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  • 1.
    Ang, Siew
    et al.
    University of Oklahoma, United States.
    Rodgers, Joseph
    University of Oklahoma, United States.
    Wänström, Linda
    University of Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Flynn Effect within subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, race, income, education, and urbanization differences in the NLSY-Children data2010In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or Digit Span, consistent with past FE research suggesting a closer relationship to fluid intelligence measures of problem solving and analytic reasoning than to crystallized measures of verbal comprehension and memory. These prior findings suggest that the NLSYC data can be used as a natural laboratory to study more subtle FE patterns within various demographic subgroups. We test for subgroup Flynn Effect differences by gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, household income, and urbanization. No subgroups differences emerged for three demographic categories. However, children with more educated (especially college educated) mothers and/or children born into higher income households had an accelerated Flynn Effect in their PIAT-M scores compared to cohort peers with lower educated mothers or lower income households. We interpret both the positive and the null findings in relation to previous theoretical explanations.

  • 2.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gini, Gianluca
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Individual Moral Disengagement and Bullying Among Swedish Fifth Graders: The Role of Collective Moral Disengagement and Pro-Bullying Behavior Within Classrooms2019In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, article id UNSP 0886260519860889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School bullying is a complex social and relational phenomenon with severe consequences for those involved. Most children view bullying as wrong and recognize its harmful consequences; nevertheless, it continues to be a persistent problem within schools. Previous research has shown that childrens engagement in bullying perpetration can be influenced by multiple factors (e.g., different forms of cognitive distortions) and at different ecological levels (e.g., child, peer-group, school, and society). However, the complexity of school bullying warrants further investigation of the interplay between factors, at different levels. Grounded in social cognitive theory, which focuses on both cognitive factors and social processes, this study examined whether childrens bullying perpetration was associated with moral disengagement at the child level and with collective moral disengagement and prevalence of pro-bullying behavior at the classroom level. Cross-level interactions were also tested to examine the effects of classroom-level variables on the association between childrens tendency to morally disengage and bullying perpetration. The studys analyses were based on cross-sectional self-report questionnaire data from 1,577 Swedish fifth-grade children from 105 classrooms (53.5% girls; M-age = 11.3, SD = 0.3). Multilevel modeling techniques were used to analyze the data. The results showed that bullying perpetration was positively associated with moral disengagement at the child level and with collective moral disengagement and pro-bullying behavior at the classroom level. Furthermore, the effect of individual moral disengagement on bullying was stronger for children in classrooms with higher levels of pro-bullying behaviors. These findings further support the argument that both moral processes and behaviors within classrooms, such as collective moral disengagement and pro-bullying behavior, need to be addressed in schools preventive work against bullying.

  • 3.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padua, Italy.
    Mechanisms of Moral Disengagement and their Associations with Indirect Bullying, and Pro-Aggressive Bystander Behavior2019In: Journal of Early Adolescence, ISSN 0272-4316, E-ISSN 1552-5449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the links between seven specific mechanisms of moral disengagement and indirect bullying, direct bullying, and pro-aggressive bystander behavior. In addition, the moderating role of gender on these associations was examined. Participants were 317 Swedish students in Grades 4 to 8 (𝑋⎯⎯⎯age=12.6X¯age=12.6, SD = 1.35; 62% girls). Multivariate multiple regression analyses showed that indirect bullying was predicted by gender and victim attribution. Direct bullying was predicted by moral justification, and for girls, by victim attribution. Pro-aggressive bystander behavior was predicted by diffusion of responsibility, victim attribution, gender, and age. That is, boys and younger students were more prone to take the aggressor’s side compared with girls and older students. Furthermore, the relation between pro-aggressive bystander behavior and distortion of consequences appeared stronger in boys than in girls. These results highlight the relative importance of specific moral disengagement mechanisms and may have implications for interventions targeting bullying.

  • 4.
    Fackle-Fornius, Ellinor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Construction of minimax designs for the trinomial spike model in contingent valuation experiments2013In: mODa 10 – Advances in Model-Oriented Design and Analysis / [ed] Dariusz Ucinski, Anthony C. Atkinson, Maciej Patan, New York: Springer, 2013, p. 63-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns design of contingent valuation experiments when interest is in knowing whether respondents have positive willingness to pay and, if so, if they are willing to pay a certain amount for a specified good. A trinomial spike model is used to model the response. Locally D- and c-optimal designs are derived and it is shown that any locally optimal design can be deduced from the locally optimal design for the case when one of the model parameters is standardized. It is demonstrated how information about the parameters, e.g., from pilot studies, can be used to construct minimax and maximin efficient designs, for which the best guaranteed value of the criterion function or the efficiency function is sought under the assumption that the parameter values are within certain regions. The proposed methodology is illustrated on an application where the value of the environmentally friendly production of clothes is evaluated.

