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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lång, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Does having ones own place to live make someone more employable?2017In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 24, no 18, p. 1327-1330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article encapsulates the findings of a randomized correspondence test field experiment investigating whether job candidates home status influences their employability. More than 2000 employers with vacancies in the Swedish labour market received a job application from a fictitious candidate. A job candidates home status (his or her own place to live or temporary housing with a friend) was randomized across employers. Results show that home status indeed affected the number of positive employer responses received by job candidates, mainly in low-skilled occupations. Not having a place to live at the time of the application proved a disadvantage when applying for positions within but an advantage when applying for positions outside the city of residence at the time of the application.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transpersoner diskrimineras i rekryteringsprocessen2021In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Per A
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transpersoner väljs bort av arbetsgivarna2020In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Khanna, Shantanu
    Department of Economics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.
    Gender discrimination in hiring: An experimental reexamination of the Swedish case2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-15, article id e0245513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimated the degree of gender discrimination in Sweden across occupations using a correspondence study design. Our analysis of employer responses to more than 3,200 fictitious job applications across 15 occupations revealed that overall positive employer response rates were higher for women than men by almost 5 percentage points. We found that this gap was driven by employer responses in female-dominated occupations. Male applicants were about half as likely as female applicants to receive a positive employer response in female-dominated occupations. For male-dominated and mixed occupations we found no significant differences in positive employer responses between male and female applicants.

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  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Troster, Victor
    Department of Applied Economics at the Universitat de les Illes Balears (UIB).
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Asymmetric dynamics between uncertainty and unemployment flows in the United States2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how different uncertainty measures affect the unemployment level, inflow, and outflow in the U.S. across all states of the business cycle. We employ linear and nonlinear causality-in-quantile tests to capture a complete picture of the effect of uncertainty on U.S. unemployment. To verify whether there are any common effects across different uncertainty measures, we use monthly data on four uncertainty measures and on U.S. unemployment from January 1997 to August 2018. Our results corroborate the general predictions from a search and matching framework of how uncertainty affects unemployment and its flows. Fluctuations in uncertainty generate increases (upper-quantile changes) in the unemployment level and in the inflow. Conversely, shocks to uncertainty have a negative impact on U.S. unemployment outflow. Therefore, the effect of uncertainty is asymmetric depending on the states (quantiles) of U.S. unemployment and on the adopted unemployment measure. Our findings suggest statecontingent policies to stabilize the unemployment level when large uncertainty shocks occur.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ali M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Troster, Victor
    Department of Applied Economics, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Asymmetric dynamics between uncertainty and unemployment flows in the United States2022In: Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, ISSN 1081-1826, E-ISSN 1558-3708, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 155-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how different uncertainty measures affect the unemployment level, inflow, and outflow in the U.S. across all states of the business cycle. We employ linear and nonlinear causality-in-quantile tests to capture a complete picture of the effect of uncertainty on U.S. unemployment. To verify whether there are any common effects across different uncertainty measures, we use monthly data on four uncertainty measures and on U.S. unemployment from January 1997 to August 2018. Our results corroborate the general predictions from a search and matching framework of how uncertainty affects unemployment and its flows. Fluctuations in uncertainty generate increases (upper-quantile changes) in the unemployment level and in the inflow. Conversely, shocks to uncertainty have a negative impact on U.S. unemployment outflow. Therefore, the effect of uncertainty is asymmetric depending on the states (quantiles) of U.S. unemployment and on the adopted unemployment measure. Our findings suggest state-contingent policies to stabilize the unemployment level when large uncertainty shocks occur.

  • 7. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Granberg, Mark
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Discrimination in hiring: Some experiments, perspectives, and implications2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hiring discrimination is illegal, morally distasteful, and seen as incommensurate with modern societal ideals. From an economic perspective, if employers hire based on anything other than an applicant’s expected productivity they are behaving inefficiently. If group markers are imperfect signals of productivity, discrimination is also inefficient. Measuring discrimination is a substantial practical challenge but indispensable to policy development and theory evaluation. This thesis focuses on correspondence testing, experiments where researchers create fictitious applicants who apply for real jobs, and then analyze differences in responses between groups to arrive at credible estimates of discrimination. 

    In chapter I, "Do ethnicity and sex of employers affect applicants' job interest? An experimental exploration," co-authored with Ali Ahmed and Niklas Ottosson and published 2020 in Journal for Labour Market Research, we present the findings of a survey experiment. We tested the novel hypothesis that job seekers may discriminate against employers based on ethnicity or gender when they are choosing jobs to apply to. Ultimately, we concluded that the survey experiment provided no evidence of such discrimination. 

    In chapter II, "Hiring discrimination against transgender people: Evidence from a field experiment," co-authored with Per A. Andersson and Ali Ahmed and published 2020 in Labour Economics, we present the findings of a correspondence experiment that tested for hiring discrimination against transgender applicants. We found that transgender applicants were indeed discriminated against in hiring, but that there were some important nuances. For example, transgender men seemed to be discriminated against in male-dominated occupations because they were transgender and in female-dominated occupations because they were men. 

    In chapter III, "Gender discrimination in hiring: An experimental reexamination of the Swedish case," co-authored with Ali Ahmed and Shantanu Khanna published 2021 in Plos One, we present the findings of a study that combined data from three previously published correspondence experiments. Although these experiments were originally designed to test other hypotheses, we used the data to test for gender discrimination in hiring. We found discrimination against males, largely driven by female-dominated occupations. 

