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  • 1.
    Guyader, Hugo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    "True Sharing" or "Sharing Economy" Fad?2019In: / [ed] Bo Edvardsson, Anders Gustafsson, Mary Jo Bitner, Rohit Verma, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the semantics, the “sharing economy” is not about true sharing (e.g., Belk 2014) but really about firms offering the benefits of owning goods without the burdens of ownership—the rental/access paradigm in service research (Lovelock and Gumesson 2004). In this new sharing paradigm conceptualized as collaborative consumption (Benoit et al. 2017), services firms take on the role of enablers by developing online platforms facilitating the peer-to-peer (P2P) exchanges of private resources—also called consumer-to-consumer (C2C) exchanges—forming a triadic relationship between peer providers and consumers.

    While true sharing practices are not market-mediated, collaborative consumption practices in the “sharing economy” are market-mediated by platforms. In other words, consumers compensate peer providers monetarily for using their goods temporarily. That is, collaborative consumption practices are situated between true sharing practices and traditional market exchanges. 

    However, there has been a lack of empirical research impeding the understanding of collaborative consumption. Most published articles on the phenomenon are conceptual or based on illustrations and anecdotes (e.g., Belk 2014; Benoit et al. 2017). In particular, scholarly research has yet to explore what participation motives for collaborative consumption are most related to people’s inclination towards the true sharing ethos, their trend orientation in the fad in the “sharing economy”, or a professional orientation (vs. amateurism).

    The present study explores the different relationships between the three most important drivers of individual participation in collaborative consumption (i.e., cost-savings, social motives, and environmental concerns) and the participants’ orientation towards true sharing, the “sharing economy”, and professionalization. The results (see Table 1) are based on three OLS regression models, based on a survey of 381 active platform users, in the context of ridesharing. Cost-savings (β= .39, p< .001) and social motives (β= .34, p< .001), but not environmental concerns (ß= .08, p= n.s.) are significantly related to a truesharing orientation. Moreover, social motives (β= .27, p< .001) but neither cost-savings (β= .06, p= n.s.) nor environmental concerns (β= .09, p= n.s.) are significantly related to the “sharing economy” trend orientation. Finally, cost-savings (β= .11, p< .05), social motives (β= .22, p< .001), and environmental concerns (β= .18, p< .001) are significantly related to a professional orientation.

    This study contributes to service research by focusing on the P2P or C2C consumer context that is specific to the collaborative consumption phenomenon and mostly empirically unexplored, and showing how it differs from access-based services with B2C interactions. Contrary to what would be expected (i.e. social motives would only be related with true sharing, and cost-savings more likely to be linked with the “sharing economy” trend), the study shows that social motives play a strong role for both orientations, as well as professionalization. That is, to benefit from the fad of the “sharing economy”, firms should balance their communication on cost-savings with an emphasis on the social aspects of collaborative consumption without falling into the pitfalls of “sharewashing”.

  • 2.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cognitive Biases as a Challenge to Value-Based Pricing in Business Markets2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 Winter AMA Conference / [ed] Rajesh Chandy (London Business School), J. Jeff Inman (University of Pittsburgh), Christine Moorman (Duke University), American Marketing Association , 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?2017In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - While marketing and management research suggests that managers individual characteristics influence pricing decisions, the influence of personality traits in this context remains unclear. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five basic personality traits of the five-factor model (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and neuroticism) and three basic pricing practices (value-, competition- and cost-informed).

    Design/methodology/approach - On the basis of a non-experimental decision-making scenario, the analysis examines the pricing decisions of 57 managers in relation to a new business service.

    Findings - The results suggest that managers conscientiousness and openness to experience are positively related to preference for value- informed pricing. Similarly, managers agreeableness is positively related to preference for competition- informed pricing and managers openness to experience and agreeableness are positively related to preference for cost-informed pricing.

    Research limitations/implications - The cross-sectional study design does not support causal inference, and the modest sample size may limit the external validity of the findings.

    Practical implications - By increasing awareness of the influence of personality on pricing preferences, the findings are of relevance to managers who are directly involved in pricing decisions. Additionally, the findings are informative for managers who must assign responsibility for pricing authority within firms.

