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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Fareed
    et al.
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia; School Basic Appl Science, India.
    Yong, Yean K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Tan, Hong Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ahrenstorf, Gerrit
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Jacobs, Roland
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schmidt, Reinhold E.
    Hannover Medical Sch, Germany.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ansari, Abdul W.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Negative Checkpoint Regulatory Molecule 2B4 (CD244) Upregulation Is Associated with Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Alterations and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression2017In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, article id 338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are implicated in innate immune responses against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the determinants of cellular dysfunction across the iNKT cells subsets are seldom defined in HIV disease. Herein, we provide evidence for the involvement of the negative checkpoint regulator (NCR) 2B4 in iNKT cell alteration in a well-defined cohort of HIV-seropositive anti-retroviral therapy (ART) naive, ART-treated, and elite controllers (ECs). We report on exaggerated 2B4 expression on iNKT cells of HIV-infected treatment-naive individuals. In sharp contrast to CD4-iNKT cells, 2B4 expression was significantly higher on CD4+ iNKT cell subset. Notably, an increased level of 2B4 on iNKT cells was strongly correlated with parameters associated with HIV disease progression. Further, iNKT cells from ARTnaive individuals were defective in their ability to produce intracellular IFN-gamma Together, our results suggest that the levels of 2B4 expression and the downstream co-inhibitory signaling events may contribute to impaired iNKT cell responses.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Blanka
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lorell, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Raffetseder, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Blomgran, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Autophagy induction targeting mTORC1 enhances Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication in HIV co-infected human macrophages2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 28171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To survive and replicate in macrophages Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has developed strategies to subvert host defence mechanisms, including autophagy. Autophagy induction has the potential to clear Mtb, but little is known about its effect during controlled tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex1 (mTORC1) inhibitors were used to induce autophagy in human macrophages pre-infected with HIV-1(BaL) and infected with a low dose of Mtb (co-infected), or single Mtb infected (single infected). The controlled Mtb infection was disrupted upon mTOR inhibition resulting in increased Mtb replication in a dose-dependent manner which was more pronounced during co-infection. The increased Mtb replication could be explained by the marked reduction in phagosome acidification upon mTOR inhibition. Autophagy stimulation targeting mTORC1 clearly induced a basal autophagy with flux that was unlinked to the subcellular environment of the Mtb vacuoles, which showed a concurrent suppression in acidification and maturation/flux. Overall our findings indicate that mTOR inhibition during Mtb or HIV/Mtb co-infection interferes with phagosomal maturation, thereby supporting mycobacterial growth during low-dose and controlled infection. Therefore pharmacological induction of autophagy through targeting of the canonical mTORC1-pathway should be handled with caution during controlled tuberculosis, since this could have serious consequences for patients with HIV/Mtb co-infection.

  • 3.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Gopal, Kaliappan
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Mohamed, Rosmawati
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Vadivelu, Jamuna
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ansari, Abdul W.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Rothan, Hussin A.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ram, M. Ravishankar
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Zandi, Keivan
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Chang, Li Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Vignesh, Ramachandran
    YRG Centre AIDS Research and Educ, India.
    Che, Karlhans F.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory Vaccine Centre, GA USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kamarul, Tunku
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection triggers spontaneous differential expression of biosignatures associated with T cell exhaustion and apoptosis signaling in peripheral blood mononucleocytes2015In: Apoptosis (London), ISSN 1360-8185, E-ISSN 1573-675X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 466-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection appears to trigger the onset of immune exhaustion to potentially assist viral persistence in the host, eventually leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of HCV on the spontaneous expression of markers suggestive of immune exhaustion and spontaneous apoptosis in immune cells of chronic HCV (CHC) disease largely remain elusive. We investigated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CHC patients to determine the spontaneous recruitment of cellular reactive oxygen species (cROS), immunoregulatory and exhaustion markers relative to healthy controls. Using a commercial QuantiGenePlex(A (R)) 2.0 assay, we determined the spontaneous expression profile of 80 different pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in persistent HCV disease. Onset of spontaneous apoptosis significantly correlated with the up-regulation of cROS, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin H synthase (COX-2/PGHS), Foxp3, Dtx1, Blimp1, Lag3 and Cd160. Besides, spontaneous differential surface protein expression suggestive of T cell inhibition viz., TRAIL, TIM-3, PD-1 and BTLA on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CTLA-4 on CD4+ T cells was also evident. Increased up-regulation of Tnf, Tp73, Casp14, Tnfrsf11b, Bik and Birc8 was observed, whereas FasLG, Fas, Ripk2, Casp3, Dapk1, Tnfrsf21, and Cflar were moderately up-regulated in HCV-infected subjects. Our observation suggests the spontaneous onset of apoptosis signaling and T cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease.

