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  • 1.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh , Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Assessment of the natural gas potential for heat and power generation in the County of Ostergotland in Sweden2009In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 496-506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of natural gas for heat and power production for the municipality of Linkoping, Norrkoping and Finspang in the County of Ostergotland, Sweden.

    The results of the study revealed that these three municipalities with the present heating demand can convert 2030 GWh/year of the present fuel mixed to natural gas. The expansion of natural gas provides the possibility to increase the electricity generation with approximately 800 GWh annually in the County of Ostergotland. The global emissions of CO2 reduce also by approximately 490 ktonne/year by assuming the coal condensing power plant as the marginal power plant. The total system cost decreases by 76 Mkr/year with the present electricity price which varies between 432 and 173 SEK/MWh and with 248 Mkr/year if the present electricity price increases to 37% which is approximately corresponding to European electricity prices.

    Sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the different factors such as price of electricity, natural gas, etc. The findings show that increased price of electricity and increased district heating demand increases the profitability to convert to natural gas using CHP plant.

  • 2.
    Bohlin, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Henning, Dag
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Energisystemanalys Ulricehamn2004Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Borén, Sven
    et al.
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Nurhadi, Lisiana
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Ny, Henrik
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Robért, Karl-Henrik
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, Blekinge Institute of Technology, 37179 Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development – part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. In the first paper of this tandem publication, the authors propose a new generic process model embedding the Framework of Strategic Sustainable Development. The purpose of applying it in an action-research mode as described in this paper was twofold: (i) to develop a vision for sustainable regional transport and a coarse roadmap towards that vision, and, while doing so, (ii) get additional empirical experiences to inform the development of the new generic process model. Experts from many sectors and organizations involved in the GreenCharge project provided vital information and reviewed all planning perspectives presented in Paper 1 in two sequential multi-stakeholder seminars. The results include a sustainable vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden within a sustainable regional transport system within a sustainable global society, as well as an initial development plan towards such a vision for the transport sector. The vision is framed by the universal sustainability principles, and the development plan is informed by the strategic guidelines, of the above-mentioned framework. Among other things, the vision and plan imply a shift to renewable energy and a more optimized use of areas and thus a new type of spatial planning. For example, the vision and plan implies a lower built-in demand for transport, more integrated traffic modes, and more multi-functional use of areas for energy and transport infrastructures, for example. Some inherent benefits of electric vehicles are highlighted in the vision and plan, including near-zero local emissions and flexibility as regards primary energy sources. The vision and plan also imply improved governance for more effective cross-sector collaboration to ensure coordinated development within the transport sector and between the transportation sector and other relevant sectors. Meanwhile, the new generic process model was refined and is ready to be applied and further tested in the GreenCharge project and in other projects within the transport sector as well as other sectors. The study confirmed that the new generic process model suggested in support of sustainable transport system and community development is helpful for giving diverse stakeholders, with various specialties and perspectives, a way of working that is goal-oriented and builds on effective, iterative learning loops and co-creation.

  • 4.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bennstam, Marcus
    Tekniska Verken Linköping AB.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordenstam, Lena
    Tekniska Verken Linköping AB.
    Energy conservation measures in buildings heated by district heating - A local energy system perspective2010In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 3194-3203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive energy use in the European building sector creates opportunities for implementing energy conservation measures (ECMs) in residential buildings. If ECM are implemented in buildings that are connected to a district heating (DH) system, the operation of DH plants may be affected, which in turn may change both revenue and electricity production in cogeneration plants. In this study a local energy system, containing a DH supplier and its customer, has been analysed when implementing three ECMs: heat load control, attic insulation and electricity savings. This study is unique since it analyses economic and CO2 impacts of the ECMs in both a user and a supplier perspective in combination with a deregulated European electricity market. Results show that for the local energy system electricity savings should be prioritised over a reduction in DH use, both from an economic and a global CO2 perspective. For the DH supplier attic insulation demonstrates unprofitable results, even though this measure affects the expensive peak load boilers most. Heat load control is however financially beneficial for both the DH supplier and the residences. Furthermore, the relation between the fixed and variable DH costs is highlighted as a key factor for the profitability of the ECMs.

  • 5.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danestig, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Increased use of district heating in industrial processes - Impacts on heat load duration2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 11, p. 2327-2334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current knowledge of the potential for an increased use of industrial district heating (DH) due to conversions of industrial processes to DH is limited. In this paper, a Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) for exploring industrial DH conversions has been developed. This method can be a helpful tool for analyzing the impact different industrial processes have on the local DH system, when processes that utilize electricity and other fuels, convert to utilizing DH instead. Heat loads for different types of industries and processes are analyzed according to characteristics such as temperature levels and time dependency. MeHLA has been used to analyze 34 Swedish industries and the method demonstrates how conversion of industrial processes to DH can result in heat load duration curves that are less outdoor temperature-dependent and more evenly distributed over the year. An evenly distributed heat load curve can result in increased annual operating time for base load DH plants such as cogeneration plants, leading to increased electricity generation. In addition to the positive effects for the DH load duration curve, the conversions to DH can also lead to an 11% reduction in the use of electricity, a 40% reduction in the use of fossil fuels and a total energy end-use saving of 6% in the industries. Converting the industrial processes to DH will also lead to a potential reduction of the global carbon dioxide emissions by 112,000 tonnes per year.

  • 6.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg , Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pricing district heating by marginal cost2009In: ENERGY POLICY, ISSN 0301-4215 , Vol. 37, no 2, p. 606-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vital measure for industries when redirecting the energy systems towards sustainability is conversion from electricity to district heating (DH). This conversion can be achieved for example, by replacing electrical heating with DH and compression cooling with heat-driven absorption cooling. Conversion to DH must, however, always be an economically attractive choice for an industry. In this paper the effects for industries and the local DH supplier are analysed when pricing DH by marginal cost in combination with industrial energy efficiency measures. Energy audits have shown that the analysed industries can reduce their annual electricity use by 30% and increase the use of DH by 56%. When marginal costs are applied as DH tariffs and the industrial energy efficiency measures are implemented, the industrial energy costs can be reduced by 17%. When implementing the industrial energy efficiency measures and also considering a utility investment in the local energy system, the local DH supplier has a potential to reduce the total energy system cost by 1.6 million EUR. Global carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced by 25,000 tonnes if the industrial energy efficiency measures are implemented and when coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal electricity source.

