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  • 1.
    Orfanidis, Kyriakos
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Identification and clinical evaluation of senescence-associated markers to distinguish melanocytic nevi from melanomas2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Melanoma is a form of cancer that develops in melanocytes. While it represents only 5% of skin malignancies, it is the most aggressive and lethal. Benign proliferation of these cells form the melanocytic nevi. The definitive diagnosis of melanocytic nevi or melanoma lesions is histopathologic. However, it is estimated that a correct diagnosis is established by means of standard skin biopsy in only 83% of the melanocytic lesions; of the remaining cases 8% and 9% are overinterpreted (false positives) and under-interpreted (false negatives), respectively. This underscores the importance of additional diagnostic tests. Since cellular senescence is considered to be a tumor suppressive mechanism, immuno-histochemistry using senescence markers has been suggested for the evaluation of difficult melanocytic lesions; however, the routinely used senescence markers lack the ability to distinguish nevi from melanoma. The general aim of this thesis is therefore to identify novel senescence markers that may aid in melanoma diagnosis.

    In study I, we established a cellular model with nevus-mimicking characteristics consisting in primary melanocytes that become senescent. Transcriptomic analysis allowed expanding the set of senescence-associated markers that could distinguish nevi from melanoma and identifying tubulin β-3 as a potential diagnostic marker. Depletion of tubulin β-3 and pretreatment with tubulin destabilizing drugs in melanocytes and melanoma cells induced a senescence-like phenotype in vitro. In particular, reduced migration capacity and induction of cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase of the cell cycle was demonstrated.

    In study II, a potential inter-cellular signaling pathway between melanoma cells and stromal fibroblasts, that might facilitate melanoma invasion, was investigated. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation was shown, both in melanoma cells and fibroblasts, to promote the release and activation of TGF-β1 and subsequent increase in expression of the serine protease FAP-α, a protein that plays role in extracellular matrix degradation and therefore facilitates the invasion of melanoma cells. Such mechanism was not functional in senescent melanocytes.

    In study III, it was shown that tubulin β-3 immunostaining aids in the diagnosis of nevi and melanomas. The diagnostic criterium was the tubulin β-3 gradient within the melanocytic nevi that was no longer apparent in melanoma. Different patterns of tubulin β-3 immunostaining in melanoma were described, dermoscopy-immunohistochemistry associations were found, specific dermoscopic features highlighted, and the prognostic value of this tubulin β-3 marker was examined. The progression rate in patients whose melanomas had areas with loss of tubulin β-3 was 4 times higher than in patients without this feature, although statistical significance could not be reached (p=0.06).

    In conclusion, transcriptomic analysis expanded the set of senescence-associated markers that could distinguish nevi from melanoma and identified tubulin β-3 as novel immunohistochemistry marker shown to have diagnostic and probably prognostic value. From a mechanistical point of view, ultraviolet radiation was shown to promote not only the formation of melanoma but also its progression by increasing a cathepsin-TGF-β1-FAP-α pathway resulting in extracellular matrix degradation.

    List of papers
    1. Evaluation of tubulin β-3 as a novel senescence-associated gene in melanocytic malignant transformation.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of tubulin β-3 as a novel senescence-associated gene in melanocytic malignant transformation.
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, ISSN 1755-1471, E-ISSN 1755-148X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 243-254Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Malignant melanoma might develop from melanocytic nevi in which the growth-arrested state has been broken. We analyzed the gene expression of young and senescent human melanocytes in culture and compared the gene expression data with a dataset from nevi and melanomas. A concordant altered gene expression was identified in 84 genes when comparing the growth-arrested samples with proliferating samples. TUBB3, which encodes the microtubule protein tubulin β-3, showed a decreased expression in senescent melanocytes and nevi and was selected for further studies. Depletion of tubulin β-3 caused accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase and decreased proliferation and migration. Immunohistochemical assessment of tubulin β-3 in benign lesions revealed strong staining in the superficial part of the intradermal components, which faded with depth. In contrast, primary melanomas exhibited staining without gradient in a disordered pattern and strong staining of the invasive front. Our results describe an approach to find clinically useful diagnostic biomarkers to more precisely identify cutaneous malignant melanoma and present tubulin β-3 as a candidate marker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Blackwell Munksgaard, 2017
    Keywords
    senescence, nevus, melanoma, microarray, tubulin β-3
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134870 (URN)10.1111/pcmr.12572 (DOI)000397412300010 ()28024114 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85014598335 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council; Welander-Finsen Foundation; Ostgotaregionens Cancer Foundation; Swedish Cancer Society; County Council of Ostergotland; Olle Engkvist Foundation

