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  • 1.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Characterization and estimation of turbulence-related wall shear stress in patient-specific pulsatile blood flow2019In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 85, p. 108-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disturbed, turbulent-like blood flow promotes chaotic wall shear stress (WSS) environments, impairing essential endothelial functions and increasing the susceptibility and progression of vascular diseases. These flow characteristics are today frequently detected at various anatomical, lesion and intervention-related sites, while their role as a pathological determinant is less understood. To present-day, numerous WSS-based descriptors have been proposed to characterize the spatiotemporal nature of the WSS disturbances, however, without differentiation between physiological laminar oscillations and turbulence-related WSS (tWSS) fluctuations. Also, much attention has been focused on magnetic resonance (MR) WSS estimations, so far with limited success; promoting the need of a near-wall surrogate marker. In this study, a new approach is explored to characterize the tWSS, by taking advantage of the tensor characteristics of the fluctuating WSS correlations, providing both a magnitude and an anisotropy measure of the disturbances. These parameters were studied in two patient-specific coarctation models (sever and mild), using large eddy simulations, and correlated against near-wall reciprocal Reynolds stress parameters. Collectively, results showed distinct regions of differing tWSS characteristics, features which were sensitive to changes in flow conditions. Generally, the post-stenotic tWSS was governed by near axisymmetric fluctuations, findings that where not consistent with conventional WSS disturbance predictors. At the 2-3 mm wall-offset range, a strong linear correlation was found between tWSS magnitude and near-wall turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), in contrast to the anisotropy indices, suggesting that MR-measured TKE can be used to assess elevated tWSS regions while tWSS anisotropy estimates request well-resolved simulation methods. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish E Science Research Centre SeRC, Sweden.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish E Science Research Centre SeRC, Sweden.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Swedish E Science Research Centre SeRC, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Swedish E Science Research Centre SeRC, Sweden.
    Correction: Quantitative Assessment of Turbulence and Flow Eccentricity in an Aortic Coarctation: Impact of Virtual Interventions (vol 6, pg 281, 2015)2015In: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1869-408X, E-ISSN 1869-4098, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 577-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulence and flow eccentricity can be measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we propose quantitative techniques to assess turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and flow eccentricity that could assist in the evaluation and treatment of stenotic severities. These hemodynamic parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) and after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to demonstrate the effect of different dilatation options on the flow field. Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from MRI data. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation (LES) including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Results showed an inverse asymptotic relationship between the total amount of TKE and degree of dilatation of the stenosis, where the pre-stenotic hypoplastic segment may limit the possible improvement by treating the CoA alone. Spatiotem-poral maps of TKE and flow eccentricity could be linked to the characteristics of the post-stenotic jet, showing a versatile response between the CoA dilatations. By including these flow markers into a combined MRI-CFD intervention framework, CoA therapy has not only the possibility to produce predictions via simulation, but can also be validated pre-and immediate post treatment, as well as during follow-up studies.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Multidirectional WSS disturbances in stenotic turbulent flows: A pre- and post-intervention study in an aortic coarctation2017In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wall shear stress (WSS) disturbances are commonly expressed at sites of abnormal flow obstructions and may play an essential role in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases. In laminar flows these disturbances have recently been assessed by the transverse wall shear stress (transWSS), which accounts for the WSS multidirectionality. Site-specific estimations of WSS disturbances in pulsatile transitional and turbulent type of flows are more challenging due to continuous and unpredictable changes in WSS behavior. In these complex flow settings, the transWSS may serve as a more comprehensive descriptor for assessing WSS disturbances of general nature compared to commonly used parameters. In this study large eddy simulations (LES) were used to investigate the transWSS properties in flows subjected to different pathological turbulent flow conditions, governed by a patient-specific model of an aortic coarctation pre and post balloon angioplasty. Results showed that regions of strong near-wall turbulence were collocated with regions of elevated transWSS and turbulent WSS, while in more transitional-like near-wall flow regions a closer resemblance was found between transWSS and low, and oscillatory WSS. Within the frame of this study, the transWSS parameter demonstrated a more multi-featured picture of WSS disturbances when exposed to different types of flow regimes, characteristics which were not depicted by the other parameters alone. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ebbers, Tino
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Quantitative Assessment of Turbulence and Flow Eccentricity in an Aortic Coarctation - Impact of Virtual Interventions2015In: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1869-408X, E-ISSN 1869-4098, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 281-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulence and flow eccentricity can be measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we propose quantitative techniques to assess turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and flow eccentricity that could assist in the evaluation and treatment of stenotic severities. These hemodynamic parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) and after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to demonstrate the effect of different dilatation options on the flow field. Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from MRI data. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation (LES) including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Results showed an inverse asymptotic relationship between the total amount of TKE and degree of dilatation of the stenosis, where turbulent flow proximal the constriction limits the possible improvement by treating the CoA alone. Spatiotemporal maps of TKE and flow eccentricity could be linked to the characteristics of the jet, where improved flow conditions were favored by an eccentric dilatation of the CoA. By including these flow markers into a combined MRI-CFD intervention framework, CoA therapy has not only the possibility to produce predictions via simulation, but can also be validated pre- and immediate post treatment, as well as during follow-up studies.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling of Subject Arterial Segments Using 3D Fluid Structure Interaction and 1D-0D Arterial Tree Network Boundary Condition2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling of Subject Specific Arterial Segments Using 3D Fluid Structure Interaction and a 1D-0D Arterial Tree Network Boundary Condition

