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  • 1.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to improve knowledge of the consequences of cognitive dysfunction in everyday life and of instruments to make these assessments. The thesis contains four studies each of different design using different populations.

    In study I, the relationship between cognitive function, ability to perform activities of daily living and perceived health-related quality of life were investigated in a population of 85-year-old individuals in the community of Linköping (n = 373). The study was part of the Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment 85 (ELSA 85). Even mild cognitive dysfunction correlated with impaired ability to perform activities of daily living and lower health-related quality of life.

    In study II, the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat, a cognitive screening instrument, were evaluated for identifying individuals with cognitive impairment in a primary care population. Cognistat has relatively good diagnostic accuracy with a sensitivity of 0.85, a specificity of 0.79 and a Clinical Utility Index (CUI) of 0.72. The corresponding values were 0.59, 0.91 and 0.53 for the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and 0.26, 0.88 and 0.20 for the Clock Drawing Test (CDT).

    In study III, the aim was to develop an instrument measuring self-perceived or caregiver reported ability to perform everyday life activities in persons with suspected cognitive impairment or dementia and to perform psychometric testing of this instrument, named the Cognitive Impairment in Daily Life (CID). The CID was found to have good content validity.

    In study IV, experiences of cognitive impairment, its consequences in everyday life and the need for support in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia and their relatives were explored. Interviews were performed with five people with MCI, eight people with mild dementia and their relatives (n = 13). The main finding was that persons with MCI and dementia experienced cognitive changes that could be burdensome and result in changed activity patterns.

    In conclusion, the findings support earlier research and show that cognitive dysfunction even at mild stages has an impact on everyday life and reduces perceived quality of life. To improve interventions for persons with cognitive impairment, it is important to assess not only cognitive function but also its consequences in everyday life activities.

    List of papers
    1. Cognition, daily living, and health-related quality of life in 85-year-olds in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognition, daily living, and health-related quality of life in 85-year-olds in Sweden
    2012 (English)In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 421-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how cognition influences activities of daily living and health-related quality of life in 85-year-olds in Sweden (n = 373). Data collection included a postal questionnaire comprising demographics and health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D. The ability to perform personal activities of daily living (PADL) was assessed during a home visit that included administering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was shown in 108 individuals (29%). The majority were independent with respect to PADL. A larger number of participants with cognitive impairment reported that they needed assistance in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) compared to the group without cognitive impairment. Impaired cognition was significantly related to problems with IADL. Significant but low correlations were found between cognition and health-related quality of life – higher ratings on perceived quality of life correlated with higher results on the MMSE.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2012
    Keywords
    Elderly; Cognitive impairment; Population study; Daily living; Quality
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77575 (URN)10.1080/13825585.2011.629290 (DOI)000306171800005 ()
    Available from: 2012-05-23 Created: 2012-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    2. Clinical Utility of Cognistat in Multiprofessional Team Evalutations of Patients with Cognitive Impairment in Swedish Primary Care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinical Utility of Cognistat in Multiprofessional Team Evalutations of Patients with Cognitive Impairment in Swedish Primary Care
    2014 (English)In: International Journal of Family Medicine, ISSN 2090-2042, E-ISSN 2090-2050, Vol. 2014, p. 649253-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Diagnostic evaluations of dementia are often performed in primary health care (PHC). Cognitive evaluation requires validated instruments.

    Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat in a primary care population.

    Methods. Participants were recruited from 4 PHC centres; 52 had cognitive symptoms and 29 were presumed cognitively healthy. Participants were tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and Cognistat. Clinical diagnoses, based on independent neuropsychological examination and a medical consensus discussion in secondary care, were used as criteria for diagnostic accuracy analyses.

    Results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.85, 0.79, 0.85, and 0.79, respectively, for Cognistat; 0.59, 0.91, 0.90, and 0.61 for MMSE; 0.26, 0.88, 0.75, and 0.46 for CDT; 0.70, 0.79, 0.82, and 0.65 for MMSE and CDT combined. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.82 for Cognistat, 0.75 for MMSE, 0.57 for CDT, and 0.74 for MMSE and CDT combined.

    Conclusions. The diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat was better than the other tests alone or combined. Cognistat is well adapted for cognitive evaluations in PHC and can help the general practitioner to decide which patients should be referred to secondary care.

     

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107048 (URN)10.1155/2014/649253 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-06-04 Created: 2014-06-04 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Development of an instrument for measuring activities of daily living in persons with suspected cognitive impairment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an instrument for measuring activities of daily living in persons with suspected cognitive impairment
    2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 230-239Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, structured assessment of function and activity has high priority when investigating for dementia.

