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  • 1.
    Broitman, Esteban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hangen, Ude D.
    Hysitron Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    High-temperature nanoindentation of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films2016In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 124, p. 117-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use in-situ heated nanoindentation to investigate the high-temperature nanomechanical properties of epitaxial and textured ZrB2 films deposited by magnetron sputtering. Epitaxial films deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) show a hardness decrease from 47 GPa at room temperature to 33 GPa at 600 °C, while the reduced elastic modulus does not change significantly. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) with selected area electron diffraction of the indented area in a 0001-textured film reveals a retained continuous ZrB2 film and no sign of crystalline phase transformation, despite massive deformation of the Si substrate. HRTEM analysis supports the high elastic recovery of 96% in the films.

  • 2.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Impact Coatings AB, Linköping, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reactive sputtering of delta-ZrH2 thin films by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering2014In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 041510-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive sputtering by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a Zr target in Ar/H-2 plasmas was employed to deposit Zr-H films on Si(100) substrates, and with H content up to 61 at.% and O contents typically below 0.2 at.% as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a chemical shift of similar to 0.7 eV to higher binding energies for the Zr-H films compared to pure Zr films, consistent with a charge transfer from Zr to H in a zirconium hydride. X-ray diffraction shows that the films are single-phase delta-ZrH2 (CaF2 type structure) at H content greater thansimilar to 55 at.% and pole figure measurements give a 111 preferred orientation for these films. Scanning electron microscopy cross-section images show a glasslike microstructure for the HiPIMS films, while the DCMS films are columnar. Nanoindentation yield hardness values of 5.5-7 GPa for the delta-ZrH2 films that is slightly harder than the similar to 5 GPa determined for Zr films and with coefficients of friction in the range of 0.12-0.18 to compare with the range of 0.4-0.6 obtained for Zr films. Wear resistance testing show that phase-pure delta-ZrH2 films deposited by HiPIMS exhibit up to 50 times lower wear rate compared to those containing a secondary Zr phase. Four-point probe measurements give resistivity values in the range of similar to 100-120 mu Omega cm for the delta-ZrH2 films, which is slightly higher compared to Zr films with values in the range 70-80 mu Omega cm.

  • 3.
    Högberg, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Impact Coatings AB, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    beta-Ta and alpha-Cr thin films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and direct current magnetron sputtering in hydrogen containing plasmas2014In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 439, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of beta-Ta and alpha-Cr were deposited on Si(1 0 0) and 1000 angstrom SiO2/Si(1 0 0), by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS) in hydrogen-containing plasmas. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and four-point probe measurements. The results showed that 001-oriented beta-Ta films containing up to similar to 8 at% hydrogen were obtained with HiPIMS, albeit with no chemical shift evident in XPS. The 110 oriented alpha-Cr films display a hydrogen content less than the detection limit of 1 at%, but H-2 favors the growth of high-purity films for both metals. The beta-Ta films deposited with dcMS are columnar, which seems independent of H-2 presence in the plasma, while the films grown by HIPIMS are more fine-grained. The latter type of microstructure was present for the alpha-Cr films and found to be independent on choice of technique or hydrogen in the plasma. The beta-Ta films show a resistivity of similar to 140-180 mu Omega cm, while alpha-Cr films exhibit values around 30 mu Omega cm; the lowest values obtained for films deposited by HiPIMS and with hydrogen in the plasma for both metals.

