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  • 1.
    Elfwing, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cai, Wanzhu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xia, Yuxin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tang, Zheng
    Tech Univ Dresden, Germany.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    DNA Based Hybrid Material for Interface Engineering in Polymer Solar Cells2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 11, p. 9579-9586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new solution processable electron transport material (ETM) is introduced for use in photovoltaic devices, which consists of a metallic conjugated polyelectrolyte, poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b]-[1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S), and surfactant-functionalized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (named DNA:CTMA:PEDOT-S). This ETM is demonstrated to effectively work for bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) based on different electron acceptor materials. The fill factor, the open circuit voltage, and the overall power conversion efficiency of the solar cells with a DNA:CTMA:PEDOT-S modified cathode are comparable to those of devices with a traditional lithium fluoride/aluminum cathode. The new electron transport layer has high optical transmittance, desired work function and selective electron transport. A dipole effect induced by the use of the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTMA) is responsible for lowering the electrode work function. The DNA:CTMA complex works as an optical absorption dilutor, while PEDOT-S provides the conducting pathway for electron transport, and allows thicker layer to be used, enabling printing. This materials design opens a new pathway to harness and optimize the electronic and optical properties of printable interface materials.

  • 2.
    Elfwing, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ponseca, Carlito
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urbanowicz, Andrzej
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania; TERAVIL Ltd, Lithuania.
    Krotkus, Arunas
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting Helical Structures from Celery Decorated with a Metallic Conjugated Polymer Give Resonances in the Terahertz Range2018In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 24, article id 1706595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to decorate cellulose-based helices retrieved from the plant celery with a conductive polymer is proposed. Using a layer-by-layer method, the decoration of the polyanionic conducting polymer poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b]-[1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S) is enhanced after coating the negatively charged cellulose helix with a polycationic polyethyleneimine. Microscopy techniques and two-point probe are used to image the structure and measure the conductivity of the helix. Analysis of the optical and electrical properties of the coated helix in the terahertz (THz) frequency range shows a resonance close to 1 THz and a broad shoulder that extends to 3.5 THz, consistent with electromagnetic models. Moreover, as helical antennas, it is shown that both axial and normal modes are present, which are correlated to the orientation and antenna electrical lengths of the coated helices. This work opens the possibility of designing tunable terahertz antennas through simple control of their dimensions and orientation.

  • 3.
    Ever Aguirre, Luis
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hedblom, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wulff, Angela
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Diatom frustules protect DNA from ultraviolet light2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 5138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolutionary causes for generation of nano and microstructured silica by photosynthetic algae are not yet deciphered. Diatoms are single photosynthetic algal cells populating the oceans and waters around the globe. They generate a considerable fraction (20-30%) of all oxygen from photosynthesis, and 45% of total primary production of organic material in the sea. There are more than 100,000 species of diatoms, classified by the shape of the glass cage in which they live, and which they build during algal growth. These glass structures have accumulated for the last 100 million of years, and left rich deposits of nano/microstructured silicon oxide in the form of diatomaceous earth around the globe. Here we show that reflection of ultraviolet light by nanostructured silica can protect the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in the algal cells, and that this may be an evolutionary cause for the formation of glass cages.

  • 4.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zeglio, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic electrochemical transistors from supramolecular complexes of conjugated polyelectrolyte PEDOTS2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 2987-2993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Counterion exchange strategies are used to modify the hydrophilic character of the self-doped conjugated polyelectrolyte PEDOTS. The supramolecular complexes, soluble in organic solvents, are suitable to fabricate finely performing thin active layers in organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). We demonstrate that ionic transport in these PEDOTS based complexes, thus their performance in OECT devices, is governed by a delicate balance among degree of doping, wettability and porosity, which can be controlled by a precise tuning of the polyelectrolyte/hydrophobic counterion ratio. We also show that the device operation can be modulated by varying the composition of the aqueous electrolyte in a range compatible with biological processes, making these materials suitable candidates to be interfaced with living cells.

