages per week to be adequate. Overall, 81% (142/176) participants stated that they had read all or nearly all the messages, and 52% (91/176) participants stated that they were drinking less, and increased awareness regarding negative consequences was expressed as the main reason for reduced alcohol consumption. Among the participants in the control group, 40% (52/129) stated that it did not matter that they had to wait for access to the intervention. Regarding actions taken while waiting for access, 48% (62/129) participants claimed that they continued to drink as before, whereas 35% (45/129) tried to reduce their consumption without any support.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the main randomized controlled trial was not able to detect a statistically significant effect of the intervention, most participants in this qualitative follow-up study stated that participation in the study helped them reflect upon their consumption, leading to altered drinking habits and reduced alcohol consumption.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN95054707; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN95054707 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/705putNZT).

  • 7.
    O'Donnell, Amy
    et al.
    Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Abidi, Latifa
    Department of Health Promotion, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Limburg, Netherlands.
    Brown, Jamie
    Research Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, UK, Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roback, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Skagerström, Janna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Regional Board, Research and Development Unit.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Beliefs and attitudes about addressing alcohol consumption in health care: a population survey in England2018In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Despite robust evidence for their effectiveness, it has proven difficult to translate alcohol prevention activities into routine health care practice. Previous research has identified numerous provider-level barriers affecting implementation, but these have been less extensively investigated in the wider population. We sought to: (1) investigate patients' beliefs and attitudes to being asked about alcohol consumption in health care; and (2) identify the characteristics of those who are supportive of addressing alcohol consumption in health care.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional household interviews conducted as part of the national Alcohol Toolkit Study in England between March and April 2017. Data were collected on age, gender, social grade, drinking category, and beliefs and attitudes to being asked about alcohol in routine health care. Unadjusted and multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models were performed to investigate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and drinking category with being "pro-routine" (i.e. 'agree completely' that alcohol consumption should be routinely addressed in health care) or "pro-personal" (i.e. 'agree completely' that alcohol is a personal matter and not something health care providers should ask about).

    RESULTS: Data were collected on 3499 participants, of whom 50% were "pro-routine" and 10% were "pro-personal". Those in social grade C1, C2, D and E were significantly less likely than those in AB of being "pro-routine". Women were less likely than men to be "pro-personal", and those aged 35-44 or 65 years plus more likely to be "pro-personal" compared with participants aged 16-24. Respondents aged 65 plus were twice as likely as those aged 16-24 to agree completely that alcohol consumption is a personal matter and not something health care providers should ask about (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.34-2.99).

    CONCLUSIONS: Most adults in England agree that health care providers should routinely ask about patients' alcohol consumption. However, older adults and those in lower socio-economic groups are less supportive. Drinking status appears to have limited impact on whether people believe that alcohol is a personal matter and not something health care providers should ask about.

    REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework ( https://osf.io/xn2st/ ).

  • 8.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Implementation of coordinated healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: Process and outcomes2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Implementation of healthy lifestyle promotion in routine primary has been suboptimal. There is emerging evidence that coordinating care can improve the efficiency and quality of care. However, more research is needed on the implementation of coordinated care in healthy lifestyle promotion, the role of patients in implementation and the long-term outcomes of implementation efforts.

    Overall aim: To investigate the implementation of coordinated healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care in terms of process and outcomes, from the perspectives of both staff and patients.

    Methods: In 2008, Östergötland county council commissioned primary care centres to implement a coordinated care initiative, lifestyle teams, to improve healthy lifestyle promotion routines. A lifestyle team protocol stipulated centres to: (1) create multi-professional teams, (2) appoint team managers, (3) hold team meetings, and (4) create in-house referral routines for at-risk patients. Paper I investigated the implementation process of three lifestyle teams during a two year period using a mixed method, convergent parallel design. A proposed theory of implementation process was used to analyse data from manager interviews, documents and questionnaires. Paper II explored patients’ role in implementation using grounded theory. Interview data from patients with varied experience of promotion was used. Paper III investigated implementation outcomes using a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design that compared three intervention centres (lifestyle teams) with three control centres (no teams). Data were collected by staff and patient questionnaires and manager interviews at 3 and 5 years after commissioning. The RE-AIM framework was modified and used to define outcome variables: Reach of patients, Effectiveness (attitudes and competency among staff), Adoption among staff, Implementation fidelity to the lifestyle team protocol, and Maintenance of the results at 5-year follow-up.