  • 4.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ­Chemical Bonding in Epitaxial ZrB2 Studied by X-ray Spectroscopy2018In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 649, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical bonding in an epitaxial ZrB2 film is investigated by Zr K-edge (1s) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and compared to the ZrB2 compound target from which the film was synthesized as well as a bulk α-Zr reference. Quantitative analysis of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy spectra reveals at the surface: ~5% O in the epitaxial ZrB2 film, ~19% O in the ZrB2 compound target and ~22% O in the bulk α-Zr reference after completed sputter cleaning. For the ZrB2 compound target, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows weak but visible   11, 111, and 220 peaks from monoclinic ZrO2 together with peaks from ZrB2 and where the intensity distribution for the ZrB2 peaks show a randomly oriented target material.  For the bulk α-Zr reference no peaks from any crystalline oxide were visible in the diffractogram recorded from the 0001-oriented metal. The Zr K-edge absorption from the two ZrB2 samples demonstrate more pronounced oscillations for the epitaxial ZrB2 film than in the bulk ZrB2 attributed to the high atomic ordering within the columns of the film. The XANES exhibits no pre-peak due to lack of p-d hybridization in ZrB2, but with a chemical shift towards higher energy of 4 eV in the film and 6 eV for the bulk compared to α-Zr (17.993 keV) from the charge-transfer from Zr to B. The 2 eV larger shift in bulk ZrB2 material suggests higher oxygen content than in the epitaxial film, which is supported by XPS. In EXAFS, the modelled cell-edge in ZrB2 is slightly smaller in the thin film (a=3.165 Å, c=3.520 Å) in comparison to the bulk target material (a=3.175 Å, c=3.540 Å) while in hexagonal closest-packed metal (α-phase, a=3.254 Å, c=5.147 Å). The modelled coordination numbers show that the EXAFS spectra of the epitaxial ZrB2 film is highly anisotropic with strong in-plane contribution, while the bulk target material is more isotropic. The Zr-B distance in the film of 2.539 Å is in agreement with the calculated value from XRD data of 2.542 Å. This is slightly shorter compared to that in the ZrB2 compound target 2.599 Å, supporting the XANES results of a higher atomic order within the columns of the film compared to bulk ZrB2.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-06 14:13
  • 5.
    Padavala, Balabalaji
    et al.
    Kansas State University, KS 66506 USA.
    Al Atabi, H.
    Kansas State University, KS 66506 USA.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edgar, J. H.
    Kansas State University, KS 66506 USA.
    Cubic boron phosphide epitaxy on zirconium diboride2018In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 483, p. 115-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cubic boron phosphide (BP) is one of the least studied III-V compound semiconductors, in part because it is difficult to prepare in high quality form. In this study, zirconium diboride (ZrB2) was studied as a potential substrate for BP epitaxial layers, because of its advantages of a low lattice constant mismatch and high thermal stability. Two types of substrates were considered: ZrB2(0001) epitaxial films on 4H-SiC (0001) and bulk ZrB2(0001) single crystals. The optimal temperature for epitaxy on these substrates was 1100 degrees C; higher and lower temperatures resulted in polycrystalline films. The BP film/ZrB2 interface was abrupt as confirmed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, attesting to the stability of ZrB2 under BP deposition conditions. The BP films were under compressive and tensile strain on ZrB2 and ZrB2/4H-SiC substrates, respectively, as determined by Raman spectroscopy, due to differences in the substrate/film coefficients of thermal expansion. This study suggests that with further optimization, ZrB2 can be an excellent substrate for BP epitaxial films. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-13 17:34
  • 6.
    Serban, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per Ola Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy of High-Quality GaN Nanorods on Functional and Cost-Effective Templates/Substrates2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 1322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the versatility of magnetron sputter epitaxy by achieving high-quality GaN nanorods on different substrate/template combinations, specifically Si, SiC, TiN/Si, ZrB2/Si, ZrB2/SiC, Mo, and Ti. Growth temperature was optimized on Si, TiN/Si, and ZrB2/Si, resulting in increased nanorod aspect ratio with temperature. All nanorods exhibit high purity and quality, proved by the strong bandedge emission recorded with cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature as well as transmission electron microscopy. These substrates/templates are affordable compared to many conventional substrates, and the direct deposition onto them eliminates cumbersome post-processing steps in device fabrication. Thus, magnetron sputter epitaxy offers an attractive alternative for simple and affordable fabrication in optoelectronic device technology.