  • 5.
    Fackle-Fornius, Ellinor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Minimax D-optimal designs of contingent valuation experiments: willingness to pay for environmentally friendly clothes2014In: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 895-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper demonstrates how to plan a contingent valuation experiment to assess the value of ecologically produced clothes. First, an appropriate statistical model (the trinomial spike model) that describes the probability that a randomly selected individual will accept any positive bid, and if so, will accept the bid A, is defined. Secondly, an optimization criterion that is a function of the variances of the parameter estimators is chosen. However, the variances of the parameter estimators in this model depend on the true parameter values. Pilot study data are therefore used to obtain estimates of the parameter values and a locally optimal design is found. Because this design is only optimal given that the estimated parameter values are correct, a design that minimizes the maximum of the criterion function over a plausable parameter region (i.e. a minimax design) is then found.

  • 6.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Corovic, Jelena
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Midlife Outcomes of Educationally Underachieving Swedish Adolescents With Above Average Generalized Intelligence2014In: RESEARCH IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, ISSN 1542-7609, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 217-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some people will follow a different educational path despite having the intellectual ability to do well in school. This study explored how educational achievers and underachievers were different from each other in middle adulthood as well as examined which individual and contextual factors in adolescence were important to educational underachievement in middle adulthood. Participants are a school cohort followed from age 10 to middle adulthood (N = 1,326) and are from the Swedish longitudinal research program entitled Individual Development and Adaptation. This study focuses on a subgroup of Individual Development and Adaptation participants (n = 304) with above average intelligence (Mean IQ = 119.39, SD = 5.97). Study findings showed that a minority of adolescents in the study focal group (26%) did not complete high school, and women were more likely to educationally underachieve than men. A simultaneous multilevel logistic regression, with school class accounted for in the analysis, showed that for those of above average intelligence parents socioeconomic status and school grades were the strongest predictors of educational attainment. Finally, in midlife, underachievers had lower incomes and occupational levels, drank less frequently, and rated their health as worse than achievers. Study implications are discussed in terms of ways to advance the field of gifted underachievement and in relation to Swedish gifted educational policy.

  • 7.
    Ghilagaber, Gebrenegus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Adjusting for selection bias in assessing the relationship between sibship size and cognitive performance2015In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), ISSN 0964-1998, E-ISSN 1467-985X, Vol. 178, no 4, p. 925-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistent negative correlations between sibship size and cognitive performance (as measured by intelligence quotient and other mental aptitude tests) have been observed in past empirical studies. However, parental decisions on family size may correlate with variables affecting child cognitive performance. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how selection bias in studies of sibship size effects can be adjusted for. We extend existing knowledge in two aspects: as factors affecting decisions to increase family size may vary across the number and composition of current family size, we propose a sequential probit model (as opposed to binary or ordered models) for the propensity to increase family size; to disentangle selection and causality we propose multilevel multiprocess modelling where a continuous model for performance is estimated jointly with a sequential probit model for family size decisions. This allows us to estimate and adjust for the correlation between unmeasured heterogeneity affecting both family size decisions and child cognitive performance. The issues are illustrated through analyses of scores on Peabody individual achievement tests among children of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. We find substantial between-family heterogeneity in the propensity to increase family size. Ignoring such selection led to overestimation of the negative effects of sibship size on cognitive performance for families with 1-3 children, when known sources of selection were accounted for. However, the multiprocess modelling proposed could efficiently identify and control for such bias due to adverse selection.

  • 8.
    Rodgers, Joseph
    et al.
    University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA.
    Wänström, Linda
    University of Oklahoma, Norman, USA.
    Identification of a flynn effect in the NLSY: Moving from the center to the boundaries2007In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 187-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Flynn Effect [Flynn, J.R. (1984). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin 95, 29–51.] is an increase in IQ of around .33 points per year, observed in developed (and some developing) countries during the past century. It emerges from problem solving and other non-verbal components of IQ. The cause has been argued and theories proposed. Rodgers [Rodgers, J.L. (1998). A critique of the Flynn Effect: Massive IQ gains, methodological artifacts, or both? Intelligence 26, 337–356.] noted that the search for causes has preceded specification of the nature of the effect. Our study uses a national sample of U.S. children to test for the Flynn Effect in PIAT-Math, PIAT-Reading Recognition, PIAT-Reading Comprehension, Digit Span, and PPVT. An effect of the predicted magnitude was observed for PIAT-Math when maternal IQ was controlled. This finding in a large representative sample with thousands of variables supports more careful evaluation of the Flynn Effect, in demographic, geographic, environmental, and biological domains.