    Originality/value - This empirical exploration of the relationship between certain personality traits and specific pricing practices contributes to the literature on psychological aspects of pricing theory by showing how managerial personality influences pricing preferences under uncertainty.

  • 4.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enabling customer value creation is central to marketing theory and practice. Yet, doing so does not ensure that supplier firms profit from it. Value-based pricing and selling come with the prospect of translating customer value creation into greater profits for suppliers. However, despite sustained interest, only a limited number of firms emphasize value-based pricing and selling. Existing research has highlighted organizational challenges as potential reasons. Unfortunately, this focus on organizational challenges obscures the role of individuals within organizations (i.e., its micro-foundations), such as the fact that managers and salespeople determine and realize prices. The purpose of this thesis is thus to describe and analyze the micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling in business markets.

    The thesis’ conceptual framework introduces bounded rationality and heterogeneity—two overlooked forces—to investigate the affective, cognitive, and motivational micro-foundations of value-based pricing and selling. The thesis’ empirical foundation consists of five papers that investigate the microfoundations suggested by the framework.

    The findings indicate that research would benefit from a wider variety of research approaches. Currently, insights into micro-foundations are lacking, in part due to the focus on research designs and theories aimed at the organizational level; experimental designs and theories from psychology would allow amendments to prior research. Furthermore, individual rationality and individual differences play a role. In this regard, managers’ cognitive biases impact upon the extent to which firms focus on value-based pricing. Moreover, price presentation impacts managers’ value perception and purchase intention. The findings also suggest that managers’ personalities and salespeople’s experience and learning orientation are important individual differences affecting the emphasis on valuebased pricing and selling. Consequently, affective, cognitive and motivational micro-foundations—arising due to bounded rationality and heterogeneity— explain some of the challenges associated with value-based pricing and selling.

    This thesis contributes with insights into several micro-foundations affecting value-based pricing and selling. In so doing, the thesis belongs to a growing stream of research that is shifting the focus from organizational processes to the individual foundations of value-based pricing and selling. The thesis also provides suggestions on how managers can use micro-foundations to the advantage of their firms.

    List of papers
    1. Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 78, p. 101-110Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the development and current state of pricing strategy research by undertaking a content analysis of 515 articles published in leading academic journals between 1995 and 2016. The results suggest several developments in research focus and methodology; recent research has focused more strongly on services and applies more rigorous research designs. The results also indicate a persistent focus on consumer markets and economic theories, as well as an increasing consideration of demand-side respondents, at the expense of supply-side respondents. An important feature of this review is a set of actionable takeaways, with both theoretical and methodological implications for pricing strategy research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Pricing strategy; Literature review; Content analysis; Marketing; Takeaways
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137345 (URN)10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.05.005 (DOI)000405053800010 ()
    Funder
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Note

    Funding agencies: Torsten Soderbergs Stiftelse, Sweden [E24/14]

    Available from: 2017-05-13 Created: 2017-05-13 Last updated: 2018-06-21Bibliographically approved
    2. Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does managerial personality influence pricing practices under uncertainty?
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - While marketing and management research suggests that managers individual characteristics influence pricing decisions, the influence of personality traits in this context remains unclear. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five basic personality traits of the five-factor model (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, agreeableness and neuroticism) and three basic pricing practices (value-, competition- and cost-informed).

    Design/methodology/approach - On the basis of a non-experimental decision-making scenario, the analysis examines the pricing decisions of 57 managers in relation to a new business service.

    Findings - The results suggest that managers conscientiousness and openness to experience are positively related to preference for value- informed pricing. Similarly, managers agreeableness is positively related to preference for competition- informed pricing and managers openness to experience and agreeableness are positively related to preference for cost-informed pricing.

    Research limitations/implications - The cross-sectional study design does not support causal inference, and the modest sample size may limit the external validity of the findings.

    Practical implications - By increasing awareness of the influence of personality on pricing preferences, the findings are of relevance to managers who are directly involved in pricing decisions. Additionally, the findings are informative for managers who must assign responsibility for pricing authority within firms.