  • 7.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 637-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO2 emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WE), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives - short-term and medium-term - and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO2 emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments.

  • 8.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol can be produced with little impact on the environment through the use of polygeneration technology. This paper evaluates the potential of integrating a lignocellulosic ethanol plant into a district heating system by case study; the plant has an ethanol capacity of 95 MW with biogas. electricity and heat as by-products. Stockholms district heating system is used as the case study, but the results may be relevant also for other urban areas. The system has been studied using MODEST - an optimisation model framework. The results show that introducing the plant would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of heat production. The income from the biofuels and electricity produced would be about (sic)76 million and (sic)130 million annually, respectively, which is an increase of 70% compared to the income from the electricity produced in the system today. Assuming that the electricity produced will replace marginal electricity on the European electricity market and that the biofuel produced will replace gasoline in the transport sector, the introduction of the polygeneration plant in the district heating system would lead to a reduction of global CO(2) emissions of about 0.7 million tonnes annually.

  • 9.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well.

    In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced.

    Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

    The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%.

  • 10.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied.

    Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer–Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

  • 11.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, p. 552-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass.

  • 12.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 87, p. 305-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse the possibilities of converting production and support processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 manufacturing companies in three different Swedish counties. A tool for heat load analysis called Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) is used to explore how the conversions would affect the heat load duration curves in local district heating systems. Economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases are studied from a system perspective. The study has been conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030.

    The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. When comparing all three counties, the greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase by nine times (from 5 GWh to 45 GWh annually). The industrial district heating use could increase by two times (from 84 GWh to 168 GWh annually) in Östergötland and by four times (from 14 GWh to 58 GWh annually) in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to a district heating demand curve which is less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the combined heat and power plants would be prolonged, which would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production.

    In all analysed counties, the energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. The potential for the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass and on the type of the marginal electricity producers. When the marginal effects from biomass use are not considered, the greenhouse gas emissions reduction is between 10 thousand tonnes of CO2eq and 58 thousand tonnes of CO2eq per year, depending on the county and the type of marginal electricity production plants. The highest reduction is achieved in Östergötland. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating systems may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. If this assumption is included in the calculations, the conversion of the industrial processes to district heating still signify a  potential for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but this potential is considerable lower.

  • 13.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Introducing of absorption cooling process in CHP systems: an opportunity for reduction of global CO2 emissions2011In: Proceedings of ECOS 2011 - 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 2011, p. 3105-3116Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research study is to examine the potential for reduction of global CO2 emissions (GECO2) by converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in Stockholm’s district cooling (DC) system and in Stockholm’s industrial sector. The analysis of the cooling production is made through optimizations in MODEST, a model framework developed for analysis of dynamic energy systems. The results show that more than 95% of the cooling demand that is currently met by compression chillers during the months from April to October should be produced by district heat (DH)-driven absorption cooling chillers in order to lower GECO2. As a consequence of this conversion, the utilization time of the combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Stockholm’s district heating (DH) system would be prolonged and at the same time the electricity used for compression cooling production would be reduced. Assuming coal condensing production as the marginal electricity production in the common electricity market and considering both the increase in electricity production and the reduction in electricity used, the potential for the reduction of GECO2 would be about 0.15 million tonnes annually. Rising cooling demand would make the introduction of absorption technology in the system even more interesting. If the comfort cooling demand in the region increases by 30%, electricity production in the system during the summer would be about 70% higher, which would lead to a reduction of GECO2 by 0.2 million tonnes annually compared with GECO2 today.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    et al.
    Chalmers, Göteborg.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindmark, Susanne
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, Stockholm.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Förändrade randvillkor för kommunala energisystem: påverkan och effekter2003Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Fahlen, Elsa
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ahlgren, Erik O
    Chalmers, Sweden .
    Assessment of absorption cooling as a district heating system strategy - A case study2012In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 60, no SI, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat load variations, daily as well as seasonal, are constraining co-generation of high-value energy products as well as excess heat utilisation. Integration of heat-driven absorption cooling (AC) technology in a district heating and cooling (DHC) system raises the district heat (DH) demand during low-demand periods and may thus contribute to a more efficient resource utilisation. In Sweden, AC expansion is a potentially interesting option since the cooling demand is rapidly increasing, albeit from low levels, and DH systems cover most of the areas with potential cooling demand. This study aims to assess the potential for cost and CO2 emission reduction due to expansion of DH-driven AC instead of electricity-driven compression cooling in the DHC system of Goteborg, characterised by a high share of low-cost excess heat sources. The DHC production is simulated on an hourly basis using the least-cost model MARTES. Despite recent advances of compression chillers, the results show potential for cost-effective CO2 emission reduction by AC expansion, which is robust with regards to the different scenarios applied of energy market prices and policies. While the effects on annual DHC system results are minor, the study illustrates that an increased cooling demand may be met by generation associated with low or even negative net CO2 emissions - as long as there is high availability of industrial excess heat in the DHC system, or if e.g. new biomass-based combined heat and power capacity is installed, due to the avoided and replaced marginal power generation.