    Results: Paper I: The implementation process was complex including multiple innovation components and groups of adopters. The conditions for implementation, e.g. resources varied between staff and team members which challenged the embedding of the teams and new routines. The lifestyle teams were continuously redefined by team members to accommodate contextual factors, features of the protocol and patients. The lifestyle team protocol presented an infrastructure for practice at the centres. Paper II: A grounded theory about being healthy with three interconnected subcategories emerged from data: (1) conditions, (2) managing, and (3) interactions regarding being healthy. Being healthy represented a process of approaching a health ideal which occurred simultaneously with, and could contradict, a process of maximizing well-being. A typology of four patient types (resigned, receivers, co-workers, and leaders) illustrated how processes before, during and after healthy lifestyle promotion were interconnected. Paper III: Reach: significantly more patients at control centres received promotion compared to intervention centres at 3-year (48% and 41% respectively) and 5-year followups (44% and 36% respectively). Effectiveness: At 3-year follow-up, after controlling for clustering by centres, intervention staff were significantly more positive concerning perceived need for lifestyle teams; that healthy lifestyle promotion was prioritized at their centre and that there was adequate competency at individual and centre level regarding lifestyle promotion. At 5-year follow-up, significant differences remained regarding prioritization of lifestyle promotion at centre level. The majority of both intervention and control staff were positive towards lifestyle promotion. Adoption: No significant differences were found between control and intervention centres at 3 years (59% and 47% respectively) or at 5 years (45% and 36% respectively). Implementation fidelity: all components of the lifestyle team protocol had been implemented at all the intervention centres and at none of the control centres.

    Conclusions: The implementation process was challenged by a complex interaction between groups of staff, innovation components and contextual factors. Although coordinated care are used for other conditions in primary care, the findings suggest that it is difficult to adopt similar routines for healthy lifestyle promotion. Findings suggest that the lifestyle team protocol did not fully consider social components of coordinated care or the varied conditions for change exhibited by adopters. Patients can be seen as coproducing implementation of healthy lifestyle promotion.

    List of papers
    1. Towards implementing coordinated healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: a mixed method study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards implementing coordinated healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: a mixed method study
    2015 (English)In: International Journal of Integrated Care, ISSN 1568-4156, E-ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 15, article id e030Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary care is increasingly being encouraged to integrate healthy lifestyle promotion in routine care. However, implementation has been suboptimal. Coordinated care could facilitate lifestyle promotion practice but more empirical knowledge is needed about the implementation process of coordinated care initiatives. This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of a coordinated healthy lifestyle promotion initiative in a primary care setting.

    Methods: A mixed method, convergent, parallel design was used. Three primary care centres took part in a two-year research project. Data collection methods included individual interviews, document data and questionnaires. The General Theory of Implementation was used as a framework in the analysis to integrate the data sources.

    Results: Multi-disciplinary teams were implemented in the centres although the role of the teams as a resource for coordinated lifestyle promotion was not fully embedded at the centres. Embedding of the teams was challenged by differences among the staff, patients and team members on resources, commitment, social norms and roles.

    Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of identifying and engaging key stakeholders early in an implementation process. The findings showed how the development phase influenced the implementation and embedding processes, which add aspects to the General Theory of Implementation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Utrecht, Netherlands: Utrecht University Library Open Access Journals, 2015
    Keywords
    Healthy lifestyle promotion; primary care; process evaluation; implementation; General Theory of Implementation; mixed methods
    National Category
    Nursing Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121491 (URN)000366093800003 ()26312058 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Ostergotland County Council; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2015-09-22 Created: 2015-09-22 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Implementation of healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: Patients as coproducers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: Patients as coproducers
    2014 (English)In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 283-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore and theorize how patients perceive, interpret, and reactin healthy lifestyle promotion situations in primary care and to investigate patients role in implementation of lifestyle promotion illustrated by typologies. Methods: Grounded theory was used to assess qualitative interview data from 22 patients with varied experience of healthy lifestyle promotion. Data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis. Results: A substantive theory of being healthy emerged from the data. The theory highlights the processes that are important for implementation before, during, and after lifestyle promotion. Three interconnected categories emerged from the data: conditions for being healthy, managing being healthy, and interactions about being healthy; these formed the core category: being healthy. A typology proposed four patient trajectories on being healthy: resigned, receivers, coworkers, and leaders. Conclusion: Patients coproduced the implementation of lifestyle promotion through the degree of transparency, which was a result of patients expectations and situation appraisals. Practice implications: Different approaches are needed during lifestyle promotion depending on a variety of patient-related factors. The typology could guide practitioners in their lifestyle promotion practice.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Implementation; Primary care; Lifestyle promotion; Grounded theory
    National Category
    Basic Medicine Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112827 (URN)10.1016/j.pec.2014.07.033 (DOI)000344824800020 ()25154336 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Ostergotland County Council; Linkoping University [8811002010]

    Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Long-term impact of a real-world coordinated lifestyle promotion initiative in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term impact of a real-world coordinated lifestyle promotion initiative in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study
    2014 (English)In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 15, no 201Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Integration of lifestyle promotion in routine primary care has been suboptimal. Coordinated care models (e.g. screening, brief advice and referral to in-house specialized staff) could facilitate lifestyle promotion practice; they have been shown to increase the quality of services and reduce costs in other areas of care. This study evaluates the long-term impact of a coordinated lifestyle promotion intervention with a multidisciplinary team approach in a primary care setting. Methods: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design was used to compare three intervention centres using a coordinated care model and three control centres using a traditional model of lifestyle promotion care. Outcomes were inspired by using the RE-AIM framework: reach, the proportion of patients receiving lifestyle promotion; effectiveness, self-reported attitudes and competency among staff; adoption, proportion of staff reporting daily practice of lifestyle promotion and referral; and implementation, of the coordinated care model. The impact was investigated after 3 and 5 years. Data collection involved a patient questionnaire (intervention, n = 433-497; control, n = 455-497), a staff questionnaire (intervention, n = 77-76; control, n = 43-56) and structured interviews with managers (n = 8). The X-2 test or Fisher exact test with adjustment for clustering by centre was used for the analysis. Problem-driven content analysis was used to analyse the interview data. Results: The findings were consistent over time. Intervention centres did not show higher rates for reach of patients or adoption among staff at the 3- or 5-year follow-up. Some conceptual differences between intervention and control staff remained over time in that the intervention staff were more positive on two of eight effectiveness outcomes (one attitude and one competency item) compared with control staff. The Lifestyle team protocol, which included structural opportunities for coordinated care, was implemented at all intervention centres. Lifestyle teams were perceived to have an important role at the centres in driving the lifestyle promotion work forward and being a forum for knowledge exchange. However, resources to refer patients to specialized staff were used inconsistently. Conclusions: The Lifestyle teams may have offered opportunities for lifestyle promotion practice and contributed to enabling conditions at centre level but had limited impact on lifestyle promotion practices.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2014
    Keywords
    Healthy lifestyle promotion; Primary care; Implementation; Coordinated care; RE-AIM framework; Maintenance
    National Category
    General Practice
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114597 (URN)10.1186/s12875-014-0201-x (DOI)000349124100001 ()25512086 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Ostergotland County Council; Linkoping University

    Available from: 2015-02-27 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2018-08-14
  • 9.
    Thomas, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Short message service (SMS)-based intervention targeting alcohol consumption among university students: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial2017In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 18, article id 156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite significant health risks, heavy drinking of alcohol among university students is a widespread problem; excessive drinking is part of the social norm. A growing number of studies indicate that short message service (SMS)-based interventions are cost-effective, accessible, require limited effort by users, and can enable continuous, real-time, brief support in real-world settings. Although there is emerging evidence for the effect of SMS-based interventions in reducing alcohol consumption, more research is needed. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a newly developed SMS-based intervention targeting excessive alcohol consumption among university and college students in Sweden. Methods: The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial with an intervention (SMS programme) and a control (treatment as usual) group. Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome is total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes are frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration and number of negative consequences due to excessive drinking. Discussion: This study contributes knowledge on the effect of automatized SMS support to reduce excessive drinking among students compared with existing support such as Student Health Centres.

  • 10.
    Thomas, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    mHealth smoking cessation intervention among high-school pupils (NEXit Junior): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, article id 648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMobile health (mHealth) interventions, using text messages to support high-school pupils to quit smoking, could be a novel and cost-effective approach. However, more research is needed, specifically to investigate long-term effectiveness. The study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a newly developed mHealth intervention targeting smoking cessation among high-school pupils.MethodsThe study is a two-arm, randomized controlled trial with an intervention group (mHealth intervention) and a control group (treatment as usual: national smoking cessation help line). Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12months follow-up. Primary outcome measures will be: prolonged abstinence and 4-week point prevalence of smoking abstinence. Secondary outcome measures will be: 7-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence; mean number of quit attempts since taking part in the study; number of uses of other smoking cessation services since first invitation to the study and number of cigarettes smoked weekly if still smoking.DiscussionHigh schools in Sweden are bound by law to offer a smoke-free environment. However, little effort has been made to offer support to pupils who wish to quit smoking; rather the emphasis is on prevention of uptake. The study will examine the effectiveness of a stand-alone mHealth intervention targeting smokers among high-school pupils.Trial registrationThe trial was not retrospectively registered and has been registered at ISRCTN with the unique identification number ISRCTN15396225. The trial was registered on 13 October 2017.