  • 4.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Mohamed, Rosmawati
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Vadivelu, Jamuna
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Chang, Li Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Gopal, Kaliappan
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ram, Mani R.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ansari, Abdul W.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory Vaccine Centre, GA USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Increased frequency of late-senescent T cells lacking CD127 in chronic hepatitis C disease2015In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 466-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundHepatitis C virus (HCV) causes persistent disease in similar to 85% of infected individuals, where the viral replication appears to be tightly controlled by HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. Accumulation of senescent T cells during infection results in considerable loss of functional HCV-specific immune responses. Materials and methodsWe characterized the distinct T-cell phenotypes based on the expression of costimulatory molecules CD28 and CD27, senescence markers PD-1 and CD57, chronic immune activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR, and survival marker CD127 (IL-7R) by flow cytometry following activation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin. ResultsHCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from chronic HCV (CHC) patients showed increased expression of PD-1. Furthermore, virus-specific CD4+ T cells of CHC-infected subjects displayed relatively increased expression of HLA-DR and CD38 relative to HCV-specific CD8+ T cells. The CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from HCV-infected individuals showed significant increase of late-differentiated T cells suggestive of immunosenescence. In addition, we found that the plasma viral loads positively correlated with the levels of CD57 and PD-1 expressed on T cells. ConclusionsChronic HCV infection results in increased turnover of late-senescent T cells that lack survival potentials, possibly contributing to viral persistence. Our findings challenge the prominence of senescent T-cell phenotypes in clinical hepatitis C infection.

  • 5.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Mohamed, Rosmawati
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Vadivelu, Jamuna
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Chang, Li Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Yong, Yean K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ravishankar Ram, M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Gopal, Kaliappan
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory Vaccine Centre, GA 30329 USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Peripheral loss of CD8(+)CD161(++)TCRV7 center dot 2(+) mucosal-associated invariant T cells in chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients2016In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells play an important role in innate host defence. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion and are functionally weakened in chronic viral infections. However, their role in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unclear. Materials and methodsWe investigated the frequency of CD8(+)CD161(++)TCR V7.2(+) MAIT cells in a cross-sectional cohort of chronic HCV-infected patients (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 25). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were investigated for circulating MAIT cell frequency, liver-homing (CCR5 and CD103), biomarkers of immune exhaustion (PD-1, TIM-3 and CTLA-4), chronic immune activation (CD38 and HLA-DR), and immunosenescence (CD57) by flow cytometry. ResultsThe frequency of MAIT cells was significantly decreased, and increased signs of immune exhaustion and chronic immune activation were clearly evident on MAIT cells of HCV-infected patients. Decrease of CCR5 on circulating MAIT cells is suggestive of their peripheral loss in chronic HCV-infected patients. MAIT cells also showed significantly increased levels of HLA-DR, CD38, PD-1, TIM-3 and CTLA-4, besides CD57 in chronic HCV disease. ConclusionsImmune exhaustion and senescence of CD8(+)CD161(++)TCR V7.2(+) MAIT cells could contribute to diminished innate defence attributes likely facilitating viral persistence and HCV disease progression.