  • 16.
    Fuller, Robert
    et al.
    School of Architecture and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong,Australia.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Six million in Melbourne or a network of sustainablemidi-cities? – a thought experiment2013In: Six million in Melbourne or a network of sustainablemidi-cities? – a thought experiment, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By 2050, it is projected that Melbourne will have a population of between 5.6 and 6.4 million (DPCD, 2012), an increase of nearly 50% above its current level. Despite Melbourne's status as the world's most liveable city, a recent survey found that Australians in general found smaller cities are better places to live and bring up families (Perkins, 2013). The Grattan Institute's report entitled "The Cities We Need" was "an invitation to a conversation" about our future cities (Kelly, 2010:5). One idea not canvassed in the report was that of decentralization to accommodate Melbourne's projected growth. In its discussion paper, "Let's Talk about the Future", the Victorian State Government proposes that Melbourne become a 'polycentric city' linked to its regional cities (DPCD, 2012). While growth in the present regional cities is acknowledged, the possibility that these and other new regional cities could absorb the future population projected for Melbourne is not considered, nor that these regional cities could be transformed into 'sustainable cities'. This paper explores the idea that a network of smaller 'midi-cities, based on the sustainable city concept of Sweden, might provide a better alternative to concentrated growth in one city. Fifteen new cities of 150,000 would be required to absorb the projected extra 2.3 million Victorian residents. The paper analyses the energy, food, water and land requirements of a typical sustainable city. The new cities would require approximately 12% of the State's land area for food and energy supply, as well as the built environment.             

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Gavle Energi AB, Sweden; University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Ronnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Bjorn
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    CO2 emission evaluation of energy conserving measures in buildings connected to a district heating system - Case study of a multi-dwelling building in Sweden2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, p. 341-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When taking action to fulfill the directives from the European Union, energy conserving measures will be implemented in the building sector. If buildings are connected to district heating systems, a reduced heat demand will influence the electricity production if the reduced heat demand is covered by combined heat and power plants. This study analyze five different energy conserving measures in a multi-dwelling building regarding how they affect the marginal production units in the district heating system in Gavle, Sweden. For CO2 emission evaluations, two different combinations of heat and electricity conserving measures are compared to an installation of an exhaust air heat pump. The different energy conserving measures affect the district heating system in different ways. The results show that installing an exhaust air heat pump affects the use/production of electricity in the district heating system most and electricity conserving measures result in reduced use of electricity in the building, reduced use of electricity for production of heat in the district heating system and an increase of electricity production. The conclusion is that electricity use in the building is the most important factor to consider when energy conserving measures are introduced in buildings within the district heating system in Gavle. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thygesen, Richard
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bjorn
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions-An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Unions Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the energy efficiency goal for buildings is set in terms of primary energy use. In the proposal from the National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, for nearly zero energy buildings in Sweden, the use of primary energy is expressed as a primary energy number calculated with given primary energy factors. In this article, a multi-dwelling building is simulated and the difference in the primary energy number is investigated when the building uses heat from district heating systems or from heat pumps, alone or combined with solar thermal or solar photovoltaic systems. It is also investigated how the global CO2 emissions are influenced by the different energy system combinations and with different fuels used. It is concluded that the calculated primary energy number is lower for heat pump systems, but the global CO2 emissions are lowest when district heating uses mostly biofuels and is combined with solar PV systems. The difference is up to 140 tonnes/year. If the aim with the Swedish building code is to decrease the global CO2 emissions then the ratio between the primary energy factors for electricity and heat should be larger than three and considerably higher than today.

  • 19.
    Henning, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Energisystemanalys Örnsköldsvik2004Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Henning, Dag
    et al.
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 2330-2350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased energy use is crucial for achieving sustainable energy solutions. This paper presents current and possible future electricity use in Swedish industry. Non-heavy lines of business (e.g. food, vehicles) that use one-third of the electricity in Swedish industry are analysed in detail. Most electricity is used in the support processes pumping and ventilation, and manufacturing by decomposition. Energy conservation can take place through e.g. more efficient light fittings and switching off ventilation during night and weekends. By energy-carrier switching, electricity used for heat production is replaced by e.g. fuel. Taking technically possible demand-side measures in the whole lines of business, according to energy audits in a set of factories, means a 35% demand reduction. A systems analysis of power production, trade, demand and conservation was made using the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which uses linear programming and considers the time-dependent impact on demand for days, weeks and seasons. Electricity that is replaced by district heating from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant has a dual impact on the electricity system through reduced demand and increased electricity generation. Reduced electricity consumption and enhanced cogeneration in Sweden enables increased electricity export, which displaces coal-fired condensing plants in the European electricity market and helps to reduce European CO2 emissions. Within the European emission trading system, those electricity conservation measures should be taken that are more cost-efficient than other ways of reducing CO2 emissions. The demand-side measures turn net electricity imports into net export and reduce annual operation costs and net CO2 emissions due to covering Swedish electricity demand by 200 million euros and 6 Mtonne, respectively. With estimated electricity conservation in the whole of Swedish industry, net electricity exports would be larger and net CO2 emissions would be even smaller.

  • 21.
    Henning, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhanced biofuel utilisation in Swedish industries, buildings and district heating2006In: the World Bioenergy 2006 Conference and exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Jönköping, Sweden, 30 may – 1 June, 2006, p. 198-203Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Henning, Dag
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Socio-technical analyses of energy supply and use in three Swedish municipalities striving toward sustainability2005In: Proceeding of the 1st VHU Conference on Science for Sustainable Development, Västerås, Sweden, 14-16 April, 2005, p. 133–142-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Levy Franca, Cesar
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Robert, Karl-Henrik
    Blekinge Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Basile, George
    Arizona State University, AZ USA.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An approach to business model innovation and design for strategic sustainable development2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 155-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Successful business is increasingly about understanding the challenges and opportunities linked to societys transition towards sustainability and, e.g., being able to innovate, design and build business models that are functional in this context. However, current business model innovation and design generally fails to sufficiently embrace the sustainability dimension. Typically, the business case of sustainability is not understood profoundly enough; the planning horizon and system scope are insufficient; the competence to bring together people into systematic ventures towards sustainable business is too low. A unifying framework for sustainability analyses, planning, cross-disciplinary and cross-sector cooperation, and cohesive use of the myriad sustainability tools, methods and concepts has been developed: the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD). Similarly, a generic approach to business model design has been put forward: the Business Model Canvas (BMC). In this paper we explore how the FSSD could inform business model innovation and design by combining it with the BMC and supplementary tools, methods and concepts such as creativity techniques, value network mapping, life-cycle assessment, and product-service systems. The results show that the FSSD-BMC combination can support business model innovation and design for strategic sustainable development, as well as strengthen each supplementary tool, method and concept in its own primary purpose. We apply the combined approach, for the purpose of initial testing and presentation, to a real case of business model evolution. Based on our findings we propose a new approach to business model innovation and design for strategic sustainable development. The new approach facilitates, e.g., business scalability and risk avoidance and clarifies the interplay between classical business model development and strategic sustainability thinking. The new approach highlights the opportunity for novel business model design for future sustainable success. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Lidberg, T.
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Dalarna University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, T.
    Dalarna University, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems2017In: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY (ICAE2016), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 105, p. 1719-1724Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the differences in primary energy (PE) use of a multi-family building refurbished with different refurbishment packages situated in different district heating systems (DHS). Four models of typical DHS are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. The refurbishment packages are chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency of a representative multi-family building in Sweden. The study was made from a broad system perspective, including valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in PE savings for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of DHS. Also, the package giving the lowest specific energy use per m(2) was not the one which saved the most PE. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 25.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442;1873-6785, Vol. 106, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration.