    Aim/objectives: The aim was to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure self-reported and/or informant-reported ability to perform activities of daily living in persons with suspected cognitive impairment.

    Material and methods: The Cognitive Impairment in Daily Life (CID) instrument has been developed in several phases. Content validity was achieved through five expert panels using a Content Validity Index (CVI). The content was tested further in a pilot study of 51 patients and 49 relatives from primary care or a specialist memory clinic.

    Results: Content validity was good with a CVI index of 0.83. All patients considered that relevant activities were included. Most relatives considered that the activities included in the instrument were adequate and captured the patients’ difficulties in daily life. Some adjustments to the items and scale were suggested and these were done after each phase. In general, relatives indicated more difficulties than patients.

    Conclusion: The CID instrument seems promising in terms of content validity. Further testing of reliability and construct validity is ongoing.

    Keywords
    Cognition, dementia investigation, instrument development
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115306 (URN)10.3109/11038128.2016.1139621 (DOI)000374634100006 ()
    Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. Cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life: experiences of people with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and their relatives
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life: experiences of people with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and their relatives
    2015 (English)In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 949-958Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore experiences of cognitive impairment, its consequences in everyday life and need for support in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia and their relatives.

    Methods: A qualitative approach with an explorative design with interviews was chosen. The participants included five people with MCI and eight people with mild dementia and their relatives. All participants were recruited at a geriatric memory clinic in Sweden. The Grounded Theory method was used.

    Results: The following categories emerged: noticing cognitive changes; changed activity patterns; coping strategies; uncertainty about own ability and environmental reactions; support in everyday life; support from the healthcare system; consequences in everyday life for relatives; and support for relatives. The main findings were that people with MCI and dementia experienced cognitive changes that could be burdensome and changed activity patterns. Most of them, however, considered themselves capable of coping on their own. The relatives noticed cognitive changes and activity disruptions to a greater extent and tried to be supportive in everyday life. Degree of awareness varied and lack of awareness could lead to many problems in everyday life.

    Conclusions: Perceived cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life were individual and differed among people with MCI or dementia and their relatives. Thus, healthcare professionals must listen to both people with cognitive impairment and their relatives for optimal individual care planning. Support such as education groups and day care could be more tailored towards the early stages of dementia.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cambridge University Press, 2015
    Keywords
    Alzheimer’s disease; activities of daily living; qualitative research
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115307 (URN)10.1017/S1041610215000058 (DOI)000354093800009 ()25644289 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
  • 2.
    Johansson, Maria M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Maintaining health-related quality of life from 85 to 93 years of age despite decreased functional ability2019In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 348-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The ‘oldest-old’ is the most rapidly growing age group in Sweden and in the western world. This group is known to be at great risk of increased functional dependency and the need for help in their daily lives. The aim of this research was to examine how the oldest-old change over time regarding health-related quality of life, cognition, depression and ability to perform activities of daily living and investigate what factors explain health-related quality of life at age 85 and 93 years.

    Methods

    In this study, 60 individuals from the Swedish Elderly in Linköping Screening Assessment study were followed from age 85 to 93 years. Measurements used were EQ-5D, Geriatric Depression Scale, Mini Mental State Examination and ability to perform activities of daily living. Nonparametric statistics and regression analyses were used.

    Results

    Although the individuals had increased mobility problems, decreased ability to manage activities of daily living, and thus had increased need of assistance, they scored their health-related quality of life at age 93 years at almost the same level as at age 85 years. No depression and low dependence in activities of daily living speaks in favour of higher health-related quality of life.

    Conclusions

    Health-related quality of life can be maintained during ageing despite decreased functional ability and increased need of assistance in daily life.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Maria M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Validation of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination and the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test in investigations of dementia2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 282-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this retrospective study was to validate two commonly used instruments, Cognistat and the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, RBMT, for detection of MCI and mild dementia. Two different diagnosis groups, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease combined with mixed dementia representing mild dementia (MD), were compared with a group of patients who did not receive a diagnosis of dementia. All patients were assessed at a specialized outpatient memory clinic in a university hospital in Sweden using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cognistat, and RBMT. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratio were calculated for the tests. The Cognistat and RBMT have moderate validity in the detection of MCI and mild dementia. On their own, none of the tests used is sufficient for diagnosing MCI or mild dementia. A combination of the Cognistat and RBMT provides additional information in early stage dementia; in this regard the RBMT is better than the Cognistat, which also has other limitations. The RBMT can be helpful for distinguishing between MCI and mild dementia. There is a need for a more sensitive screening test to capture early cognitive impairment related to patients' occupational performance and problems in daily life.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Maria M.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine.
    Cognition, daily living, and health-related quality of life in 85-year-olds in Sweden2012In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 421-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how cognition influences activities of daily living and health-related quality of life in 85-year-olds in Sweden (n = 373). Data collection included a postal questionnaire comprising demographics and health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D. The ability to perform personal activities of daily living (PADL) was assessed during a home visit that included administering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was shown in 108 individuals (29%). The majority were independent with respect to PADL. A larger number of participants with cognitive impairment reported that they needed assistance in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) compared to the group without cognitive impairment. Impaired cognition was significantly related to problems with IADL. Significant but low correlations were found between cognition and health-related quality of life – higher ratings on perceived quality of life correlated with higher results on the MMSE.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life: experiences of people with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia and their relatives2015In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 949-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore experiences of cognitive impairment, its consequences in everyday life and need for support in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia and their relatives.