  • 6.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Mohamed, Rosmawati
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Vadivelu, Jamuna
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Yen Chang, Li
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Vignesh, Ramachandran
    University of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Krishnan, Jayalakshmi
    CUTN, India.
    Sigamani, Panneer
    CUTN, India.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ravishankar Ram, M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory Vaccine Centre, GA 30329 USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; CUTN, India; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    CD8+T cells of chronic HCV-infected patients express multiple negative immune checkpoints following stimulation with HCV peptides2017In: Cellular Immunology, ISSN 0008-8749, E-ISSN 1090-2163, Vol. 313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are key to successful viral clearance in HCV disease. Accumulation of exhausted HCV-specific T cells during chronic infection results in considerable loss of protective functional immune responses. The role of T-cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the frequency of HCV peptide-stimulated T cells expressing negative immune checkpoints (PD-1, CTLA-4, TRAIL, TIM-3 and BTLA) by flow cytometry, and measured the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines secreted by T cells by a commercial Multi-Analyte ELISArray (TM) following in vitro stimulation of T cells using HCV peptides and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). HCV peptide stimulated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of chronic HCV (CHC) patients showed significant increase of CTLA-4. Furthermore, HCV peptide-stimulated CD4+ T cells of CHC patients also displayed relatively higher levels of PD-1 and TRAIL, whereas TIM-3 was up-regulated on HCV peptide-stimulated CD8+ T cells. Whereas the levels of IL-10 and TGF-beta 1 were significantly increased, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-2, TNF-alpha, IL-17A and IL-6 were markedly decreased in the T cell cultures of CHC patients. Chronic HCV infection results in functional exhaustion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells likely contributing to viral persistence. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    et al.
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Mohamed, Rosmawati
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Yong, Yean K.
    Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Kannan, Meganathan
    CUTN, India.
    Vadivelu, Jamuna
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki Muthu
    CUTN, India.
    Viral Persistence and Chronicity in Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Role of T-Cell Apoptosis, Senescence and Exhaustion2018In: CELLS, ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 165Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a challenging global health threat to similar to 200 million infected individuals. Clinical data suggest that only similar to 10-15% of acutely HCV-infected individuals will achieve spontaneous viral clearance despite exuberant virus-specific immune responses, which is largely attributed to difficulties in recognizing the pathognomonic symptoms during the initial stages of exposure to the virus. Given the paucity of a suitable small animal model, it is also equally challenging to study the early phases of viral establishment. Further, the host factors contributing to HCV chronicity in a vast majority of acutely HCV-infected individuals largely remain unexplored. The last few years have witnessed a surge in studies showing that HCV adopts myriad mechanisms to disconcert virus-specific immune responses in the host to establish persistence, which includes, but is not limited to viral escape mutations, viral growth at privileged sites, and antagonism. Here we discuss a few hitherto poorly explained mechanisms employed by HCV that are believed to lead to chronicity in infected individuals. A better understanding of these mechanisms would aid the design of improved therapeutic targets against viral establishment in susceptible individuals.

  • 8.
    Beignon, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    New York University School of Medicine.
    McKenna, Kelli
    New York University School of Medicine.
    Skoberne, Mojca
    New York University School of Medicine.
    Manches, Olivier
    New York University School of Medicine.
    DaSilva, Ida
    New York University School of Medicine.
    Kavanagh, Daniel G
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School.
    Larsson, Marie
    New York University School of Medicine.
    Gorelick, Robert J
    National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland.
    Lifson, Jeffrey D
    National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland.
    Bhardwaj, Nina
    New York University School of Medicine.
    Endocytosis of HIV-1 activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor-viral RNA interactions2005In: Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0021-9738, E-ISSN 1558-8238, Vol. 115, no 11, p. 3265-3275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HIV-1 directly activates human plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) by upregulating the expression of costimulatory and MHC molecules and maturation markers, increasing T cell stimulatory activity, and inducing the production of type I interferons and TNF-α. A consequence of this activation is the bystander maturation of myeloid DCs and overall enhancement of antigen-presenting function. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) of pDC activation by HIV-1. Here we demonstrate by in vitro studies that IFN-α production by pDC in response to HIV-1 requires at least 2 interactions between the cell and virus. Initially, envelope-CD4 interactions mediate endocytosis of HIV-1, as demonstrated through the use of inhibitors of binding, fusion, endocytosis, and endosomal acidification. Subsequently, endosomally delivered viral nucleic acids, particularly RNA, stimulate pDCs through TLRs, as activation is reproduced with purified genomic RNA but not viral RNA packaging-deficient HIV-1 and blocked with different inhibitory TLR ligands. Finally, by using genetic complementation, we show that TLR7 is the likely primary target. Viral RNA rather than DNA in early retrotranscripts appears to be the active factor in HIV-1 that induces IFN-α secretion by pDCs. Since the decline in pDCs in chronic HIV-1 infection is associated with high viral loads and opportunistic infections, exploiting this natural adjuvant activity of HIV-1 RNA might be useful in the development of vaccines for the prevention of AIDS.