    This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases.

    The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used.

    When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures.

  • 26.
    Lund, Rasmus
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Socioeconomic potential for introducing large-scale heat pumps in district heating in Denmark2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Denmark has a national political goal of a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050. This requires a comprehensive transition of the energy system. For some decades, district heating in Denmark has been contributing to high fuel efficiency as well as to the integration of the electricity and heating sectors. Large-scale compression heat pumps would improve the integration between the district heating and power sectors by utilising the fluctuations in the supply from wind power, solar photo voltaic and other sources. Previous studies indicate that the introduction of heat pumps in Denmark will have a positive impact on the total costs for energy supply in the transition towards 100% renewable energy. In this paper, this is further investigated to assess the feasibility of heat pumps in the Danish energy system. The assessment is made by applying two different energy system analysis tools, named EnergyPLAN and MODEST. The comparison and discussion of these tools is a secondary purpose of the study. In general, the results show a potential for introducing heat pumps in Denmark between 2 and 4 GW-thermal power and a total potential benefit around 100 M(sic)/year in 2025. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-07-25 14:11
  • 27.
    Nordenstam, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekniska Verken Linköping AB Publ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Bennstam, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Tekniska Verken Linköping AB Publ, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Considering investment resources when assessing potential CO2 reductions of CHP - a case study2017In: 15TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING (DHC15-2016), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 116, p. 273-284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combined heat and power (CHP) can increase electricity production efficiency and decrease global CO2 emissions. Studies have shown large unrealised economic CHP investment potentials. An assessment of profitable CO2 reduction based solely on net present value (NPV) implicitly assumes unlimited investment resources. This study analysed the impact of the assumption of unlimited/limited investment resources on the assessment of profitable reduction potential of global CO2 emissions due to CHP investment. The correlation between changes in direct and global fossil CO2 emissions was also analysed. This was done by evaluating alternative CHP and heat-only boiler investments in a district heating system. When investment resources were unlimited, NPV was used to determine whether an investment was profitable and to rank the profitability of the investment. When investment resources were limited, equivalent annual annuity ratio (EAAR) was used to rank the investments profitability and determine whether its level of profitability was acceptable. The results showed that the profitability ranking of an investment can change depending on whether investment resources are considered unlimited or limited. Moreover, an investment with positive NPV may be regarded as insufficiently profitable when investment resources are limited. This could have an important impact on profitable CO2 reduction potential. Furthermore, when CHP investments are considered, local views on CO2 emissions may be counterproductive for global CO2 emission reductions. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 28.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy in Swedish industry 2020 – current status, policy instruments, and policy implications2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 51, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU has established so-called 20–20–20 targets, which in relation to energy mean that each Member State shall improve energy intensity levels by 3.3% annually, leading to a reduced primary energy use of 20% by the year 2020, calculated from a projected level based on the primary energy use in 2005. Sweden has established a less ambitious target of 1.7% annual energy intensity improvement through 2020. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, ex-ante, the EU 2020 primary energy target for the Swedish industrial sector. An applied backcasting methodology is used. The assessment made in this paper is that actions that lead to between 31.6 and 33.2 TWh/year reductions in energy end-use are needed if the EU target is to be achieved. Results from this paper shows that the current energy policy instruments are not sufficient to the EU or Swedish targets. Estimations in this paper are that a primary energy target of about 22.3 TWh/year is reasonable. The paper concludes by presenting a roadmap on how the Swedish 2020 target can be achieved through: i) energy management; ii) energy-efficient technology; and iii) energy supply measures, with an approximate cost of 280–300 MEUR or 75–80 kWh per public EUR. Three major additional policy measures are needed compared with the current policy: including all energy carriers, not just electricity, in the Swedish long-term agreements program PFE; setting up networks; and making it possible for third parties, i.e., industry, to deliver excess heat into the monopolized Swedish district heating grids.

  • 29.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    EUs 2020-mål avseende primärenergi: En studie av effekterna för svensk industri2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hotet om globala klimatförändringar till följd av ökade utsläpp av växthusgaser som i sin tur är en följd av framförallt användningen av fossila bränslen för energitillförsel, har fått beslutsfattare inom EU att agera kraftfullt. År 2006 kom EU med det så kallade energitjänstedirektivet (ESD) som syftar till att minska slutenergianvändningen med 9 procent fram till 2016. Utöver direktivet har EU fastställt de så kallade 2020-målen som i relation till energi innebär att Sverige ska effektivisera primärenergianvändningen med 20 procent fram till år 2020 beräknad utifrån en projicierad nivå baserad på 2005-års primärenergianvändning. Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka effekten, i form av minskad energianvändning, som EUs 2020-mål beträffande primärenergi medför för svensk industri.