  • 11.
    Thomas, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Implementation of healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: Patients as coproducers2014In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 283-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore and theorize how patients perceive, interpret, and reactin healthy lifestyle promotion situations in primary care and to investigate patients role in implementation of lifestyle promotion illustrated by typologies. Methods: Grounded theory was used to assess qualitative interview data from 22 patients with varied experience of healthy lifestyle promotion. Data were analyzed by constant comparative analysis. Results: A substantive theory of being healthy emerged from the data. The theory highlights the processes that are important for implementation before, during, and after lifestyle promotion. Three interconnected categories emerged from the data: conditions for being healthy, managing being healthy, and interactions about being healthy; these formed the core category: being healthy. A typology proposed four patient trajectories on being healthy: resigned, receivers, coworkers, and leaders. Conclusion: Patients coproduced the implementation of lifestyle promotion through the degree of transparency, which was a result of patients expectations and situation appraisals. Practice implications: Different approaches are needed during lifestyle promotion depending on a variety of patient-related factors. The typology could guide practitioners in their lifestyle promotion practice.

  • 12.
    Thomas, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Towards implementing coordinated healthy lifestyle promotion in primary care: a mixed method study2015In: International Journal of Integrated Care, ISSN 1568-4156, E-ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 15, article id e030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary care is increasingly being encouraged to integrate healthy lifestyle promotion in routine care. However, implementation has been suboptimal. Coordinated care could facilitate lifestyle promotion practice but more empirical knowledge is needed about the implementation process of coordinated care initiatives. This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of a coordinated healthy lifestyle promotion initiative in a primary care setting.

    Methods: A mixed method, convergent, parallel design was used. Three primary care centres took part in a two-year research project. Data collection methods included individual interviews, document data and questionnaires. The General Theory of Implementation was used as a framework in the analysis to integrate the data sources.

    Results: Multi-disciplinary teams were implemented in the centres although the role of the teams as a resource for coordinated lifestyle promotion was not fully embedded at the centres. Embedding of the teams was challenged by differences among the staff, patients and team members on resources, commitment, social norms and roles.

    Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of identifying and engaging key stakeholders early in an implementation process. The findings showed how the development phase influenced the implementation and embedding processes, which add aspects to the General Theory of Implementation.

  • 13.
    Thomas, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine.
    Krevers, Barbro
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Long-term impact of a real-world coordinated lifestyle promotion initiative in primary care: a quasi-experimental cross-sectional study2014In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 15, no 201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Integration of lifestyle promotion in routine primary care has been suboptimal. Coordinated care models (e.g. screening, brief advice and referral to in-house specialized staff) could facilitate lifestyle promotion practice; they have been shown to increase the quality of services and reduce costs in other areas of care. This study evaluates the long-term impact of a coordinated lifestyle promotion intervention with a multidisciplinary team approach in a primary care setting. Methods: A quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design was used to compare three intervention centres using a coordinated care model and three control centres using a traditional model of lifestyle promotion care. Outcomes were inspired by using the RE-AIM framework: reach, the proportion of patients receiving lifestyle promotion; effectiveness, self-reported attitudes and competency among staff; adoption, proportion of staff reporting daily practice of lifestyle promotion and referral; and implementation, of the coordinated care model. The impact was investigated after 3 and 5 years. Data collection involved a patient questionnaire (intervention, n = 433-497; control, n = 455-497), a staff questionnaire (intervention, n = 77-76; control, n = 43-56) and structured interviews with managers (n = 8). The X-2 test or Fisher exact test with adjustment for clustering by centre was used for the analysis. Problem-driven content analysis was used to analyse the interview data. Results: The findings were consistent over time. Intervention centres did not show higher rates for reach of patients or adoption among staff at the 3- or 5-year follow-up. Some conceptual differences between intervention and control staff remained over time in that the intervention staff were more positive on two of eight effectiveness outcomes (one attitude and one competency item) compared with control staff. The Lifestyle team protocol, which included structural opportunities for coordinated care, was implemented at all intervention centres. Lifestyle teams were perceived to have an important role at the centres in driving the lifestyle promotion work forward and being a forum for knowledge exchange. However, resources to refer patients to specialized staff were used inconsistently. Conclusions: The Lifestyle teams may have offered opportunities for lifestyle promotion practice and contributed to enabling conditions at centre level but had limited impact on lifestyle promotion practices.