  • 7.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and Characterization of ZrB2 Thin Films2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, growth of ZrB2 thin films by direct current magnetron sputtering is investigatedusing a high vacuum industrial scale deposition system and an ultra-high vacuum laboratory scalesystem. The films were grown from ZrB2 compound targets at temperatures ranging from ambient (without external heating) to 900 °C and with substrate biases from -20 to -120 V. Short deposition times of typically 100 or 300 s and high growth rates of 80-180 nm/min were emphasized to yield films with thicknesses of 300-400 nm. The films were characterized by thinfilm X-ray diffraction with the techniques θ/2θ and ω scans, pole figure measurements andreciprocal space mapping, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis and four point probe measurements. The substrates applied were Si(100), Si(111),4H-SiC(0001) and GaN(0001) epilayers grown on 4H-SiC. The Si(111), 4H-SiC(0001) substrates and GaN(0001) epilayers were chosen given their small lattice mismatches to ZrB2 making them suitable for epitaxial growth.The films deposited in the industrial system were found to be close to stoichiometric with a low degree of contaminants, with O being the most abundant at a level of < 1 at.%. Furthermore, the structure of the films is temperature dependent as films deposited in this system without external heating are fiber textured with a 0001-orientation while the films deposited at 550 °C exhibitrandom orientation. In contrast, epitaxial growth was demonstrated in the laboratory scale system on etched 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111) deposited at 900 °C following outgassing of the substrates at 300 °C and in-situ heat treatment at the applied growth temperature to remove the native oxides. However, films grown on GaN(0001) were found to be 0001 textured at the applied deposition conditions, which make further studies necessary to enable epitaxial growth on this substrate material. Four point probe measurements on the films deposited in the industrial system show typical resistivity values ranging from ˜95 to 200 μΩcm with a trend to lower values for the films deposited at higher temperatures and at higher substrate bias voltages.

    List of papers
    1. Direct current magnetron sputtered ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct current magnetron sputtered ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100)
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    2014 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 550, p. 285-290Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 thin films have been synthesized using direct current magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target onto 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100) substrates kept at different temperatures (no heating, 400 °C, and 550 °C), and substrate bias voltage (-20 V to -80 V). Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows that all the films are near stoichiometric and have a low degree of contaminants, with O being the most abundant (< 1 at.%). The films are crystalline, and their crystallographic orientation changes from 0001 to a more random orientation with increased deposition temperature. X-ray diffraction pole figures and selected area electron diffraction patterns of the films deposited without heating reveal a fiber-texture growth. Four point probe measurements show typical resistivity values of the films ranging from ~95 to 200 μΩcm, decreasing with increased growth temperature and substrate bias.

    Keywords
    Zirconium diboride; Silicon carbide; Thin films; Compound target; Industrial scale deposition system; Crystalline films
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99942 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2013.11.040 (DOI)000328499700045 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-23 Created: 2013-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Magnetron sputtering of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetron sputtering of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111)
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a), ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 3, p. 636-640Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial ZrB2 thin films were deposited at a temperature of 900 °C on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111) substrates by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 source at high rate ~80 nm/min. The films were analyzed by thin film X-ray diffraction including pole figure measurements and reciprocal space mapping as well as high resolution electron microscopy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2014
    Keywords
    Zirconium diboride Epitaxial growth Silicon carbide Thin films Magnetron sputtering
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99944 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201330308 (DOI)000333194100018 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-23 Created: 2013-10-23 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ZrB2 Thin Films: Growth and Characterization2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride, ZrB2, is a ceramic material with bulk properties such as high melting point (3245 °C), high hardness (23 GPa), and low resistivity (~8 μΩcm). Thin film growth of ZrB2 using physical vapor deposition has suffered from problems with films deviating from stoichiometry and with high levels of contaminants, especially high oxygen content. The homogeneity range of ZrB2 is very narrow, and consequently it is vital to achieve the correct stoichiometry to grow films with high crystalline order.