    Arbetet avgränsas till att omfatta primärenergimålet för 2020 och dess implikationer för den svenska industrisektorn. I relation till detta antagande bör det nämnas att åtgärder i industrin inte nödvändigtvis behöver vara det mest kostnadseffektiva sättet att uppfylla målet på eftersom styrmedel mot t.ex. transportsektorn kan ha högre kostnadseffektivitet. Det bör alltså noteras att en bedömning av energiintensiteten på sektorsnivå kan bli missvisande.

    Resultatet från denna studie visar att om 2020-målet avseende primärenergi ska kunna uppnås kommer det att leda till kraftiga förändringar av användning och tillförsel av energi i svensk industri. De två styrmedel avseende energieffektivisering som inbegripits i bedömningen, PFE och energikartläggningschecken, räcker inte för att målet ska nås. Bedömningen som görs i denna rapport är att insatser som leder till cirka 35,0 TWh/år minskad slutenergianvändning måste komma till stånd för att målet ska uppnås. Om effekterna av PFE och energikartläggningscheckarna räknas bort från denna siffra erhålls något lägre siffror, 31,9-33,6 TWh/år. För att kunna uppnå sådana väsentliga besparingar är bedömningen att ett antal nya styrmedel måste utvecklas som främjar en effektivare primärenergianvändning. Det är denna utveckling som avgör om Sverige kommer att kunna nå det högt satta 2020-målet.

  • 30.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analyzing variables for district heating collaborations between energy utilities and industries2010In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 3649-3656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is essential to nurture the business relationship. In summary, successful collaboration depends more on the individuals and organizations involved in the relationship between the two parties than on the technology used in the collaboration.

  • 31.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Generalized method for analysing industrial DSM towards sustainability in a deregulated European electricity market: method verification by applying it in 22 Swedish industries2005In: Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Critical Infrastructures,  Grenoble, France, 25-27 October, 2005, p. 111-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Increased diffusion of renewable energy technologies – barriers and driving forces2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Swedish industrial and energy supply measures in a European system perspective2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A common electricity market in Europe will in all probability lead to a levelling out of the electricity price, which implies that Swedish consumers will face higher electricity prices with a European structure. This new market situation will force industry and energy suppliers to take new essential measures as actors in a deregulated European electricity market.

    In this thesis it is shown how over 30 Swedish small and medium-sized industries can reduce their use of electricity by about 50%. When scaling up the result to include all Swedish industry, the measures will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions, and a situation where Sweden will have a net export of electricity.

    Changing industrial energy use towards increased use of district heating will consequently affect the local energy suppliers. As a local energy supplier invests in CHP and co-operates on heat with an industry that has altered its energy use, the system cost will be halved. Considering higher European electricity prices, the benefits will be even higher with possibilities to reduce global emission with over 350%.

    In Sweden where district heating is very well established, heat driven absorption technology is especially favourable since it will lead to cost effective electricity production and increased utilization time for a CHP plant. Vapour compression chillers have been compared with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. The results show that the higher the share of absorption technology is, in comparison to compression chillers, the lower the production cost will be for producing cooling.

    This thesis illustrates measures for Swedish industry and energy suppliers in a fully deregulated European electricity market that will shift the energy systems in the direction of cost-effectiveness and resource effectiveness. The thesis also shows that the benefits of the measures will increase even more when accounting with electricity prices with a higher European structures. To methodically change the use of electricity would be an economical way to increase the competitiveness of Swedish plant in relation to other European plants.

    Taking advantage of these particularly Swedish conditions will contribute to the creation of lean resource systems, and as a result help the whole EU region to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. Altering industrial energy use towards less electricity and energy dependence will be a competitive alternative to new electricity production and help secure energy supply in the European Union.

    List of papers
    1. Industrial DSM in a deregulated European electricity market: a case study of 11 industries in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial DSM in a deregulated European electricity market: a case study of 11 industries in Sweden
    2005 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1445-1459Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 Sweden will become part of a common European electricity market. This implies that the price of electricity in Swedish will adapt to a higher European electricity price due to the increase in cross-border trading. Swedish plant is characterized as more electricity-intensive than plant on the European continent, and this, in combination with a higher European electricity price will lead to a precarious scenario.

    This paper studies the energy use of 11 plants in the municipality of Oskarshamn in Sweden. The aim is to show how these plants can reduce their electricity use to adapt to a European level. We have found that the plants could reduce their use of electricity by 48% and their use of energy by 40%. In a European perspective, where coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal production that alters as the electricity demand changes, the decrease in the use of electricity in this study leads to a reduction in global emissions of carbon dioxide of 69,000 tonne a year.

    Electricity generated in Sweden emits very low emissions of carbon dioxide and have thus consequently very low external cost. The freed capacity in Sweden could therefore replace electricity generated with higher external cost and as a result lower the total external cost in Europe. The emissions from the saved electricity could also be valuable within the EU emissions trading scheme, if the emissions calculation is done assuming the marginal electricity is fossil fuel based.

    Keyword
    Deregulated electricity market; Electricity reduction; Global emissions
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14156 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2004.01.002 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2009-06-05
    2. Generalized method for analysing industrial DSM towards sustainability in a deregulated European electricity market: method verification by applying it in 22 Swedish industries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generalized method for analysing industrial DSM towards sustainability in a deregulated European electricity market: method verification by applying it in 22 Swedish industries
    2005 (English)In: Proceeding of the 2nd International Conference on Critical Infrastructures,  Grenoble, France, 25-27 October, 2005, p. 111-111Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14157 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2009-06-05
    3. Socio-technical analyses of energy supply and use in three Swedish municipalities striving toward sustainability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socio-technical analyses of energy supply and use in three Swedish municipalities striving toward sustainability
    2005 (English)In: Proceeding of the 1st VHU Conference on Science for Sustainable Development, Västerås, Sweden, 14-16 April, 2005, p. 133–142-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14158 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27
    4. Enhanced biofuel utilisation in Swedish industries, buildings and district heating
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced biofuel utilisation in Swedish industries, buildings and district heating
    2006 (English)In: the World Bioenergy 2006 Conference and exhibition on Biomass for Energy, Jönköping, Sweden, 30 may – 1 June, 2006, p. 198-203Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14159 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2009-05-18
    5. Resource-effective systems achieved through changes in energy supply and industrial use: the Volvo Skövde case
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource-effective systems achieved through changes in energy supply and industrial use: the Volvo Skövde case
    2006 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 83, no 8, p. 801-818Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The result presented in this paper shows that the Volvo plant can decrease its electricity use by 44% by making the use of electricity more efficient and converting from oil and electricity to district heating for hot tap-water, space heating and cooling. The increased demand of district heating makes investing in a new planned CHP and cooperation between the Volvo plant and the local energy utility production cost fall by 46% at current unit electricity price and by 64% when calculating with a European unit electricity price and investment in an optimised CHP system instead of the planned plant. The study furthermore shows that the global emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon-dioxide will be reduced by 350% a year if the two energy-supply measures are taken and the electricity unit prices are at a European level.