  • 9.
    Bojmar, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ellegård, Sander
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular and Immunological Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Björnsson, Bergthor
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Hallböök, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    The Role of MicroRNA-200 in Progression of Human Colorectal and Breast Cancer2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 84815-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer has been studied extensively in vitro, but involvement of the EMT in tumorigenesis in vivo is largely unknown. We investigated the potential of microRNAs as clinical markers and analyzed participation of the EMT-associated microRNA-200 ZEB E-cadherin pathway in cancer progression. Expression of the microRNA-200 family was quantified by real-time RT-PCR analysis of fresh-frozen and microdissected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary colorectal tumors, normal colon mucosa, and matched liver metastases. MicroRNA expression was validated by in situ hybridization and after in vitro culture of the malignant cells. To assess EMT as a predictive marker, factors considered relevant in colorectal cancer were investigated in 98 primary breast tumors from a treatment-randomized study. Associations between the studied EMTmarkers were found in primary breast tumors and in colorectal liver metastases. MicroRNA-200 expression in epithelial cells was lower in malignant mucosa than in normal mucosa, and was also decreased in metastatic compared to non-metastatic colorectal cancer. Low microRNA-200 expression in colorectal liver metastases was associated with bad prognosis. In breast cancer, low levels of microRNA-200 were related to reduced survival and high expression of microRNA-200 was predictive of benefit from radiotheraphy. MicroRNA-200 was associated with ER positive status, and inversely correlated to HER2 and overactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, that was associated with high ZEB1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that the stability of microRNAs makes them suitable as clinical markers and that the EMT-related microRNA-200 - ZEB - E-cadherin signaling pathway is connected to established clinical characteristics and can give useful prognostic and treatment-predictive information in progressive breast and colorectal cancers.

  • 10.
    Bojmar, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Haiying
    Children’s Cancer and Blood Foundation Laboratories, Departments of Pediatrics, and Cell and Developmental Biology, Drukier Institute for Children’s Health, Meyer Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA.
    Costa da Silva, Bruno
    Children’s Cancer and Blood Foundation Laboratories, Departments of Pediatrics, and Cell and Developmental Biology, Drukier Institute for Children’s Health, Meyer Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA.
    Karlsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Vincent, Theresa
    Departments of Physiology and Biophysics and Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA / Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Lyden, David
    Children’s Cancer and Blood Foundation Laboratories, Departments of Pediatrics, and Cell and Developmental Biology, Drukier Institute for Children’s Health, Meyer Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping.
    miR-18a is regulated between progressive compartments of cancers, and incorporated in exosomes with the potential of creating premetastatic niches and predict cancer outcome2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimate cause of death for many cancer patients is the spread of the cancer via metastasis. Even so, there are still a lack of knowledge regarding the metastasis process. This study was performed to investigate the role of metastamirs in exosomes and their metastatic patterns. We used the well-established isogeneic murine cancer model of low metastatic 67NR cells, mimicking luminal/basal breast tumors, and highly metastatic 4T1 cells with characteristics of basal breast  tumors. We studied the exosomal properties and pre-metastatic effects in this metastasis model and compared human materials and exosomes of several other tumor types. Our data clearly demonstrated that exosomes from the highly metastatic cells home to the metastatic organs of their parental cells whereas exosomes from cells with low metastatic potential mostly located to lymph nodes. The exosome protein cargos also resembled their parental cells and potentially affects their target organs, and cells, differently. Furthermore, the exosomes from the highly metastatic cells had a more pronounced effect on tumor growth and pre-metastatic changes than the low metastatic exosomes. The microRNA-18a, a predictor of metastasis, was present to a higher extent in metastatic exosomes as compared to low metastatic exosomes, and altered the tumor progressive properties. Our findings support the role of exomirs as important players in the metastatic process, the value as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets.