    Originality/value - This empirical exploration of the relationship between certain personality traits and specific pricing practices contributes to the literature on psychological aspects of pricing theory by showing how managerial personality influences pricing preferences under uncertainty.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    EMERALD GROUP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017
    Keywords
    Personality; Pricing; PLS modelling; Judgement and decision making
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143961 (URN)10.1108/JPBM-11-2016-1352 (DOI)000417505100009 ()2-s2.0-85038432657 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Available from: 2017-12-29 Created: 2017-12-29 Last updated: 2019-10-31
    3. Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets
    2018 (English)In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 68, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate how cognitive biases inhibit value-based pricing practices among managers in business markets, this article considers five different cognitive biases—perceived lack of control, herding, fixed-pie bias, ambiguity aversion, and egocentric fairness bias—and their effects on value-based pricing. Despite recent calls for more research on the psychological aspects of pricing, few studies have focused on business markets. Drawing on research in psychology and marketing for its theoretical foundation, this overview extends the limited body of existing research. The article's key contribution is to explain how psychological challenges affect value-based pricing practices, with implications and suggestions for further research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    Keywords
    Value-based pricing; Cognitive bias; Debiasing; Business market; Managerial decision-making
    National Category
    Business Administration Applied Psychology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141951 (URN)10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.09.028 (DOI)000424310200008 ()2-s2.0-85031322039 (Scopus ID)
    Funder
    Torsten Söderbergs stiftelse, E24/14
    Available from: 2017-10-14 Created: 2017-10-14 Last updated: 2018-06-21Bibliographically approved
  • 5.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pricing value and selling value: A view on individuals within organizations2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the heart of long-term success lies firms’ ability to provide customers with products and services that enable customer value creation and firms’ ability to capture value in the form of profits. To this effect, managers and salespeople have an impact on a firm’s value creation and value capture ability through their pricing and selling behavior and decisions. Value-based pricing and value-based selling are two practices that allow firms to create customer value and capture value for the firm that have witnessed a recent surge in interest. Despite this growing interest, many investigations reside on the firm level, and thus, factors influencing individual managers and salespeople in the usage of both practices have been rather overlooked. The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to investigate factors influencing those individuals’ practice of pricing and selling value.

    The research is based on three articles that investigate pricing and selling value from different vantage points. The articles include a literature review that shows developments in and the current state of pricing strategy research; a study investigating the effects of managerial personality on the usage of value-based pricing for a new industrial service; and a survey that explores salesperson’s usage of value-based selling in the steel industry.

    The thesis finds that pricing strategy research increasingly considers customer value by investigating strategies grounded in value-based pricing practices and increasing focus on customer value through more research on services. Further, the magnitude of internal and external factors influences managers and salespersons’ use of value-based pricing and selling. Finally, the research outlines approaches for managers responsible for pricing and selling to deal with the effects of the identified factors on value-based pricing and selling.

    The research contributes with an exploration and assessment of factors influencing managers and salespeople in using value-based pricing and selling and discusses how firms can deal with these factors. In doing so, the research contributes to pricing and selling literature and the evolving focus on individual aspects in pricing and selling value.

  • 6.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Value-based pricing and cognitive biases: An overview for business markets2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 68, p. 86-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate how cognitive biases inhibit value-based pricing practices among managers in business markets, this article considers five different cognitive biases—perceived lack of control, herding, fixed-pie bias, ambiguity aversion, and egocentric fairness bias—and their effects on value-based pricing. Despite recent calls for more research on the psychological aspects of pricing, few studies have focused on business markets. Drawing on research in psychology and marketing for its theoretical foundation, this overview extends the limited body of existing research. The article's key contribution is to explain how psychological challenges affect value-based pricing practices, with implications and suggestions for further research.

  • 7.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brashear-Alejandro, Thomas
    Department of Marketing, UMass Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.
    Value-based selling: a multi-component exploration2019In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 360-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to investigate factors that affect the use of value-based selling and the subsequent influences on salespeople’s sales performance.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Industrial salespeople from five steel manufacturers were surveyed. Scales measure three components of value-based selling: comprehension, crafting and confirmation. Partial least squares path analysis tested the conceptual model.