    Keyword
    CHP; Co-operation; Deregulated electricity market; District heating; Electricity price; Emission trading
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14160 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2005.09.005 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2009-06-05
    6. European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden
    2007 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 12, p. 1319-1337Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mankind is facing an escalating threat of global warming and there is increasing evidence that this is due to human activity and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in a combined heat and power (CHP) system is a measure towards sustainability as electricity consumption is replaced with electricity generation. This electricity produced in Swedish CHP-system will substitute marginally produced electricity and as result lower global emissions of carbon dioxide. The use of absorption chillers is limited in Sweden but the conditions are in fact most favourable. Rising demand of cooling and increasing electricity prices in combination with a surplus of heat during the summer in CHP system makes heat driven cooling extremely interesting in Sweden. In this paper we analyse the most cost-effective technology for cooling by comparing vapour compression chillers with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. Whilst this case is necessarily local in scope, the results have global relevance showing that when considering higher European electricity prices, and when natural gas is introduced, absorption cooling is the most cost-effective solution for both industries and for the energy supplier. This will result in a resource effective energy system with a possibility to reduce global emissions of CO2 with 80%, a 300% lower system cost, and a 170% reduction of the cost of producing cooling due to revenues from electricity production. The results also show that, with these prerequisites, a decrease in COP of the absorption chillers will not have a negative impact on the cost-effectiveness of the system, due to increased electricity production.

    Keyword
    Absorption cooling, European electricity prices, Natural gas, Carbon dioxide, Global emissions
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14161 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2006.09.016 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    7. Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of electricity use in Swedish industry and its impact on national power supply and European CO2 emissions
    2008 (English)In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 2330-2350Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased energy use is crucial for achieving sustainable energy solutions. This paper presents current and possible future electricity use in Swedish industry. Non-heavy lines of business (e.g. food, vehicles) that use one-third of the electricity in Swedish industry are analysed in detail. Most electricity is used in the support processes pumping and ventilation, and manufacturing by decomposition. Energy conservation can take place through e.g. more efficient light fittings and switching off ventilation during night and weekends. By energy-carrier switching, electricity used for heat production is replaced by e.g. fuel. Taking technically possible demand-side measures in the whole lines of business, according to energy audits in a set of factories, means a 35% demand reduction. A systems analysis of power production, trade, demand and conservation was made using the MODEST energy system optimisation model, which uses linear programming and considers the time-dependent impact on demand for days, weeks and seasons. Electricity that is replaced by district heating from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant has a dual impact on the electricity system through reduced demand and increased electricity generation. Reduced electricity consumption and enhanced cogeneration in Sweden enables increased electricity export, which displaces coal-fired condensing plants in the European electricity market and helps to reduce European CO2 emissions. Within the European emission trading system, those electricity conservation measures should be taken that are more cost-efficient than other ways of reducing CO2 emissions. The demand-side measures turn net electricity imports into net export and reduce annual operation costs and net CO2 emissions due to covering Swedish electricity demand by 200 million euros and 6 Mtonne, respectively. With estimated electricity conservation in the whole of Swedish industry, net electricity exports would be larger and net CO2 emissions would be even smaller.

    Keyword
    Electricity consumption, Energy conservation, Power generation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14162 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.08.033 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-11-27 Created: 2006-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13
  • 34.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    European perspective on absorption cooling in a combined heat and power system: A case study of energy utility and industries in Sweden2007In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 84, no 12, p. 1319-1337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mankind is facing an escalating threat of global warming and there is increasing evidence that this is due to human activity and increased emissions of carbon dioxide. Converting from vapour compression chillers to absorption chillers in a combined heat and power (CHP) system is a measure towards sustainability as electricity consumption is replaced with electricity generation. This electricity produced in Swedish CHP-system will substitute marginally produced electricity and as result lower global emissions of carbon dioxide. The use of absorption chillers is limited in Sweden but the conditions are in fact most favourable. Rising demand of cooling and increasing electricity prices in combination with a surplus of heat during the summer in CHP system makes heat driven cooling extremely interesting in Sweden. In this paper we analyse the most cost-effective technology for cooling by comparing vapour compression chillers with heat driven absorption cooling for a local energy utility with a district cooling network and for industries in a Swedish municipality with CHP. Whilst this case is necessarily local in scope, the results have global relevance showing that when considering higher European electricity prices, and when natural gas is introduced, absorption cooling is the most cost-effective solution for both industries and for the energy supplier. This will result in a resource effective energy system with a possibility to reduce global emissions of CO2 with 80%, a 300% lower system cost, and a 170% reduction of the cost of producing cooling due to revenues from electricity production. The results also show that, with these prerequisites, a decrease in COP of the absorption chillers will not have a negative impact on the cost-effectiveness of the system, due to increased electricity production.