  • 9.
    Sjögren, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padova.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Associations between bystanders’ reactions to peer victimization and student-teacher relationship quality, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy: A structural equation approach2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Sjögren, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Walid Alsaadi, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bjärehed, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The role of moral disengagement, self-efficacy, and class climate in bystander behavior in bullying situations: a multivariate analysis2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bullying and its association with altruism toward victims, blaming the victims, and classroom prevalence of bystander behaviors: a multilevel analysis2018In: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1133-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With reference to social-ecological, self-determination, attributional, and social cognitive theories, the current study examined whether gender, age, altruistic motivation to defend victims, and tendency to blame the victims, at the individual level, and the prevalence of reinforcing and defending, at the classroom level, were associated with bullying. A sample of 901 Swedish students (9-13years old, M=11.00, SD=.83) from 43 classrooms filled out a questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that the perpetration of bullying was positively associated with the prevalence of reinforcing at the classroom level and blaming the victims at the individual level, whereas it was negatively associated with altruistic motivation to defend victims of bullying at the individual level. Furthermore, students with high altruistic motivation to defend victims of bullying were less inclined to bully, independent of the classroom level of reinforcing. The current study suggests that bullying prevention and intervention programs should: explicitly target bystander behaviors, in particular to reduce the prevalence of reinforcing bullying; include efforts to strengthen altruistic self-concept and motivation to defend victims; and prevent, challenge, and counteract tendencies among students to blame the victim.

  • 12.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The role of class climate and class moral disengagement in peer victimization among pre-adolescents2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    Wayne State University, USA; Sungkyunkwan University, South Korea.
    Espelage, Dorothy
    University of Florida, USA.
    Classroom relationship qualities and social-cognitive correlates of defending and passive bystanding in school bullying in Sweden: A multilevel analysis2017In: Journal of School Psychology, ISSN 0022-4405, E-ISSN 1873-3506, Vol. 63, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the social-ecological and social cognitive theories as integrated guiding frameworks, the present study examined whether moral disengagement and defender self-efficacy at the individual level, and moral disengagement, quality of teacher–student relationships and quality of student–student relationships at the classroom level were associated with passive bystanding and defending in bullying situations. Participants were 900 Swedish students from 43 classrooms, ranging in age from 9 to 13 years. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that passive reactions by bystanders were associated with greater moral disengagement and less defender self-efficacy. Defending, in turn, was associated with less moral disengagement and greater defender self-efficacy and classroom student–student relationship quality. Furthermore, students who scored high in moral disengagement were even less prone to defend victims when the classroom student–student relationship quality was low, but more prone to act as defenders when the classroom student–student relationship quality was high. In addition, the negative association between defender self-efficacy and passive bystanding was stronger both in classrooms with higher student–student relationship quality and in those with lower class moral disengagement. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  • 14.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hymel, Shelley
    Univ British Columbia, Canada.
    Individual and Classroom Social-Cognitive Processes in Bullying: A Short-Term Longitudinal Multilevel Study2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether individual and classroom collective social-cognitive processes (moral disengagement and self-efficacy) were associated with bullying perpetration among schoolchildren. An additional aim was to examine whether changes in these processes from grade 4 (Time 1) to grade 5 (Time 2) were associated with a change in bullying perpetration. Self-reported survey data were collected from 1,250 Swedish students from 98 classrooms. Results of multilevel analysis indicated that individual and classroom collective moral disengagement (CMD) were positively associated with bullying, and defender self-efficacy (DSE) was negatively associated with bullying. The effect of changes in individual moral disengagement on changes in bullying was positive, and the effects of changes in DSE and classroom collective efficacy on changes in bullying were negative. Thus, the findings demonstrate the changeability of moral disengagement, DSE and collective efficacy over time, and how these changes are linked to changes in bullying perpetration.

  • 15.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Authoritative classroom climate and its relations to bullying victimization and bystander behaviors2018In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 663-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Authoritative school climates have been associated with less school bullying and other antisocial behaviors. However, studies focusing on the classroom level, as well as on bystander behaviors, are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine whether authoritative classroom climates were associated with bullying victimization and various bystander behaviors (reinforcer, outsider, and defender behaviors) in school bullying. We included gender as a covariate at the individual and classroom levels. Participants were 1540 5th-grade students (824 girls) from 104 classrooms in Sweden who completed a questionnaire. The findings revealed that girls and students in classes with greater authoritative classroom climates were more inclined to defend. Boys reinforced more as did students in classes with more boys and more authoritative classroom climates. Boys showed more outsider behaviors as did students in classes with less authoritative classroom climates. Students in classrooms with less authoritative climates were victimized to a higher degree. Thus, the current findings suggest that a warm, caring, supportive, controlled, demanding, and cohesive classroom climate should be considered a vital protective factor against bullying victimization and negative bystander responses, and a facilitator of defending and supporting victims.