     

    Magnus Andersson, Jonas Lantz , Matts Karlsson

     

    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden

     

    Introduction

    In recent years it has been possible to simulate 3D blood flow through CFD including the dilatation effect in elastic arteries using Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) to better match in vivo data. Patient specific imposed boundary condition (BC) is often used as the velocity profiles at the inlets. However, for the outlet BC a time-resolved pressure is required and often lacking as it is obtained by an invasive procedure. Numerous models have been developed for capturing the main effects of the vascular bed at these sites, which have been shown crucial and difficult to implement accurately. This work focus on a full scaled FSI simulation at an arterial section including the abdominal aorta, renal arteries and iliac bifurcations, obtained from MRI of an healthy individual. The outlet BC at the iliac arteries is connected with a 1D systemic arterial tree which is truncated with a 0D lumped model. This 3D-(0D-1D) connection can provide the essential features of the peripheral flow and, in contrast to the imposed BC, the 1D-0D coupling allow for investigation of cardiovascular diseases including stenoses and/or hypertension.

     

    Methods

    The MRI images were segmented using an in-house software to obtain a 3D surface of the vessel lumen, Figure 1. The surfaces were meshed with high quality hexahedral element using ANSYS ICEM CFD 12.0 (ANSYS Inc, Canonsburg, PA, USA). A PC-MRI time-resolved massflow at the descending aorta were used as inlet BC, where 22% of the flow was forced into the renal bifurcations assuming negligible pressure wave reflection. The wall was modelled with an isotropic elastic model with addition of an elastic support mimicking the damping effect of the surrounding tissue. The 1D model is based on transmission-line theory which involves an impedance model for the pressure-flow relationship. The arterial topology was extracted from literature and only the central arteries after the iliacs was considered. At the truncation sites a 3-element Windkessel model (known as RRC) was implemented and is the most common model of choice for describing the main effects of all the distal vessels.  The 1D system solves the Fourier frequency impedance coefficients over one heart cycle accounting for wave reflection by using the 15 first harmonics to obtain the corresponding pressure. The 3D-1D connection is done offline, which allows for an independent and more stable 3D simulation. This step is iteratively repeated until convergence is reach between the present 3D outlet flow and previous implemented 1D outlet flow. The simulation was utilized in ANSYS CFX, ANSYS Mechanical, and coupled by ANSYS Multi-Field.

     

    Results

    The (0D-1D)-3D model showed convergence of pressure/flow at the iliac outlets, Figure 2. The method provides realistic pressure and flow responses based on the input parameters and even capture the relative difference in flow/pressure distribution between the right and left illiac artery due to subject specific geometric variability. Parameters such as velocity profiles and WSS can be extracted in the 3D domain.