    In chapter IV, "An assessment of the correspondence testing methodology," I describe and analyze the methodology and ethics of correspondence tests. I do this by reviewing the 199 correspondence studies published between 2005 and 2020, focusing on methodological choices and the ethical implications of those choices.

    List of papers
    1. Do ethnicity and sex of employers affect applicants job interest?: An experimental exploration
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do ethnicity and sex of employers affect applicants job interest?: An experimental exploration
    2020 (English)In: JOURNAL FOR LABOUR MARKET RESEARCH, ISSN 2510-5019, Vol. 54, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Starting a business is one way out of unemployment for many people. Having a small pool of job applicants may, however, affect the quality of manpower available to employers. This paper reports the results of an experimental study that examined whether job-seekers discriminate against prospective employers based on those employers ethnicity and sex. We conducted an experiment with 889 university students, where we presented 10 hypothetical job vacancies in the restaurant sector to the participants. We then asked participants to state their willingness to apply to each job. The ethnicity and sex of the employers were conveyed through employers names by using typical male and female Arabic- and Swedish-sounding names. Overall, our results provided no evidence of ethnic or sex discrimination by job-seekers against employers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2020
    Keywords
    Discrimination; Job search; Labor demand; Labor supply; Workers; Employers; J71; J29
    National Category
    International Migration and Ethnic Relations
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-171470 (URN)10.1186/s12651-020-00281-x (DOI)000582921100001 ()2-s2.0-85094649478 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [2018-03487]

    Available from: 2020-11-20 Created: 2020-11-20 Last updated: 2024-04-23Bibliographically approved
    2. Hiring Discrimination Against Transgender People: Evidence from a Field Experiment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hiring Discrimination Against Transgender People: Evidence from a Field Experiment
    2020 (English)In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 65, article id 101860Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of the first correspondence study that examined hiring discrimination against transgender people. Fictitious job applications (N = 2,224) were sent to employers with job postings in 12 low-skill occupations in Sweden. Overall, 40 percent of cisgender applicants and 34 percent of transgender applicants received a positive employer response to their applications. This result was not robust to the Heckman-Siegelman critique. However, when transgender applicants were compared to the dominant gender in male- and female-dominated occupations, estimates of discrimination were larger and robust to the critique. There was no clear support for the statistical discrimination hypothesis.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER, 2020
    Keywords
    Field experiment; Correspondence test; Transgender people; Discrimination; Labor market
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-168211 (URN)10.1016/j.labeco.2020.101860 (DOI)000554820500025 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [2018-03487]

    Available from: 2020-08-22 Created: 2020-08-22 Last updated: 2022-10-04
    3. Gender discrimination in hiring: An experimental reexamination of the Swedish case
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender discrimination in hiring: An experimental reexamination of the Swedish case
    2021 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1-15, article id e0245513Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We estimated the degree of gender discrimination in Sweden across occupations using a correspondence study design. Our analysis of employer responses to more than 3,200 fictitious job applications across 15 occupations revealed that overall positive employer response rates were higher for women than men by almost 5 percentage points. We found that this gap was driven by employer responses in female-dominated occupations. Male applicants were about half as likely as female applicants to receive a positive employer response in female-dominated occupations. For male-dominated and mixed occupations we found no significant differences in positive employer responses between male and female applicants.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    San Francisco, CA, United States: Public Library of Science, 2021
    National Category
    Economics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173344 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0245513 (DOI)000613891400045 ()33513171 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85100288944 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding: Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research CouncilEuropean Commission [2018-03487]

    Available from: 2021-02-16 Created: 2021-02-16 Last updated: 2022-03-21Bibliographically approved
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  • 8.
    Granberg, Mark
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hiring Discrimination Against Transgender People: Evidence from a Field Experiment2020In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 65, article id 101860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of the first correspondence study that examined hiring discrimination against transgender people. Fictitious job applications (N = 2,224) were sent to employers with job postings in 12 low-skill occupations in Sweden. Overall, 40 percent of cisgender applicants and 34 percent of transgender applicants received a positive employer response to their applications. This result was not robust to the Heckman-Siegelman critique. However, when transgender applicants were compared to the dominant gender in male- and female-dominated occupations, estimates of discrimination were larger and robust to the critique. There was no clear support for the statistical discrimination hypothesis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Granberg, Mark
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ottosson, Niklas
    Linköping University. Swedish Unemployment Insurance Inspectorate IAF, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Do ethnicity and sex of employers affect applicants job interest?: An experimental exploration2020In: JOURNAL FOR LABOUR MARKET RESEARCH, ISSN 2510-5019, Vol. 54, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting a business is one way out of unemployment for many people. Having a small pool of job applicants may, however, affect the quality of manpower available to employers. This paper reports the results of an experimental study that examined whether job-seekers discriminate against prospective employers based on those employers ethnicity and sex. We conducted an experiment with 889 university students, where we presented 10 hypothetical job vacancies in the restaurant sector to the participants. We then asked participants to state their willingness to apply to each job. The ethnicity and sex of the employers were conveyed through employers names by using typical male and female Arabic- and Swedish-sounding names. Overall, our results provided no evidence of ethnic or sex discrimination by job-seekers against employers.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
1 - 9 of 9
CiteExportLink to result list
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