    Findings

    Salespeople’s learning orientation has the greatest impact on the use of value-based selling. Managerial support exerts a positive effect on crafting. Salespeople’s experience has a positive impact on comprehension and confirmation. The implementation of value-based selling has a positive effect on sales performance.

    Research limitations/implications

    The research is cross-sectional, with a small sample size (n = 60). The data were collected from a single source (i.e. salespeople).

    Practical implications

    The results suggest that value-based selling is a multi-component sales process that requires balancing managerial actions among individual and organizational factors.

    Originality/value

    This paper presents a broad evaluation of measures and assessments of value-based selling in business-to-business sales settings. The findings provide new elaborations on the theoretical and practical implications of value-based selling and reveal which individual and organizational factors affect the usage of value-based selling.

  • 8.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    The effect of price partitioning on customer perceived value.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    Pricing strategy: A review of 22 years of marketing research2017In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 78, p. 101-110Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the development and current state of pricing strategy research by undertaking a content analysis of 515 articles published in leading academic journals between 1995 and 2016. The results suggest several developments in research focus and methodology; recent research has focused more strongly on services and applies more rigorous research designs. The results also indicate a persistent focus on consumer markets and economic theories, as well as an increasing consideration of demand-side respondents, at the expense of supply-side respondents. An important feature of this review is a set of actionable takeaways, with both theoretical and methodological implications for pricing strategy research.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-05-11 16:06
  • 10.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    Pricing strategy: An assessment of 20 years of B2B marketing research2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    Service and Solution Pricing and Revenue Models: A Review and Categorization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Kienzler, Mario
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Hanken School of Economics, Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management.
    Hoshi Larsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Managerial Intuition in Price Setting: Boon or Bane?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kindström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kienzler, Mario
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energitjänster i energibolag: ett ökat värdeskapande med kunden i fokus2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med detta projekt var att undersöka förutsättningarna för att öka tjänsteinnehållet på den svenska energimarknaden utifrån ett energibolags perspektiv. Mer konkret omfattar rapporten följande:

    • Beskrivning och analys av implementeringsprocessen av energitjänster hos ett energibolag; detta skedde genom att följa implementeringen av vissa typer av energitjänster. Målet var att ta fram ett ramverk för hur energibolag kan arbeta för att effektivt implementera och leverera utvecklade energitjänster (checklistor, processteg etcetera) samt nyckelkriterier för att vara framgångsrik i detta.
    • Undersökning av vilka typer av avancerade energitjänster som kan utvecklas, och hur (till exempel hur dessa kan paketeras), med utgångspunkt i kundens behov och med kunden som medskapare. Detta skedde genom att identifiera dels de behov och de utmaningar som kunder står inför (oberoende av leverantör), dels de typer av tjänster som har potential att skapa värde (utifrån marknadens behov). Målet var att ta fram en typologi av energitjänster med typiska karaktärsdrag samt även klassificera vilket värde (för både kund och leverantör) som kan skapas. Denna typologi kan användas av energibolag (och andra) vid nyutveckling av tjänster men även vid kundkontakter och strategiutveckling.
    • Beskrivning av de framtida affärsmodeller som är möjliga för att ett energibolag på ett effektivt och lönsamt sätt ska ha potential att utveckla, sälja och leverera energitjänster.

    Det som gör denna rapport unik är att den ämnar kombinera energitjänsteforskningen med den numera rika flora av vetenskaplig litteratur kopplad till så kallad tjänstefiering. Främst har forskning inom tjänsteinnovation berört tillverkade företags produkt- och tjänsteportföljer. I denna rapport ämnar de rådande teoribildningarna inom forskningsfältet tjänsteinnovationer kopplas till den relativt sätt nya så kallade energitjänstemarknaden men där flera likheter med tillverkande industri finns, till exempel ett traditionellt sett starkt fokus på den produkt som säljs och inte kring tjänster kopplade till produkten.

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