     

    Conclusions

    This method allows for a better insight of large scale vascular networks effect of the local 3D flow features and also gives a better representation of the peripheral flow compared to a pure 0D (lumped parameter/Windkessel) model. PC-MRI will provide data for validation of velocity profiles in the 3D model. Future work includes a subject specific 1D vascular topology to be combined with the 3D model.   

  • 6.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    NON-INVASIVE INTERVENTION PLANNING OF STENOTIC FLOWS USING SCALE-RESOLVED IMAGE-BASED COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Turbulence Quantification of Stenotic Blood Flow Using Image-Based CFD: Effect of Different Interventions2014In: WCB 2014, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent blood flow is often associated with some sort of cardiovascular disease, e.g. sharp bends and/or sudden constrictions/expansions of the vessel wall. The energy losses associated with the turbulent flow may increase the heart workload in order to maintain cardiac output (CO). In the present study, the amount of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) developed in the vicinity of an aortic coarctation was estimated pre-intervention and in a variety of post-intervention configurations, using scale-resolved image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD). TKE can be measured using magnet resonance imaging (MRI) and have also been validated with CFD simulations [1], i.e. a parameter that not only can be quantified using simulations but can also be measured by MRI.

    Patient-specific geometry and inlet flow conditions were obtained using contrast-enhanced MR angiography and 2D cine phase-contrast MRI, respectively. The intervention procedure was mimicked using an inflation simulation, where six different geometries were obtained. A scale-resolving turbulence model, large eddy simulation (LES), was utilized to resolve the largest turbulent scales and also to capture the laminar-to-turbulent transition. All cases were simulated using baseline CO and with a 20% CO increase to simulate a possible flow adaption after intervention.

    For this patient, results shows a non-linear decay of the total amount of TKE integrated over the cardiac phase as the stenotic cross-sectional area is increased by the intervention.  Figure 1 shows the original segmented geometry and two dilated coarctation with corresponding volume rendering of the TKE at peak systole. Due to turbulent transition at a kink upstream the stenosis further dilation of the coarctation tends to restrict the TKE to a plateau, and continued vessel expansion may therefore only induce unnecessary stresses onto the arterial wall. 

    This patient-specific non-invasive framework has shown the geometrical impact on the TKE estimates. New insight in turbulence development indicates that the studied coarctation can only be improved to a certain extent, where focus should be on the upstream region, if further TKE reduction is motivated. The possibility of including MRI in a combined framework could have great potential for future intervention planning and follow-up studies.  

    [1] J. Lantz, T. Ebbers, J. Engvall and M. Karlsson, Numerical and Experimental Assessment of Turbulent Kinetic Energy in an Aortic Coarctation, Journal of Biomechnics, 2013. 46(11): p. 1851-1858.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nadali Najafabadi, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wren, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Improving Written Communcation Skills in Engineering Programs2016In: Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference, 2016, article id 225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the improvement of students’ written communication skill in highereducation, aiming at higher quality of reports at different course levels. Towards this aim, twosupportive guideline documents, “report structure” and “report format”, have been writtenaligned with the courses’ syllabi and introduced as complementary material.

  • 9.
    Jansson, Marcus
    et al.
    Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettersson, Maria
    Atlas Copco Rock Drills AB, Örebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Water Hammer Induced Cavitation - A Numerical and Experimental Study2017In: Fluid Power in the Digital Age, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cavitation erosion is one of the main concerns in hydraulic rock drills and can reduce both performance as well as life span. Current simulation tools can detect a potential risk of cavitation, however, the equations do not include cavitation physics and therefore cannot estimate the severity nor erosion locations. In order to evaluate the cavitation damage, long term tests are performed which are both costly and time consuming. With better computational capacity and more accurate numerical flow models, the possibilities to simulate the course of cavitation have increased. So far, most numerical studies on cavitation focus on steady-state problems while studies on hydraulic transients and water hammer effects have received less attention. This paper is a step towards simulation of water hammer induced cavitation and cavitation erosion in pipe flow using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In order to validate the results, experimental measurements are performed with a test equipment that creates hydraulic transients in a pipe and records these using piezoelectric pressure sensors. The results from CFD are compared to both the experimental data and to numerical results from a software called Hopsan, a one-dimensional multi-domain system simulation tool that uses wave characteristics to calculate pressures and flows. For smaller transients where no cavitation occur, all results show good agreement. For larger transients with cavitation, the results from Hopsan do not longer agree with the measurements, while the CFD model still performs well and is able to predict both formation and collapse of cavitation.