    This thesis describes a direct current magnetron sputtering process to grow stoichiometric ZrB2 thin films with a low degree of impurities. Growth of epitaxial ZrB2 films was achieved on 4H-SiC(0001), Si(111) and Al2O3(0001) substrates. The effect of deposition temperature and power applied on the sputtering target was investigated and showed that high power density (8.77 Wcm-2) and high temperature (900 °C) resulted in films with the best composition and the highest crystal quality. ZrB2 films on GaN(0001) templates exhibit an amorphous layer at the film-substrate interface and the resulting films are either polycrystalline or textured.

    Resistivity measurements showed that the ZrB2 thin films exhibit typical resistivity values of ~100-250 μΩcm and that the resistivity decreased with increasing deposition temperature.

    Nanoindentation was applied to assess the mechanical properties of the films. The epitaxial ZrB2 films exhibit high elastic recovery and a hardness of ~45-50 GPa, twice as high as the literature bulk value. In addition, evaluation of the mechanical properties was performed at high temperatures of up to 600 °C and showed that the epitaxial films retained a higher hardness, compared to textured ZrB2 films and bulk, also at these temperatures.

    List of papers
    1. Direct current magnetron sputtered ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct current magnetron sputtered ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100)
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 550, p. 285-290Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 thin films have been synthesized using direct current magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target onto 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100) substrates kept at different temperatures (no heating, 400 °C, and 550 °C), and substrate bias voltage (-20 V to -80 V). Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows that all the films are near stoichiometric and have a low degree of contaminants, with O being the most abundant (< 1 at.%). The films are crystalline, and their crystallographic orientation changes from 0001 to a more random orientation with increased deposition temperature. X-ray diffraction pole figures and selected area electron diffraction patterns of the films deposited without heating reveal a fiber-texture growth. Four point probe measurements show typical resistivity values of the films ranging from ~95 to 200 μΩcm, decreasing with increased growth temperature and substrate bias.

    Keywords
    Zirconium diboride; Silicon carbide; Thin films; Compound target; Industrial scale deposition system; Crystalline films
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99942 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2013.11.040 (DOI)000328499700045 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-23 Created: 2013-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Magnetron sputtering of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetron sputtering of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111)
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Physica Status Solidi (a), ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 3, p. 636-640Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial ZrB2 thin films were deposited at a temperature of 900 °C on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111) substrates by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 source at high rate ~80 nm/min. The films were analyzed by thin film X-ray diffraction including pole figure measurements and reciprocal space mapping as well as high resolution electron microscopy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2014
    Keywords
    Zirconium diboride Epitaxial growth Silicon carbide Thin films Magnetron sputtering
    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99944 (URN)10.1002/pssa.201330308 (DOI)000333194100018 ()
    Available from: 2013-10-23 Created: 2013-10-23 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
    3. Stoichiometric, epitaxial ZrB2 thin films with low oxygen-content deposited by magnetron sputtering from a compound target: Effects of deposition temperature and sputtering power
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stoichiometric, epitaxial ZrB2 thin films with low oxygen-content deposited by magnetron sputtering from a compound target: Effects of deposition temperature and sputtering power
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    2015 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 430, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) thin films have been deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. The effect of deposition temperature (500-900 degrees C) and sputtering power (100-400 W) on the composition and structure of the films have been investigated. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that high sputtering power values and high deposition temperatures are favorable to enhance the crystalline order of the epitaxial 0001 oriented films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the composition of the films is near-stoichiometric for all deposition temperatures and for high sputtering power values of 300 W and 400 W, whereas under-stoichiometric films arc obtained when applying 100 W or 200 W. Decreasing the deposition temperature, or in particular the sputtering power, result in higher C and O impurity levels. The resistivity of the films was evaluated by four-point-probe measurements and found to scale with the amount of O impurities in the films. The lowest resistivity value obtained is 130 mu Omega cm, which makes the ZrB2 films interesting as an electrical contact material. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2015
    Keywords
    X-ray diffraction; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Physical vapor deposition processes; Borides
    National Category
    Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122186 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2015.08.012 (DOI)000362014800010 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR) [621 2010-3921]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant) [SFO-Mat-LiU 2009-00971]; VINN Excellence Center Functional Nanoscale Materials (FunMat) [2005-02666]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2011.0143]