  • 35.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broman, Göran
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development Blekinge Institute of Technology Karlskrona.
    Cesar, Levy Franca
    Department of Strategic Sustainable Development Blekinge Institute of Technology Karlskrona.
    District Heating and CHP – a Vital Role for the Development Towards a Sustainable Society?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, district heating (DH) is quite well developed and is already mainly based on non-fossil fuels. Increased use of DH is therefore considered as a way of phasing out fossil energy for heating purposes. Furthermore, increased use of DH provides an increased basis for combined heat and power production (CHP). Considering that coal condensing is the marginal production of electricity in Europe, increased use of biofueled CHP leads to even greater reductions of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. However, in a sustainable society, where there is no longer a systematic increase of CO2 (and no other sustainability problems), the benefits of DH are less obvious. The aim of this work is to explore the impact of DH and CHP in the development towards such a society. A local energy system is studied for five different time periods from 2010 to 2060 with different marginal technologies for electricity production. Results show that when the local energy utility co-operate with a local industry plant and invests in a new CHP plant for waste incineration the global CO2 emissions for the whole studied time period will be reduced with about 48 000 tonnes, which corresponds to over 100 % of the emissions from today’s system for the same time period. When considering that bio fuel is a scarce resource, and that the amount of CO2 emission linked to waste probably will be lower in sustainable society, the global CO2 emissions will be about 250% lower compared to the system of today. The studied DH related cooperation and introduction of CHP will reduce the system cost for the whole studied energy system with 2 500 MSEK for the studied period. In general, the results indicate that the modeled measures will not have any major advantages over other heating technologies in a sustainable society but that it can play a vital role for the development towards such a society.

  • 36.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Difs, Kristina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Absorption Cooling in CHP systems - old technique with new opportunities2008In: World Renewable Energy Congress and Exhibition,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Difs, Kristina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Absorption Cooling in CHP systems - old technique with new opportunities2008In: The 10th World Renewable Energy Congress, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of global warming is escalating and the redirection of our energy systems towards lower emissions of global CO2 is a vital measure. Electricity use is projected to almost double over the next two decades [IEO, 2005] and more than 10% of the worldwide electricity usage is due to refrigeration. The need for cooling is rising and a common way of producing chilled water for pipeline distribution, i.e. district cooling, is to use compression cooling.

    In Sweden, the electricity price is low compared to other European countries. On the European continent, the electricity price is characterised by changes over the day while the price in Sweden varies over the season.

    With a fully deregulated European electricity market, with no restrictions on transfer capacity, the electricity price in Europe will most likely level out at an equilibrium price. This means that Swedish customers will face higher electricity prices and prices that vary over the day instead of over the season.

    Increased electricity price will make it more attractive to increase the generation of electricity from combined heat and power (CHP) systems in Sweden. Production of cooling with district heating driven absorption chillers (AC) will enhanced the possibilities to produce electricity in these systems. This means that when compression chillers (CC) are replaced with AC, the need for electricity for cooling systems will decrease and at the same time the potential for electricity production in a CHP system will increase.

    In Europe, coal-fired condensing power plants have the highest variable cost and thus function as the marginal source of electricity production. Assuming marginal power

    production at 33% electrical efficiency, each megawatt-hour of electricity generated in such a coal-fired condensing power plant thus releases approximately one tonne of carbon dioxide (Sjödin, 2003). This argument means that coal condensing is the marginal source in Sweden as well as in the rest of the EU, which is an important assumption in this study.