  • 10.
    Karlsson, Matts
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Quantitative Assessment of Wall Shear Stress in an Aortic Coarctation - Impact of Virtual Interventions2014In: Abstract: L7.00007 : Quantitative Assessment of Wall Shear Stress in an Aortic Coarctation - Impact of Virtual Interventions, Maryland, 2014, Vol. 59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent and wall impinging blood flow causes abnormal shear forces onto the lumen and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, wall shear stress (WSS) and related flow parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) as well as after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Finite element analysis was performed to acquire six different dilated CoAs. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation (LES) including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Pre-intervention, the presence of jet flow wall impingement caused an elevated WSS zone, with a distal region of low and oscillatory WSS. After intervention, cases with a more favorable centralized jet showed reduced high WSS values at the opposed wall. Despite significant turbulence reduction post-treatment, enhanced regions of low and oscillatory WSS were observed for all cases. This numerical method has demonstrated the morphological impact on WSS distribution in an CoA. With the predictability and validation capabilities of a combined CFD/MRI approach, a step towards patient-specific intervention planning is taken.  

  • 11.
    Nadali Najafabadi, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessment in a Learning-Centered Course Design Framework2016In: Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference, 2016, p. 791-800, article id 161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important for course designers to establish assessments in accordance to intended learning outcomes and course activities in order to promote deep learning in higher education. In this context a learning-centered course design (LCCD) framework could be utilized to interconnect the assessments towards the high level learning objectives and learning activities. The primary objective of this paper is to highlight the effectiveness of using such a framework with the emphasis on assessment component for developing a new course, Fluid Mechanics, at Linköping University, Sweden. This study indicated an implementation of the LCCD framework, which facilitate establishment of CDIO Standards 8 and 11. This has been achieved by designing an assessment method that involves active learning activities in accordance to the intended learning outcomes. The inherent property of this approach, the integration between different components of teaching, is thus the key feature in achieving the highlighted standards and contributes in enhancing the student’s knowledge, skills and attitude within the subject.

  • 12.
    Pavlovic, Srdan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lantz, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reduced Aerodynamic Drag for Truck-Trailer Configurations Using Parametrized CFD Studies2012In: ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Volume 7: Fluids and Heat Transfer Parts A, B, C, and D, New York, NY, USA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2012, p. 1213-1220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the presented work, two studies using ComputationalFluid Dynamics (CFD) have been conducted on a generictruck-like model with and without a trailer unit at a speed of 80km/h. The purpose is to evaluate drag reduction possibilitiesusing externally fitted devices. A first study deals with a flapplaced at the back of a rigid truck and inclined at seven differentangles with two lengths. Results show that it is possible todecrease drag by 4%. In a second study, the flap has been fittedon the tractor and trailer units of a truck-trailer combination.Four settings were surveyed for this investigation, one of whichproved to decrease drag by up to 15%. A last configurationwhere the gap between the units has been closed has also beenevaluated. This configuration offers a 15% decrease in drag.Adding a flap to the closed gap configuration decreases drag by18%. New means of reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy-duty(HD) vehicles will be important in the foreseeable future inorder to improve the fuel economy. The possibilities of reducingdrag are prevalent using conceptual design.

  • 13.
    Renner, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Storck, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekman, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-world Engineering Projects in a Master Level Course2016In: Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world engineering projects are problems supplied by industry or institutions that is not primarily intended only as an educational exercise but are rooted in a relevant engineering issue. These projects are incorporated as an important part of a six ECTS-credits master course in computational heat-transfer. Normally 70-80 students attend the course and are typically allowed to choose among four to five different projects. Overall impression is that the inclusion of these engineering problems results in higher level of questions, skills and motivation of the students.

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