  • 5.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wanzhu, Cai
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ever Aguirre, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Chuan Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The contraction of PEDOT films formed on a macromolecular liquid-like surface2018In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 654-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vapour phase polymerized (VPP) PEDOT obtained using triblock copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG: Fe(III) tosylate polymeric oxidative layers has shown record-high conductivity and unique thermoelectric properties. These properties are related to the molecular weight, morphology and doping of PEDOT. Here we show that in its unwashed condition, the PEDOT chain adopts a neutral benzenoid conformation. The polymer chain converts into the charged quinoid structure after the removal of oxidizers with solvent washing. X-ray diffraction results suggest that the dopant is also incorporated into the packed polymer after the washing process. The changes in the chain structure and doping lead to the characteristic polaron and bipolaron absorption in the 800 and 1200 nm range. We observed a large contraction of the film after washing that is likely due to these changes, along with the removal of excessive polymer: oxidizer trapped in the PEDOT matrix. The contraction of films can be completely suppressed by mechanical clamping. PEDOT films without contraction show both a higher conductivity and higher optical transparency.

  • 6.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Imaging the Phase Separation Between PEDOT and Polyelectrolytes During Processing of Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Films2015In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 7, no 35, p. 19764-19773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treating PEDOT:PSS (Clevios) with certain additives, such as ethylene glycol (EG), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sorbitol, has been shown to increase the conductivity of this material from roughly 1 to nearly 1000 S/cm. Using a slow drying method, we show that the additive induced a separation between free PSS and reorganized PEDOT:PSS complexes in the highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films. Additives (DMSO, DEG, and PEG 400) were included in PEDOT:PSS aqueous dispersions at large volume fractions. The mixtures were slowly dried under room conditions. During drying, the evaporation of water resulted in an additive-rich solvent mixture from which the reorganized PEDOT:PSS complexes aggregated " into a dense film while free PSS remained in the solution. Upon complete drying, PSS formed a transparent rim film around the conducting PEDOT film. The chemical compositions of the two phases were studied using an infrared microscope. This removal of PSS resulted in more compact packing of PEDOT molecules, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscope measurements suggested the enrichment of PEDOT on the film surface after PSS separation. Through a simple drying process in an additive-containing dispersion, the conductivity of PEDOT films increased from 0.1 to 200-400 S/cm. Through this method, we confirmed the existence of two phases in additive-treated and highly conductive PEDOT:PSS films. The proper separation between PSS and PEDOT will be of relevance in designing strategies to process high-performance plastic electrodes.

  • 7.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Wei, B.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Kuo, C.-C.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Pathak, S.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, PA, United States.
    Farrell, B.
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Martin, D.C.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.
    Enhanced PEDOT adhesion on solid substrates with electrografted P(EDOT-NH2)2017In: Science Advances, ISSN 0036-8156, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, no 3, article id e1600448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers, such as poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), have emerged as promising materials for interfacing biomedical devices with tissue because of their relatively soft mechanical properties, versatile organic chemistry, and inherent ability to conduct both ions and electrons. However, their limited adhesion to substrates is a concern for in vivo applications. We report an electrografting method to create covalently bonded PEDOT on solid substrates. An amine-functionalized EDOT derivative (2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-2-yl)methanamine (EDOT-NH2), was synthesized and then electrografted onto conducting substrates including platinum, iridium, and indium tin oxide. The electrografting process was performed under slightly basic conditions with an overpotential of ~2 to 3 V. A nonconjugated, cross-linked, and well-adherent P(EDOT-NH2)–based polymer coating was obtained. We found that the P(EDOT-NH2) polymer coating did not block the charge transport through the interface. Subsequent PEDOT electrochemical deposition onto P(EDOT-NH2)–modified electrodes showed comparable electroactivity to pristine PEDOT coating. With P(EDOT-NH2) as an anchoring layer, PEDOT coating showed greatly enhanced adhesion. The modified coating could withstand extensive ultrasonication (1 hour) without significant cracking or delamination, whereas PEDOT typically delaminated after seconds of sonication. Therefore, this is an effective means to selectively modify microelectrodes with highly adherent and highly conductive polymer coatings as direct neural interfaces. © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Qian, Deping
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zheng, Zilong
    Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA; Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA.
    Yao, Huifeng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Tress, Wolfgang
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Hopper, Thomas R.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Chen, Shula
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Sunsun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Jing
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Shangshang
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Jiangbin
    Imperial Coll London, England; Univ Cambridge, England.
    Liu, Xiaoke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gao, Bowei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Coropceanu, Veaceslav
    Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA; Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA.
    Bredas, Jean-Luc
    Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA; Georgia Inst Technol, GA 30332 USA.
    Yan, He
    Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; Hong Kong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Hou, Jianhui
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bakulin, Artem A.
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Gao, Feng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design rules for minimizing voltage losses in high-efficiency organic solar cells2018In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 703-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells is usually lower than the values achieved in inorganic or perovskite photovoltaic devices with comparable bandgaps. Energy losses during charge separation at the donor-acceptor interface and non-radiative recombination are among the main causes of such voltage losses. Here we combine spectroscopic and quantum-chemistry approaches to identify key rules for minimizing voltage losses: (1) a low energy offset between donor and acceptor molecular states and (2) high photoluminescence yield of the low-gap material in the blend. Following these rules, we present a range of existing and new donor-acceptor systems that combine efficient photocurrent generation with electroluminescence yield up to 0.03%, leading to non-radiative voltage losses as small as 0.21 V. This study provides a rationale to explain and further improve the performance of recently demonstrated high-open-circuit-voltage organic solar cells.