    Methods: A qualitative approach with an explorative design with interviews was chosen. The participants included five people with MCI and eight people with mild dementia and their relatives. All participants were recruited at a geriatric memory clinic in Sweden. The Grounded Theory method was used.

    Results: The following categories emerged: noticing cognitive changes; changed activity patterns; coping strategies; uncertainty about own ability and environmental reactions; support in everyday life; support from the healthcare system; consequences in everyday life for relatives; and support for relatives. The main findings were that people with MCI and dementia experienced cognitive changes that could be burdensome and changed activity patterns. Most of them, however, considered themselves capable of coping on their own. The relatives noticed cognitive changes and activity disruptions to a greater extent and tried to be supportive in everyday life. Degree of awareness varied and lack of awareness could lead to many problems in everyday life.

    Conclusions: Perceived cognitive impairment and its consequences in everyday life were individual and differed among people with MCI or dementia and their relatives. Thus, healthcare professionals must listen to both people with cognitive impairment and their relatives for optimal individual care planning. Support such as education groups and day care could be more tailored towards the early stages of dementia.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Development of an instrument for measuring activities of daily living in persons with suspected cognitive impairment2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 230-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, structured assessment of function and activity has high priority when investigating for dementia.

    Aim/objectives: The aim was to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure self-reported and/or informant-reported ability to perform activities of daily living in persons with suspected cognitive impairment.

    Material and methods: The Cognitive Impairment in Daily Life (CID) instrument has been developed in several phases. Content validity was achieved through five expert panels using a Content Validity Index (CVI). The content was tested further in a pilot study of 51 patients and 49 relatives from primary care or a specialist memory clinic.

    Results: Content validity was good with a CVI index of 0.83. All patients considered that relevant activities were included. Most relatives considered that the activities included in the instrument were adequate and captured the patients’ difficulties in daily life. Some adjustments to the items and scale were suggested and these were done after each phase. In general, relatives indicated more difficulties than patients.

    Conclusion: The CID instrument seems promising in terms of content validity. Further testing of reliability and construct validity is ongoing.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Segernäs Kvitting, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Wressle, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Clinical Utility of Cognistat in Multiprofessional Team Evalutations of Patients with Cognitive Impairment in Swedish Primary Care2014In: International Journal of Family Medicine, ISSN 2090-2042, E-ISSN 2090-2050, Vol. 2014, p. 649253-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Diagnostic evaluations of dementia are often performed in primary health care (PHC). Cognitive evaluation requires validated instruments.

    Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat in a primary care population.

    Methods. Participants were recruited from 4 PHC centres; 52 had cognitive symptoms and 29 were presumed cognitively healthy. Participants were tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and Cognistat. Clinical diagnoses, based on independent neuropsychological examination and a medical consensus discussion in secondary care, were used as criteria for diagnostic accuracy analyses.

    Results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.85, 0.79, 0.85, and 0.79, respectively, for Cognistat; 0.59, 0.91, 0.90, and 0.61 for MMSE; 0.26, 0.88, 0.75, and 0.46 for CDT; 0.70, 0.79, 0.82, and 0.65 for MMSE and CDT combined. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.82 for Cognistat, 0.75 for MMSE, 0.57 for CDT, and 0.74 for MMSE and CDT combined.

    Conclusions. The diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat was better than the other tests alone or combined. Cognistat is well adapted for cognitive evaluations in PHC and can help the general practitioner to decide which patients should be referred to secondary care.

     

  • 8.
    Marcusson, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Nord, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
    Alwin, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Levin, Lars-Åke
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dannapfel, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thomas, Kristin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Poksinska, Bozena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sverker, Annette M.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Activity and Health.
    Olaison, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cedersund, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division Ageing and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hellstrom, Ingrid
    Norrkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Kullberg, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Böttiger, Ylva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Dong, Huan-Ji
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyth, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Operations management Region Östergötland, Research and Development Unit.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Operations management Region Östergötland, Research and Development Unit.
    Proactive healthcare for frail elderly persons: study protocol for a prospective controlled primary care intervention in Sweden2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e027847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The provision of healthcare services is not dedicated to promoting maintenance of function and does not target frail older persons at high risk of the main causes of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a proactive medical and social intervention in comparison with conventional care on a group of persons aged 75 and older selected by statistical prediction.