  • 38.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Difs, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimala fjärrvärmesystem i symbios med industri och samhälle: för ett hållbart energisystem2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ökad medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen är det av central betydelse att hitta åtgärder som leder till en omställning mot hållbara energisystem och ett hållbart samhälle. Fjärrvärme har en viktig roll i energiförsörjningen eftersom den ger möjlighet att ta tillvara värmeresurser som annars kan vara svåra att utnyttja, som exempelvis spillvärme från industrier och förbränning av avfall. Fjärrvärmesystemen möjliggör också elproduktion i kraftvärmeverk, med betydligt högre totalverkningsgrad än vid separat el- respektive värmeproduktion. Ett led i omställning mot hållbarhet är därför förändring av energisystemet mot en ökad användning av fjärrvärme och minskad användning av el genom dels effektiviseringar och dels via konverteringar från olja och el till fjärrvärme. Våra svenska fjärrvärmesystem är väl utbyggda och utgör en viktig resurs i detta arbete. Den pågående klimatförändringen kommer med största trolighet att medföra förändrat uttagsmönster för både värme- och kylbehov. Med ett varmare klimat minskar behovet av värme samtidigt som efterfrågan på kyla ökar. Förändrade uttagsmönster för fjärrvärme och kyla, ökad konkurrens och tydligare medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen medför att fjärrvärmen står inför nya utmaningar där utveckling av nya affärer och nya marknader blir allt viktigare. Idag används fjärrvärmen främst för uppvärmning och tappvarmvatten vilket medför att utnyttjningstiden för fjärrvärme till stor del är utomhustemperaturberoende. För att minska utomhustemperaturberoendet och på så sätt få en lastkurva för fjärrvärme som är mer ”fyrkantig” i sin utformning krävs ett fjärrvärmebehov som är mer jämnt fördelat under året. Ett jämnare effektuttag över året leder till bättre utnyttjningstid och driftförhållande för baslastanläggningarna vilket är gynnsamt speciellt i ett kraftvärmesystem eftersom det möjliggör utökad elproduktion. Flera studier har visat hur utnyttjningstid och värmelasten är de faktorer som påverkar lönsamheten mest för ett biobränsleeldat kraftvärmeverk. Syftet med föreliggande projekt är att visa hur fjärrvärmesystemen kan bidra till resurssnåla energisystem med minskad klimatpåverkan. Men hjälp av systemstudier av olika fall lyfter projektet fram exempel där industrier och energileverantörer kan samarbeta kring fjärrvärmerelaterade åtgärder och hur detta leder till hållbara fjärrvärmesystem. Åtgärder som studerats är ökad användning av fjärrvärme inom industriella processer, absorptionskyla samt introduktion av bioenergikombinat i fjärrvärmesystem. För att få kunskap om hur dessa idéer kan gå från att vara potentiellt lönsamma åtgärder till att bli faktiska genomförda projekt, analyseras även vilka faktorer som driver fram ett värmesamarbete mellan en industri och ett energibolag. Resultatet från projektet visar att det finns stora potentialer att öka användningen av fjärrvärme inom industriella processer, från 100 GWh till 300 GWh för de 41 industrier belägna i 6 olika kommuner som analyserats. Konverteringen till ökad fjärrvärmeanvändning påverkar lastkurvan så att utnyttjningstiden ökar, vilket ger en bättre utnyttjandegrad av fjärrvärmeanläggningarna i systemet. På samma sätt är absorptionskyla för att möta ökat kylbehov en åtgärd som leder till mer uthålliga energisystem. När fjärrvärmedrivna absorptionskylmaskiner introduceras i Örebros energisystem minskar de globala emissionerna av CO2 samtidigt som systemkostnaden reduceras. Ett ökat framtida kylbehov i Örebro i samband med högre elpriser medför att absorptions kyla ersätter både frikyla och kompressionskyla med en optimal andel kyla från absorptionskylmaskiner på över 60 % och ökad ekonomisk lönsamhet med ca 6 MSEK per år. Ytterligare en åtgärd som bidrar till omställning mot minskad klimatpåverkan är investering i bioenergikombinat. Introduktionen av storskalig förgasning i Linköpings fjärrvärmesystem har en potential till en signifikant minskning av globala CO2-utsläpp jämfört med om endast konventionell biokraftvärme beaktas. Reduktionspotentialen varierar beroende på vilken typ av förgasning som investeras i. Intervjuer och enkätstudier i syftet att analysera hur dessa värmerelaterade åtgärder kan gå från potentiella åtgärder till att bli verkliga lönsamma projekt visade att finns ett antal högt rankade framgångsfaktorer som inte är främst ekonomiska utan snarare inomorganisatoriska eller individrelaterade till sin karaktär. Styrmedel är högt rankat, i synnerhet av industrin. En parameter som också visat sig utgöra en katalysator i flera samarbeten har varit att ett universitet varit involverat och byggt optimeringsmodeller över energisystemet på orten. Fjärrvärmesystemen har en viktig roll i den övergripande omställningen av våra energisystem mot ökad grad av hållbarhet. Med ökad medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen är det av central betydelse att hitta åtgärder som främjar och påskyndar en sådan omställning. I detta arbete lyfts flera åtgärder fram som visar hur fjärrvärmesystem på ett tydligt sätt kan bidra till både minskad klimatpåverkan och ekonomiska vinster. Ökad fjärrvärme i industriella processer, absorptionskyla för att möta ökat kylbehov och bioenergikombinat är exempel på åtgärder som leder till utformning av optimala fjärrvärmesystem för ett hållbart samhälle. Detta arbete har också visat vad som krävs för att dessa värmerelaterade åtgärder mellan industrier och energileverantörer ska bli verkliga lönsamma samarbeten. Genom att identifiera dessa åtgärder kan vi på ett tydligt sätt visa på fjärrvärmens unika möjligheter att bli en ännu mer central aktör i den nödvändiga och mycket viktiga omställningen mot hållbarhet.

  • 39.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gebremedhin, Alemayehu
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Björn G.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Resource-effective systems achieved through changes in energy supply and industrial use: the Volvo Skövde case2006In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 83, no 8, p. 801-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The result presented in this paper shows that the Volvo plant can decrease its electricity use by 44% by making the use of electricity more efficient and converting from oil and electricity to district heating for hot tap-water, space heating and cooling. The increased demand of district heating makes investing in a new planned CHP and cooperation between the Volvo plant and the local energy utility production cost fall by 46% at current unit electricity price and by 64% when calculating with a European unit electricity price and investment in an optimised CHP system instead of the planned plant. The study furthermore shows that the global emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon-dioxide will be reduced by 350% a year if the two energy-supply measures are taken and the electricity unit prices are at a European level.

  • 40.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Björn G.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial DSM in a deregulated European electricity market: a case study of 11 industries in Sweden2005In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 1445-1459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2004 Sweden will become part of a common European electricity market. This implies that the price of electricity in Swedish will adapt to a higher European electricity price due to the increase in cross-border trading. Swedish plant is characterized as more electricity-intensive than plant on the European continent, and this, in combination with a higher European electricity price will lead to a precarious scenario.

    This paper studies the energy use of 11 plants in the municipality of Oskarshamn in Sweden. The aim is to show how these plants can reduce their electricity use to adapt to a European level. We have found that the plants could reduce their use of electricity by 48% and their use of energy by 40%. In a European perspective, where coal-condensing power is assumed to be the marginal production that alters as the electricity demand changes, the decrease in the use of electricity in this study leads to a reduction in global emissions of carbon dioxide of 69,000 tonne a year.

    Electricity generated in Sweden emits very low emissions of carbon dioxide and have thus consequently very low external cost. The freed capacity in Sweden could therefore replace electricity generated with higher external cost and as a result lower the total external cost in Europe. The emissions from the saved electricity could also be valuable within the EU emissions trading scheme, if the emissions calculation is done assuming the marginal electricity is fossil fuel based.

  • 41.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Söderberg, Sven-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    IKP/Energisystem Linköpings Universitet.
    Naturgasens möjligheter och konsekvenser för energiföretag och industrier i Östergötland2005Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Evaluation of Industrial Energy Audits in SMEs2010In: In Proceedings of the International Energy Program Evaluation Conference (IEPEC) 2010, Paris, France., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If conducted properly, energy audits in industry are a powerful tool to overcome market imperfections and support the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures. Internationally, energy audit programs in industry have proven to be successful. Up until now Sweden has not provided low-cost energy audits to Swedish industry on a national scale. However, on a regional scale, energy audits in industries have been performed in five Swedish municipalities. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, ex-post, the implementation of cost-efficient energy efficiency measures in these five municipalities and also to outline the major barriers to implementation. Results show that the degree of implementation differs widely between industries due to several factors, e.g., a perceived lack of time for energy efficiency, competing priorities for capital investments and long decision-chains.

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