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  • 1.
    Borg, Ida
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Do high levels of home-ownership create unemployment?: Introducing the missing link between housing tenure and unemployment2018In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 501-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that the proportion of home-owners in a region tend to be positively associated with the unemployment levels in that region. In this paper, we introduce a missing piece of explaining this commonly found pattern. By analysing individual-level population register data on Sweden, we jointly examine the effects of micro- and macro-level home-ownership on individuals’ unemployment. The findings indicate that even though home-owners have a lower probability of being unemployed, there is a penalty for both renters and home-owners on unemployment in regions with high home-ownership rates. Differences in mobility patterns cannot explain this pattern. However, when labour market size is considered, the higher probability of unemployment in high home-owning regions is drastically reduced. This suggests that high home-ownership regions tend to coincide with small labour markets, affecting the job matching process negatively.

  • 2.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gender, Gender Ideology, and Couples’ Migration Decisions2014In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 950-971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Couples generally move to accommodate men?s, rather than women?s, career opportunities. Using Swedish panel data including 1,039 married or cohabiting individuals, this study examines the importance of traditional gender ideology and behavior in explaining this pattern. Two dimensions of gender and migration are examined: (a) the willingness to move for a partner?s career and (b) the likelihood of couple migration for one?s own work or educational opportunities. Findings show that women are more willing to move for their partner?s career. Childless women are more likely to move with their partners to pursue their own work or education than childless men, whereas mothers are less likely to report this than fathers. Gender ideology and division of household responsibilities do not explain the gender differences in migration behavior. They are more important for individuals? willingness to move for their partners, with particularly pronounced gender differences among nonegalitarian respondents.

  • 3.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Oslo, Oslo, Sweden.
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ethnic Composition of Schools and Students’ Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden2019In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 486-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of ethnic school composition on students’ educational outcomes using Swedish population register data. We add to the literature on the consequences of ethnic school segregation for native and immigrant students by distinguishing social interaction effects from selection and environmental effects through one- and two-way fixed effects models. Our findings demonstrate that native and immigrant students’ grades are relatively unaffected by social interaction effects stemming from the proportion of immigrant schoolmates. However, we find nontrivial effects on their eligibility for upper secondary school. Immigrants’ educational outcomes are weakly positively affected by the proportion of co-ethnics in school.

  • 4.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Sociology, Stockholm University.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Sociology, Stockholm University / Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm.
    School Choice and School Segregation: Lessons from Sweden’s School Voucher System2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how school choice opportunities affect school segregation. Theoretically, free school choice may affect school segregation in different directions, depending on its design, baseline residential segregation, and underlying preferences for separation. Our test case is the Swedish voucher-based free school choice system, and we utilize Swedish population register data that include 13 cohorts of ninth graders, with geocoded information on schools, their socioeconomic and ethnic composition, and the composition of the neighborhoods surrounding the schools. To identify causal effects of school choice opportunities, we treat fixed school areas as the unit of analysis, and we follow these over time to net out time-invariant area-level confounders. Within-area panel estimates indicate segregation based on both ethnic and educational background to be strongly affected by school choice opportunities. Increased choice opportunities lead to increased school segregation, to a large extent because of a higher propensity among native children and children with well-educated parents to attend newly established (non-public) independent schools. The segregating impact of school choice opportunities is uniform across school areas with different socioeconomic and ethnic profiles, but school segregation increases much more in residentially integrated areas as a consequence of an increase in school choice options. The lesson to be learned from the Swedish case is that large scale school voucher systems need to be designed to include mechanisms that counteract the strong segregating forces that such systems appear to produce.