    Methods and analysis In a pragmatic multicentre primary care setting (n=1600), a prediction model to find elderly (75+) persons at high risk of complex medical care or hospitalisation is used, followed by proactive medical and social care, in comparison with usual care. The study started in April 2017 with a run-in period until December 2017, followed by a 2-year continued intervention phase that will continue until the end of December 2019. The intervention includes several tools (multiprofessional team for rehabilitation, social support, medical care home visits and telephone support). Primary outcome measures are healthcare cost, number of hospital care episodes, hospital care days and mortality. Secondary outcome measures are number of outpatient visits, cost of social care and informal care, number of prescribed drugs, health-related quality of life, cost-effectiveness, sense of security, functional status and ability. We also study the care of elderly persons in a broader sense, by covering the perspectives of the patients, the professional staff and the management, and on a political level, by using semistructured interviews, qualitative methods and a questionnaire.

    Ethics and dissemination Approved by the regional ethical review board in Linköping (Dnr 2016/347-31). The results will be presented in scientific journals and scientific meetings during 2019–2022 and are planned to be used for the development of future care models.

  • 9.
    Segernäs Kvitting, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Accuracy of the Cognitive Assessment Battery in a Primary Care Population2019In: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, E-ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 294-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are several cognitive assessment tools used in primary care, e.g., the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The Cognitive Assessment Battery (CAB) was introduced as a sensitive tool to detect cognitive decline in primary care. However, primary care validation is lacking. Therefore, we investigated the accuracy of the CAB in a primary care population. 

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy of the CAB in a primary care population. 

    Methods: Data from 46 individuals with cognitive impairment and 33 individuals who visited the primary care with somatic noncognitive symptoms were analyzed. They were investigated with the MMSE, the CAB, and a battery of neuropsychological tests; they also underwent consultation with a geriatric specialist. The accuracy of the CAB was assessed using c-statistics and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to quantify the binary outcomes (“no cognitive impairment” or “cognitive impairment”).

    Results: The “cognitive impairment” group was significantly different from the unimpaired group for all the subtests of the CAB. When accuracy was based on binary significant reduction or not in one or several domains of the CAB, the AUC varied between 0.685 and 0.772. However, when a summation or logistic regression of several subcategories was performed, using the numerical values for each subcategory, the AUC was >0.9. For comparison, the AUC for the MMSE was 0.849.

    Conclusions: The accuracy of the CAB in a primary care population is poor to good when using binary cutoffs. Accuracy can be improved to high when using a summation or logistic regression of the numerical data of the subcategories. Considering CAB time, lack of adequate age norms, and a good accuracy for the MMSE, implementation of the CAB in primary care is not recommended at present based on the results of this study.

  • 10.
    Segernäs Kvitting, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, General Practice. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Central County.
    Wimo, Anders
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Geriatric. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Geriatric Medicine in Linköping.
    A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT): Usefulness in dementia evaluations in primary care2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To validate A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) as an instrument in diagnostic dementia evaluations against final clinical diagnosis and compare AQT with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) in primary care. Design. Primary health care cohort survey. Setting. Four primary health care centres and a geriatric memory clinic in Sweden. Patients. 81 patients (age 65 and above) were included: 52 with cognitive symptoms and 29 presumed cognitively healthy. None of the patients had a previous documented dementia diagnosis. All patients performed MMSE, CDT, and AQT at the primary health care clinic and were referred for extensive neuropsychological testing at a memory clinic. AQT was validated against final clinical diagnosis determined by a geriatric specialist and a neuropsychologist. Main outcome measures. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), likelihood ratios, correlation data, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC). Results. For MMSE, sensitivity and specificity was 0.587 and 0.909; CDT 0.261 and 0.879; and AQT 0.783 and 0.667, respectively. For the combination of MMSE and CDT, sensitivity and specificity was 0.696 and 0.788, for MMSE and AQT 0.913 and 0.636. The ROC curve for AQT showed an area under curve (AUC) of 0.773. Conclusion. Our results suggest AQT is a usable test for dementia assessments in primary care. Sensitivity for AQT is superior to CDT, equivalent to MMSE, and comparable to the combination MMSE and CDT. MMSE in combination with AQT improves sensitivity. Because AQT is user-friendly and quickly administered, it could be applicable for primary care settings.

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