  • 11.
    Campbell, Diahnn
    et al.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Saenz, Rebecca
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Bharati, Ila S.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Seible, Daniel
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Zhang, Liangfang
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Esener, Sadik
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Messmer, Bradley
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Messmer, Davorka
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Enhanced anti-tumor immune responses and delay of tumor development in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 mice immunized with an immunostimulatory peptide in poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles nanoparticles2015In: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 17, no 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Cancer vaccines have the potential to induce curative anti-tumor immune responses and better adjuvants may improve vaccine efficacy. We have previously shown that Hp91, a peptide derived from the B box domain in high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), acts as potent immune adjuvant. Method In this study, Hp91 was tested as part of a therapeutic vaccine against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer. Results Free peptide did not significantly augment immune responses but, when delivered in poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs), robust activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and increased activation of HER2 specific T cells was observed in vitro. Vaccination of HER2NEU transgenic mice, a mouse breast cancer model that closely mimics the immune modulation and tolerance in some breast cancer patients, with Hp91 loaded PLGA-NPs enhanced the activation of HER2 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, delayed tumor development, and prolonged survival. Conclusion Taken together these findings demonstrate that the delivery of the immunostimulatory peptide Hp91 inside PLGA-NPs enhances the potency of the peptide and efficacy of a breast cancer vaccine.

  • 12.
    Che, Karlhans F
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sabado, RL
    New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Shankar, Esaki M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tjomsland, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Messmer, D
    Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Bhardwa, N
    New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Lifson, JF
    National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Maryland, MD, USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    HIV-1 impairs in vitro priming of naïve T cells and gives rise to contact-dependent suppressor T cells2010In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 2248-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Priming of T cells in lymphoid tissues of HIV-infected individuals occurs in the presence of HIV-1. DC in this milieu activate T cells and disseminate HIV-1 to newly activated T cells, the outcome of which may have serious implications in the development of optimal antiviral responses. We investigated the effects of HIV-1 on DC-naïve T-cell interactions using an allogeneic in vitro system. Our data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in the primary expansion of naïve T cells when cultured with HIV-1-exposed DC. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells showed enhanced expression of PD-1 and TRAIL, whereas CTLA-4 expression was observed on CD4(+) T cells. It is worth noting that T cells primed in the presence of HIV-1 suppressed priming of other naïve T cells in a contact-dependent manner. We identified PD-1, CTLA-4, and TRAIL pathways as responsible for this suppresion, as blocking these negative molecules restored T-cell proliferation to a higher degree. In conclusion, the presence of HIV-1 during DC priming produced cells with inhibitory effects on T-cell activation and proliferation, i.e. suppressor T cells, a mechanism that could contribute to the enhancement of HIV-1 pathogenesis.