  • 16.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    Peer victimisation and its relation to class relational climate and class moral disengagement2017In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 524-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether class climate and class moral disengagement each contribute to explain different levels of victimisation among classes. Eight-hundred-and-ninety-nine children from 43 Swedish elementary school classes participated in the current study. Class moral disengagement, class relational climate and peer victimisation were assessed by a self-report questionnaire. In order to account for the clustered nature of the data with students nested within school classes, a multilevel regression model was analysed. Consistent with our hypotheses, and after controlling for age, gender and ethnic background at the individual level and class size and the proportion of boys at the class level, both class relational climate and class moral disengagement uniquely contributed to explaining the between-class variance in victimisation. Thus, the findings suggested that victimisation is less likely to occur in classes characterised by a positive, warm, fair and supportive relational pattern between children and between teachers and children, and by lower levels of class moral disengagement.

  • 17.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    The social climate and moral disengagement in school classes and their associations with peer victimization2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    Department of Development and Social Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Gianluca, Gini
    Department of Development and Social Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Victim prevalence in bullying and its association with teacher–student and student–student relationships and class moral disengagement: A class-level path analysis2018In: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 320-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to test whether teacher–student relationship (TSR) quality and student–student relationship (SSR) quality at class level and class moral disengagement (CMD), considered together in a single model, were related to class prevalence of victims (CPV) of bullying. A sample of 899 Swedish children was recruited from 43 elementary school classes. The participants filled out a questionnaire. Because the focus of the present study was on class behaviours, all analyses were conducted on aggregated class-level data. A path analysis revealed that the prevalence of victims was likely to be lower in classes with more positive teacher–student and SSRs and lower levels of CMD. TSR quality was not directly linked to CPV, but indirectly through its direct association with SSR quality. SSR quality was negatively associated with CMD and both were directly related to CPV. Results suggest that caring, supportive and warm SSRs in the class should be considered as a crucial protective factor against bullying victimisation. Further, the findings suggest that CMD has to be addressed in bullying prevention.

  • 19.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padova.
    Gini, Gianluca
    University of Padova.
    Between-class variation in the prevalence of bullying victimization: What's the role of class moral disengagement and quality of teacher–student and student–student relationships2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    University of Padua, Padova, Italy.
    Hong, Jun Sung
    Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA; Sungkyunkwan University, Jongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
    Moral Disengagement and School Bullying Perpetration in Middle Childhood: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study in Sweden2019In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 585-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study was to longitudinally investigate the bi-directional relationship between moral disengagement and bullying perpetration in a sample of 1,354 students from 108 elementary classes in 69 public schools. Students participated in the study both at Time 1 (fourth grade) and around one year later at Time 2 (fifth grade). Structural equation model analyses showed that bullying perpetration at Time 1 predicted moral disengagement at Time 2, when controlling for moral disengagement stability over time. In addition, we found that moral disengagement at Time 1 also predicted bullying perpetration at Time 2, when controlling for bullying perpetration at Time 1. These findings suggest that teachers, school staff, and professionals should consider interventions that address moral disengagement when working with children involved in bullying.

  • 21.
    Wänström, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Martin
    Forskarskolan offentlig verksamhet i utveckling, Örebro universitet.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Riskfyllda beslut?: Skolnedläggelsers avtryck i kommunala valresultat2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I diskussioner med kommunföreträdare framkommer ofta berättelser och farhågor kopplade till kommunala skolnedläggelser. Det finns en allmän uppfattning om att skolnedläggelser ofta utvecklas till besvärliga situationer som inte sällan påverkar det styrande partiets resultat negativt i det efterkommande valet till kommunfullmäktige.

    Vi har därför studerat valresultaten från valen till kommunfullmäktige 2006 och 2010 i 46 av det Nationella kommunforskningsprogrammets 47 medlemskommuner (Stockholm är inte med i materialet). Vi har jämfört valresultaten för det styrande partiet (det parti som innehar kommunstyrelseordförandeposten) samt det största oppositionspartiet i de kommuner som lagt ner åtminstone en grundskola under de aktuella mandatperioderna med valresultaten i de kommuner som inte har lagt ner några grundskolor.