    Available from: 2015-10-26 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-01
    4. Hard and elastic epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on Al2O3(0001) substrates deposited by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hard and elastic epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on Al2O3(0001) substrates deposited by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target
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    2016 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 111, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) exhibits high hardness and high melting point, which is beneficial for applications in for e.g. metal cutting. However, there is limited data on the mechanical properties of ZrB2 films and no data on epitaxial films. In this study, ZrB2(0001) thin films, with thicknesses up to 1.2 μm, have been deposited on Al2O3(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the films grow epitaxially with two domain types exhibiting different in-plane epitaxial relationships to the substrate. The out-of-plane epitaxial relationship was determined to ZrB2(0001)|Al2O3(0001) and the in-plane relationships of the two domains to ZrB2[100]‖Al2O3[100] and ZrB2[110]‖Al2O3[100]. Mechanical properties of the films, evaluated by nanoindentation, showed that all films exhibit hardness values above 45 GPa, a reduced Young's modulus in the range 350–400 GPa, and a high elastic recovery of 70% at an applied load of 9000 μN.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Borides, Epitaxial growth, Mechanical properties, Nanoindentation, Sputter deposition
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128612 (URN)10.1016/j.actamat.2016.03.064 (DOI)000375812100018 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2010-3921]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Available from: 2016-05-25 Created: 2016-05-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    5. High-temperature nanoindentation of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-temperature nanoindentation of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films
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    2016 (English)In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 124, p. 117-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We use in-situ heated nanoindentation to investigate the high-temperature nanomechanical properties of epitaxial and textured ZrB2 films deposited by magnetron sputtering. Epitaxial films deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) show a hardness decrease from 47 GPa at room temperature to 33 GPa at 600 °C, while the reduced elastic modulus does not change significantly. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) with selected area electron diffraction of the indented area in a 0001-textured film reveals a retained continuous ZrB2 film and no sign of crystalline phase transformation, despite massive deformation of the Si substrate. HRTEM analysis supports the high elastic recovery of 96% in the films.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    Sputtering; Borides; Ceramic thin film; Nanoindentation; Transmission electron microscopy
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130917 (URN)10.1016/j.scriptamat.2016.06.033 (DOI)000383294200027 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [621-2010-3921]

    Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
    6. ZrB2 thin films deposited on GaN(0001) by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 target
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZrB2 thin films deposited on GaN(0001) by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 target
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    2016 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 453, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 films were deposited on 900 °C-preheated or non-preheated GaN(0001) surfaces by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed a 0001 fiber textured ZrB2 film growth following the formation of a ~2 nm thick amorphous BN layer onto the GaN(0001) at a substrate temperature of 900 °C. The amorphous BN layer remains when the substrate temperature is lowered to 500 °C or when the preheating step is removed from the process and results in the growth of polycrystalline ZrB2 films. The ZrB2 growth phenomena on GaN(0001) is compared to on 4H-SiC(0001), Si(111), and Al2O3(0001) substrates, which yield epitaxial film growth. The decomposition of the GaN surface during vacuum processing during BN interfacial layer formation is found to impede epitaxial growth of ZrB2.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Keywords
    A1. X-ray diffraction; A1. Interfaces; A1. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy; A1. Electron energy loss spectroscopy; A3. Physical vapor deposition processes; B1. Borides
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130920 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2016.08.011 (DOI)000386984000012 ()
    Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
  • 9.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnetron sputtering of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111)2014In: Physica Status Solidi (a), ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, no 3, p. 636-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial ZrB2 thin films were deposited at a temperature of 900 °C on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111) substrates by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 source at high rate ~80 nm/min. The films were analyzed by thin film X-ray diffraction including pole figure measurements and reciprocal space mapping as well as high resolution electron microscopy.