    Available from: 2017-02-28 Created: 2017-02-28 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
    2. UV radiation promotes melanoma dissemination mediated by the sequential reaction axis of cathepsins-TGF-beta 1-FAP-alpha
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>UV radiation promotes melanoma dissemination mediated by the sequential reaction axis of cathepsins-TGF-beta 1-FAP-alpha
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 535-544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major risk factor for development of malignant melanoma. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-alpha is a serine protease expressed on the surface of activated fibroblasts, promoting tumour invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. The signalling mechanism behind the upregulation of FAP-alpha is not yet completely revealed. Methods: Expression of FAP-alpha was analysed after UVR exposure in in vitro co-culture systems, gene expression arrays and artificial skin constructs. Cell migration and invasion was studied in relation to cathepsin activity and secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1. Results: Fibroblast activation protein-a expression was induced by UVR in melanocytes of human skin. The FAP-alpha expression was regulated by UVR-induced release of TGF-beta 1 and cathepsin inhibitors prevented such secretion. In melanoma cell culture models and in a xenograft tumour model of zebrafish embryos, FAP-alpha mediated ECM degradation and facilitated tumour cell dissemination. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for a sequential reaction axis from UVR via cathepsins, TGF-beta 1 and FAP-alpha expression, promoting cancer cell dissemination and melanoma metastatic spread.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017
    Keywords
    FAP-alpha; UV radiation; melanoma; fibroblast; senescence; invasion; cathepsins; TGF-beta 1
    National Category
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140050 (URN)10.1038/bjc.2017.182 (DOI)000407094100010 ()28697174 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Welander-Finsen Foundation; Ostgotaregionens Cancer Foundation; Swedish Cancer Society; County Council of Ostergotland; Olle Engkvist Foundation

    Available from: 2017-08-28 Created: 2017-08-28 Last updated: 2019-12-19
  • 2.
    Orfanidis, Kyriakos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Wäster, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lundmark, Katarzyna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical pathology.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Evaluation of tubulin β-3 as a novel senescence-associated gene in melanocytic malignant transformation.2017In: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, ISSN 1755-1471, E-ISSN 1755-148X, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 243-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malignant melanoma might develop from melanocytic nevi in which the growth-arrested state has been broken. We analyzed the gene expression of young and senescent human melanocytes in culture and compared the gene expression data with a dataset from nevi and melanomas. A concordant altered gene expression was identified in 84 genes when comparing the growth-arrested samples with proliferating samples. TUBB3, which encodes the microtubule protein tubulin β-3, showed a decreased expression in senescent melanocytes and nevi and was selected for further studies. Depletion of tubulin β-3 caused accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase and decreased proliferation and migration. Immunohistochemical assessment of tubulin β-3 in benign lesions revealed strong staining in the superficial part of the intradermal components, which faded with depth. In contrast, primary melanomas exhibited staining without gradient in a disordered pattern and strong staining of the invasive front. Our results describe an approach to find clinically useful diagnostic biomarkers to more precisely identify cutaneous malignant melanoma and present tubulin β-3 as a candidate marker. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    Wäster, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Orfanidis, Kyriakos
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Eriksson, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rosdahl, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Seifert, Oliver
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Hospital, Sweden.
    Öllinger, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    UV radiation promotes melanoma dissemination mediated by the sequential reaction axis of cathepsins-TGF-beta 1-FAP-alpha2017In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 535-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major risk factor for development of malignant melanoma. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-alpha is a serine protease expressed on the surface of activated fibroblasts, promoting tumour invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. The signalling mechanism behind the upregulation of FAP-alpha is not yet completely revealed. Methods: Expression of FAP-alpha was analysed after UVR exposure in in vitro co-culture systems, gene expression arrays and artificial skin constructs. Cell migration and invasion was studied in relation to cathepsin activity and secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1. Results: Fibroblast activation protein-a expression was induced by UVR in melanocytes of human skin. The FAP-alpha expression was regulated by UVR-induced release of TGF-beta 1 and cathepsin inhibitors prevented such secretion. In melanoma cell culture models and in a xenograft tumour model of zebrafish embryos, FAP-alpha mediated ECM degradation and facilitated tumour cell dissemination. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for a sequential reaction axis from UVR via cathepsins, TGF-beta 1 and FAP-alpha expression, promoting cancer cell dissemination and melanoma metastatic spread.

1 - 3 of 3
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