  • 5.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Inst Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Gaehler, Michael
    Inst Futures Studies, Sweden; Stockholm Univ, Sweden.
    Can the trailing spouse phenomenon be explained by employer recruitment choices?2018In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 24, no 6, article id e2141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that couples tend to relocate for the sake of the mans career rather than the womans, also known as the trailing spouse phenomenon. The role of employer choices in this process is unknown however. If employers are hesitant to make job offers to women who live a long way from the workplace (e.g., because of work-family balance concerns or a perceived risk that they will not follow through on their applications, or stay hired if employed), this tendency might constitute an underlying mechanism behind the moving premium of partnered men. Ours is the first study to empirically test whether employers prefer geographically distant men over geographically distant women. We sent applications for 1,410 job openings in the Swedish labour market, randomly assigning gender and parental status to otherwise equivalent applications from cohabiting or married women and men and recorded employer callbacks to these. The results indicate that employers in general tend to disfavour job applicants who live a long way from the employers workplace. This tendency is stronger for women, both for mothers and for women with no children. Our estimated effects are imprecise but clearly suggest that employer recruitment choices contribute to the trailing spouse phenomenon by offering men a larger pool of geographically distant jobs. We call for more research on this hitherto ignored mechanism behind the trailing spouse phenomenon.

  • 6.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ohlsson-Wijk, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sharing the Caring: Attitude–Behavior Discrepancies and Partnership Dynamics2018In: Journal of family issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 771-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though ideals in favor of gender equality in the private sphere are wide spread, discrepancies between ideals and actual behavior are common. Such discrepancies and potential dissatisfaction with gender unequal behavior within a couple are expected to influence partnership dynamics negatively. This study examines how discrepancies between the perceived ideal sharing of parental leave and the actual division of leave, as well as satisfaction with the division are associated with (a) relationship satisfaction, (b) continued childbearing, and (c) union dissolution, using Swedish panel data. The findings cannot confirm an effect of discrepancies on partnership dynamics. However, men who wish they had used a larger share of the parental leave have lower relationship satisfaction, lower continued childbearing, and higher probability of union dissolution. Women are seemingly not affected by their (dis)satisfaction with the division. The findings may reflect a changing father role related to the policy setting and norms in Sweden.

  • 7.
    Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University.
    Who Moves to Whom? Gender Differences in the Distance Moved to a Shared Residence2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 435-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the migration of couples and families is well examined, the migration that occurs at the start of co-residence has only been minimally studied. This study examines (1) whether women move more often and move over longer distances at the start of co-residence and (2) whether gender differences (if any) stem from compositional differences between women and men, such as gender differences in ties, or if they are the consequence of the within-couple distribution of bargaining power. The analyses are performed on Swedish population register data from 1991 to 2008, including longitudinal information on the residence of all couples who either married or had a child as cohabitants in 2008, backtracking them to the year of union formation. The results indicate that women are more prone to move for the sake of their male partner in the process of union formation than vice versa. If partners lived in close proximity prior to co-residence, the woman’s increased likelihood of moving and longer distance moved is nearly completely explained by power imbalances in the couple. Gender differences in ties only have minor importance in explaining gender differences in these types of migration patterns. If partners lived far apart prior to co-residence, gender differences are particularly pronounced. These differences remain after adjusting for the two partners’ relative resources. We contribute to the family migration literature by suggesting that women’s higher propensity to move and their longer distance moved are indications that even couples’ decisions at the start of co-residence are made in favour of the man’s career.

  • 8.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fahlen, Susanne
    Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate ISF, Sweden.
    Ohlsson-Wijk, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Women have a stronger say in couples decisions to have a child2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 307-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden stands out as a forerunner in the development of gender equality and family dynamics. To deepen the knowledge on power distribution and gender dynamics of couple relations, we investigate how women and mens childbearing intentions influence actual childbearing behavior. The Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS) has information on both partners childbearing intentions in 2009, which we follow for five years with register data on childbearing. The results indicate that womens childbearing intentions are more important than mens intentions in determining actual childbirths.