  • 9.
    Qu, Jing
    et al.
    University of Delaware, DE 19716 USA.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Delaware, DE 19716 USA.
    Kuo, Chin-chen
    University of Delaware, DE 19716 USA.
    Martin, David C.
    University of Delaware, DE 19716 USA.
    Stiffness, strength and adhesion characterization of electrochemically deposited conjugated polymer films2016In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 31, p. 114-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene) (PEDOT) are of interest for a variety of applications including interfaces between electronic biomedical devices and living tissue. The mechanical properties, strength, and adhesion of these materials to solid substrates are all vital for long-term applications. We have been developing methods to quantify the mechanical properties of conjugated polymer thin films. In this paper, the stiffness, strength and the interfacial shear strength (adhesion) of electrochemically deposited PEDOT and PEDOT-co-1,3,5-tri[2-(3,4-ethylene dioxythienyl)]-benzene (EPh) were studied. The estimated Youngs modulus of the PEDOT films was 2.6 +/- 1.4 GPa, and the strain to failure was around 2%. The tensile strength was measured to be 56 +/- 27 MPa. The effective interfacial shear strength was estimated with a shear-lag model by measuring the crack spacing as a function of film thickness. For PEDOT on gold/palladium-coated hydrocarbon film substrates an interfacial shear strength of 0.7 +/- 0.3 MPa was determined. The addition of 5 mole% of a tri-functional EDOT crosslinker (EPh) increased the tensile strength of the films to 283 +/- 67 MPa, while the strain to failure remained about the same (2%). The effective interfacial shear strength was increased to 2.4 +/- 0.6 MPa. Statement of significance This paper describes methods for estimating the ultimate mechanical properties of electrochemically deposited conjugated polymer (here PEDOT and PEDOT copolymers) films. Of particular interest and novelty is our implementation of a cracking test to quantify the shear strength of the PEDOT thin films on these solid substrates. There is considerable interest in these materials as interfaces between biomedical devices and living tissue, however potential mechanisms and modes of failure are areas of continuing concern, and establishing methods to quantify the strengths of these interfaces are therefore of particular current interest. We are confident that these results will be useful to the broader biological materials community and are worthy of broader dissemination. (C) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Wang, Chuanfei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Relationship of Ionization Potential and Oxidation Potential of Organic Semiconductor Films Used in Photovoltaics2018In: Solar RRL, ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 2, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) are employed to measure energy levels for charge transport in organic semiconductor films. A series of classical molecules/polymers used in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are deposited on platinum substrates/electrodes to form thin films and a linear relationship of vertical ionization potential (IP) measured by UPS and relative oxidation potential (Eox) obtained by CV is found, with a slope equal to unity. The intercept varies with the different reference redox couples and repeated potential sweep numbers during experiment processes. The relationship provides for an easy conversion of values obtained by the two techniques and correlates well with device parameters. The precision in the CV-derived IP values is not sufficient, however, to enable precise design of energy level alignment at heterojunction and the approach does not improve upon the current ?best practice? for obtaining donor ionization potential?acceptor electron affinity gaps at heterojunctions.

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