  • 10.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hard and elastic epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on Al2O3(0001) substrates deposited by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target2016In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 111, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) exhibits high hardness and high melting point, which is beneficial for applications in for e.g. metal cutting. However, there is limited data on the mechanical properties of ZrB2 films and no data on epitaxial films. In this study, ZrB2(0001) thin films, with thicknesses up to 1.2 μm, have been deposited on Al2O3(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the films grow epitaxially with two domain types exhibiting different in-plane epitaxial relationships to the substrate. The out-of-plane epitaxial relationship was determined to ZrB2(0001)|Al2O3(0001) and the in-plane relationships of the two domains to ZrB2[100]‖Al2O3[100] and ZrB2[110]‖Al2O3[100]. Mechanical properties of the films, evaluated by nanoindentation, showed that all films exhibit hardness values above 45 GPa, a reduced Young's modulus in the range 350–400 GPa, and a high elastic recovery of 70% at an applied load of 9000 μN.

  • 11.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stoichiometric, epitaxial ZrB2 thin films with low oxygen-content deposited by magnetron sputtering from a compound target: Effects of deposition temperature and sputtering power2015In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 430, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) thin films have been deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. The effect of deposition temperature (500-900 degrees C) and sputtering power (100-400 W) on the composition and structure of the films have been investigated. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that high sputtering power values and high deposition temperatures are favorable to enhance the crystalline order of the epitaxial 0001 oriented films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the composition of the films is near-stoichiometric for all deposition temperatures and for high sputtering power values of 300 W and 400 W, whereas under-stoichiometric films arc obtained when applying 100 W or 200 W. Decreasing the deposition temperature, or in particular the sputtering power, result in higher C and O impurity levels. The resistivity of the films was evaluated by four-point-probe measurements and found to scale with the amount of O impurities in the films. The lowest resistivity value obtained is 130 mu Omega cm, which makes the ZrB2 films interesting as an electrical contact material. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Xun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ZrB2 thin films deposited on GaN(0001) by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 target2016In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 453, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 films were deposited on 900 °C-preheated or non-preheated GaN(0001) surfaces by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed a 0001 fiber textured ZrB2 film growth following the formation of a ~2 nm thick amorphous BN layer onto the GaN(0001) at a substrate temperature of 900 °C. The amorphous BN layer remains when the substrate temperature is lowered to 500 °C or when the preheating step is removed from the process and results in the growth of polycrystalline ZrB2 films. The ZrB2 growth phenomena on GaN(0001) is compared to on 4H-SiC(0001), Si(111), and Al2O3(0001) substrates, which yield epitaxial film growth. The decomposition of the GaN surface during vacuum processing during BN interfacial layer formation is found to impede epitaxial growth of ZrB2.

  • 13.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Direct current magnetron sputtered ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100)2014In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 550, p. 285-290Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 thin films have been synthesized using direct current magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target onto 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100) substrates kept at different temperatures (no heating, 400 °C, and 550 °C), and substrate bias voltage (-20 V to -80 V). Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows that all the films are near stoichiometric and have a low degree of contaminants, with O being the most abundant (< 1 at.%). The films are crystalline, and their crystallographic orientation changes from 0001 to a more random orientation with increased deposition temperature. X-ray diffraction pole figures and selected area electron diffraction patterns of the films deposited without heating reveal a fiber-texture growth. Four point probe measurements show typical resistivity values of the films ranging from ~95 to 200 μΩcm, decreasing with increased growth temperature and substrate bias.

1 - 13 of 13
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