  • 9.
    Goldscheider, Frances
    et al.
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden2013In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 29, no 40, p. 1097-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    <b>Background</b>: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. <b>Objective</b>: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? <b>Methods</b>: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS), we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1) holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2) actual sharing in these domestic tasks. <b>Results</b>: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. <b>Conclusions</b>: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  • 10.
    Ruppanner, Leah
    et al.
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Division of housework and his and her view of housework fairness: A typology of Swedish couples2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, p. 501-524, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    <b>Background</b>: Housework studies have long documented a fairness paradox, whereby unequal divisions of housework are evaluated as fair. Gender equality, both at home and at work, is strongly normative in a highly egalitarian country like Sweden, but not always matched by an equally egalitarian situation in the family which are often viewed as fair. <b>Objective</b>: To explore the relationship between housework-sharing and perceived fairness of this division, using both partners’ reports, to identify how Swedish couples cluster across these measures and what individual characteristics predict cluster membership. <b>Methods</b>: Using the couple-level design of the 2009 wave of the Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, n=1,026), we are able to advance the research field and evaluate housework experience within broader couple dynamics. Our approach is exploratory and develops a typology using latent class analysis. <b>Results</b>: We identify six latent groups, with distinct features. The modal Swedish-couple category comprises those who share housework equally and agree that this arrangement is fair (33% of the couples). Applying a distributive justice perspective, we find that childhood socialization, presence of children in the household, and the distribution of employment, education, income, and egalitarianism across couples are important predictors of cluster membership. <b>Conclusions</b>: We find that equal-sharing/fair couples are most common in the Swedish context, suggesting clear benefits from Sweden’s expansive gender policies. Yet, there seems to be a generational divide, whereby Swedish women who witnessed housework inequality in their parental home are increasingly dissatisfied when this inequality replicates in their own lives. <b>Contribution</b>: Demonstrating that housework allocations, conflict and fairness may reflect different types of couples rather than associations across those measures.

  • 11.
    Ruppanner, Leah
    et al.
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Sweden.
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Sweden; Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Does Unequal Housework Lead to Divorce?: Evidence from Sweden2018In: Sociology, ISSN 0038-0385, E-ISSN 1469-8684, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 75-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of couple-level data hinders direct exploration of how inconsistencies in couples? housework reports structure their relationship quality. We address this limitation by applying Swedish data from the 2009 Young Adult Panel Study (N = 1057 couples) matched with Swedish register data (2009?2014) to extend equity theory by estimating mismatch in couples? housework reports on relationship satisfaction and stability. We find women who report performing more housework are less likely to be satisfied with their relationships, and are more likely to consider breaking up. These unions are also more likely to dissolve. Using both partners? housework reports, we document discrediting women?s housework contribution, or reporting she does less than she reports, is associated with lower relationship satisfaction. Women in these partnerships also consider breaking up, and the unions are more likely to dissolve. Our results identify the gendered impact of housework inequality on relationship stability.

  • 12.
    Vidal, Sergi
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Perales, Francisco
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Lersch, Philipp M.
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Stockholms University, Sweden.
    Family migration in a cross-national perspective: The importance of within-couple employment arrangements in Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 36, p. 307-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE Migration rates of dual-earner couples are lower than those of male-breadwinner couples. We revisit this issue using a cross-national comparative perspective and examine heterogeneity in the role of female employment in couple relocations. We propose a theoretical framework in which national levels of support for female employment and normative expectations about gender roles act as moderators of the relationship between couple type (i.e., dual-earner and male-breadwinner) and family migration. METHODS We deploy discrete-time event history analyses of harmonised longitudinal data from four large-scale datasets from Australia, Britain, Germany, and Sweden, covering the 1992-2011 period. RESULTS Consistent with prior research, we find that male-breadwinner couples migrate more often than dual-earner couples in all countries, suggesting that traditional gender structures affecting family migration operate across very different contexts. We also find cross-country differences in the estimated effects of different sorts of absolute and relative partner resources on family migration. CONCLUSIONS We take our results as preliminary evidence that national contexts can serve as moderators of the relationship between within-couple employment arrangements and family migration decisions. CONTRIBUTION Our study contributes to family migration literature by illustrating how cross-national comparisons are a valuable methodological approach to put prevailing micro-level explanations of the relationship between female employment and family migration in context.

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