    De genomsnittliga förändringarna i valresultaten i de kommuner som lagt ner skolor skiljer sig inte från de kommuner som inte lagt ner någon skola. Det finns heller inga statistiska belägg i studien för att det spelar någon roll om beslut om skolnedläggelser fattas tidigt eller sent under en mandatperiod; om skolan ligger i tätort eller på landsbygden; om kommunen är stor eller liten samt om det är en eller flera skolor som läggs ner.

    Trots att det är betydligt vanligare att socialdemokratiska styren tar beslut om skolnedläggelser än borgerliga styren finns det heller inget som tyder på att partifärgen spelar någon roll för relation mellan beslut om nedläggelse och valresultat. De här slutsatserna avspeglas även i att andelen maktskiften t. o. m. är lägre i kommuner som lagt ner skolor än i de som inte lagt ner några skolor.

    Istället stödjer studien tidigare forskning som pekar på att förändringar i nationella väljaropinioner, såsom uttryckt i resultaten i riksdagsvalet, har stor påverkan på valen till kommunfullmäktigen samt att enskilda sakfrågor från den gångna mandatperioden sällan gör några stora avtryck i de efterkommande valresultaten.

  • 22.
    Wänström, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sample sizes for two-group second-order latent growth curve models2009In: Multivariate Behavioral Research, ISSN 0027-3171, E-ISSN 1532-7906, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 588-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Second-order latent growth curve models (S. C. Duncan & Duncan, 1996 Duncan, S. C. and Duncan, T. E. 1996. A multivariate growth curve analysis of adolescent substance use.. Structural Equation Modeling, 3: 323–347.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]; McArdle, 1988 McArdle, J. J. 1988. “Dynamic but structural equation modeling of repeated measures data.”. In Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology, , 2nd ed. Edited by: Cattell, R. B. and Nesselroade, J. 564–614. New York: Plenum..[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]) can be used to study group differences in change in latent constructs. We give exact formulas for the covariance matrix of the parameter estimates and an algebraic expression for the estimation of slope differences. Formulas for calculations of the required sample size are presented, illustrated, and discussed. They are checked by Monte Carlo simulations in Mplus and also by Satorra and Saris's (1985) Satorra, A. and Saris, W. E. 1985. The power of the likelihood ratio test in covariance structure analysis.. Psychometrika, 50: 83–90.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar] power approximation techniques for small and medium effect sizes (Cohen, 1988 Cohen, J. 1988. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.. [Google Scholar]). Results are similar across methods. Not surprisingly, sample sizes decrease with effect sizes, indicator reliabilities, number of indicators, frequency of observation, and duration of study. The relative importance of these factors is also discussed, alone and in combination. The use of the sample size formula is illustrated using a modification of empirical results from Stoel, Peetsma, and Roeleveld (2003)

  • 23.
    Wänström, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pozzoli, Tiziana
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Gini, Gianluca
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Walid Alsaadi, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Perceived collective efficacy to stop aggression at school: A validation of an Italian and a Swedish version of a scale for adolescents2019In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 349-361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collective efficacy to stop peer aggression in the school context refers to adolescents beliefs about the capability of students and teachers in their school to work together to counteract aggressive behaviours among peers. This study presents the Italian and Swedish versions of a recently developed scale to measure the construct. Factorial structure and measurement invariance of the scale were assessed in two samples of adolescents aged 10-15 years. The findings support both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional scale across gender and countries, demonstrating the importance of making distinctions between different forms of aggression when measuring collective efficacy to stop aggression. A one-dimensional scale was only supported in the Swedish sample. The results support the use of the Collective Efficacy to Stop Aggression scale with both Italian and Swedish adolescents.

  • 24.
    Wänström, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wegmann, Bertil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of sibship size on intelligence, school performance and adult income: Some evidence from Swedish data2017In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effects of child sibship size on intelligence, school performance and adult income for a sample of Swedish school children (n = 1326). These children were measured in grade three in 1965 (age 10) and in grades six (age 13) and nine (age 16), and the women and men were later followed up in adulthood at ages 43 and 47, respectively. Using Bayesian varying-intercept modeling we account for differences between school classes in each of our three response variables: IQ-scores, school grades and adult income, and control for background variables such as gender, socioeconomic status, and maternal- and paternal age. Consistent with previous research, we find patterns of decreasing IQ scores for increasing sibship sizes, specifically for an increasing number of older siblings. No relationships between sibship size and childrens school grades are found. We find, however, patterns of decreasing adult income for an increasing number of younger siblings. In addition, considerable amounts of variations in intelligence scores as well as school grades are found between school classes. Some implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are provided. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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