  • 14.
    Thomas, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Database and information techniques. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Text Message-Based Intervention Targeting Alcohol Consumption Among University Students: Findings From a Formative Development Study2016In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 4, no 4, article id e119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Drinking of alcohol among university students is a global phenomenon; heavy episodic drinking is accepted despite several potential negative consequences. There is emerging evidence that short message service (SMS) text messaging interventions are effective to promote behavior change among students. However, it is still unclear how effectiveness can be optimized through intervention design or how user interest and adherence can be maximized. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop an SMS text message-based intervention targeting alcohol drinking among university students using formative research. Methods: A formative research design was used including an iterative revision process based on input from end users and experts. Data were collected via seven focus groups with students and a panel evaluation involving students (n= 15) and experts (n= 5). Student participants were recruited from five universities in Sweden. A semistructured interview guide was used in the focus groups and included questions on alcohol culture, message content, and intervention format. The panel evaluation asked participants to rate to what degree preliminary messages were understandable, usable, and had a good tone on a scale from 1 (very low degree) to 4 (very high degree). Participants could also write their own comments for each message. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The SMS text messages and the intervention format were revised continuously in parallel with data collection. A behavior change technique (BCT) analysis was conducted on the final version of the program. Results: Overall, students were positive toward the SMS text message intervention. Messages that were neutral, motivated, clear, and tangible engaged students. Students expressed that they preferred short, concise messages and confirmed that a 6-week intervention was an appropriate duration. However, there was limited consensus regarding SMS text message frequency, personalization of messages, and timing. Overall, messages scored high on understanding (mean 3.86, SD 0.43), usability (mean 3.70, SD 0.61), and tone (mean 3.78, SD 0.53). Participants added comments to 67 of 70 messages, including suggestions for change in wording, order of messages, and feedback on why a message was unclear or needed major revision. Comments also included positive feedback that confirmed the value of the messages. Twenty-three BCTs aimed at addressing self-regulatory skills, for example, were identified in the final program. Conclusions: The formative research design was valuable and resulted in significant changes to the intervention. All the original SMS text messages were changed and new messages were added. Overall, the findings showed that students were positive toward receiving support through SMS text message and that neutral, motivated, clear, and tangible messages promoted engagement. However, limited consensus was found on the timing, frequency, and tailoring of messages.

  • 15.
    Thomas, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Linderoth, Catharina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Nadine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Bendtsen, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Effectiveness of a Text Messaging-Based Intervention Targeting Alcohol Consumption Among University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial2018In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 6, no 6, article id e146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Excessive drinking among university students is a global challenge, leading to significant health risks. However, heavy drinking among students is widely accepted and socially normalized. Mobile phone interventions have attempted to reach students who engage in excessive drinking. A growing number of studies suggest that text message-based interventions could potentially reach many students and, if effective, such an intervention might help reduce heavy drinking in the student community. Objective: The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a behavior change theory-based 6-week text message intervention among university students. Methods: This study was a two-arm, randomized controlled trial with an intervention group receiving a 6-week text message intervention and a control group that was referred to treatment as usual at the local student health care center. Outcome measures were collected at baseline and at 3 months after the initial invitation to participate in the intervention. The primary outcome was total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration, and number of negative consequences attributable to excessive drinking. Results: A total of 896 students were randomized to either the intervention or control group. The primary outcome analysis included 92.0% of the participants in the intervention group and 90.1% of the control group. At follow-up, total weekly alcohol consumption decreased in both groups, but no significant between-group difference was seen. Data on the secondary outcomes included 49.1% of the participants in the intervention group and 41.3% of the control group. No significant between-group difference was seen for any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusions: The present study was under-powered, which could partly explain the lack of significance. However, the intervention, although theory-based, needs to be re-assessed and refined to better support the target group. Apart from establishing which content forms an effective intervention, the optimal length of an alcohol intervention targeting students also needs to be addressed in future studies.

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