  • 13.
    Che, Karlhans Fru
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundaram, Muthu
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zandi, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sigvardsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Messmer, Davorka
    Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, USA.
    Bhardwa, N
    New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Lifson, Jeffrey D
    AIDS and Cancer Virus Program SAIC Frederick Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Maryland, USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cross Talk between P38MAPK and STAT3 Regulates Expression of Negative Costimulatory Molecules and Transcriptional Repressors in HIV-1 Primed T cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    HIV-1 infection enhances the expression of negative costimulatory molecules on T cellsleading to T cell impairment. The signaling pathway underlying the regulation ofinhibitory molecules and the subsequent onset of T cell impairment remains to beinvestigated. Herein, we showed that the T cells activated by HIV-pulsed dendritic cells(DCs) upregulated CTLA-4, TRAIL, LAG-3, TIM-3, and CD160 and suppressionassociated transcription factors BLIMP-1, DTX1, and FOXP3, leading to T cellsuppression. The induction of suppressor T cells was regulated by the signal transducerand activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) molecules as blockade of this pathwaysignificantly down regulates the expression of inhibitory molecules. The cytokines IL-6and IL-10 were not responsible for STAT3 activation as their neutralization could neitherrecover T cell proliferation nor decrease the expression of negative costimulatorymolecules. Contrarily, we demonstrated that the intracytoplasmic cross-talk of P38Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) with STAT3 was responsible as blockade ofthe P38MAPK significantly impaired negative costimulatory molecular expression andthe subsequent recovery of T cell proliferation. Notably, the blockade of viral access toDC cytosol, via CD4 binding and fusion, significantly reduced the negative effects DCsimposed on the primed T cells. In conclusion, viral access to cytosol modulated theDCs- T cell priming to induce T cells with upreguled expression of negativecostimulatory molecules in a P38MAPK/STAT3 pathway dependent fashion

  • 14.
    Che, Karlhans Fru
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki Muthu
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Muthu, Sundaram
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zandi, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sigvardsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Messmer, Davorka
    University of California, San Diego, United States.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3 Pathway Signaling Regulates Expression of Inhibitory Molecules in T Cells Activated by HIV-1-Exposed Dendritic Cells2012In: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass. Print), ISSN 1076-1551, E-ISSN 1528-3658, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1169-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection enhances the expression of inhibitory molecules on T cells, leading to T-cell impairment. The signaling pathways underlying the regulation of inhibitory molecules and subsequent onset of T-cell impairment remain elusive. We showed that both autologous and allogeneic T cells exposed to HIV-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) upregulated cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4), tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), lymphocyte-activation gene-3 (LAG3). T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), CD160 and certain suppression-associated transcription factors, such as B-lymphocyte induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1), deltex homolog 1 protein (DTX1) and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), leading to T-cell suppression. This induction was regulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (P38MAPK/STAT3) pathways, because their blockade significantly abrogated expression of all the inhibitory molecules studied and a subsequent recovery in T-cell proliferation. Neither interleukin-6 (IL-6) nor IL-10 nor growth factors known to activate STAT3 signaling events were responsible for STAT3 activation. Involvement of the P38MAPK/STAT3 pathways was evident because these proteins had a higher level of phosphorylation in the HIV-1-primed cells. Furthermore, blockade of viral CD4 binding and fusion significantly reduced the negative effects DCs imposed on primed T cells. In conclusion, HIV-1 interaction with DCs modulated their functionality, causing them to trigger the activation of the P38MAPK/STAT3 pathway in T cells, which was responsible for the upregulation of inhibitory molecules. Online address: http://www.molmed.org doi: 10.2119/molmed.2012.00103

  • 15.
    Clawson, Corbin
    et al.
    University of California San Diego.
    Huang, Chien-Tze
    University of California San Diego.
    Futalan, Diahnn
    University of California San Diego.
    Seible, Daniel Martin
    University of California San Diego.
    Saenz, Rebecca
    University of California San Diego.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ma, Wenxue
    University of California San Diego.
    Minev, Boris
    University of California San Diego.
    Zhang, Fiona
    University of California Riverside.
    Ozkan, Mihri
    University of California Riverside.
    Ozkan, Cengiz
    University of California Riverside.
    Esener, Sadik
    University of California San Diego.
    Messmer, Davorka
    University of California San Diego.
    Delivery of a peptide via poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles enhances its dendritic cell-stimulatory capacity2010In: NANOMEDICINE-NANOTECHNOLOGY BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, ISSN 1549-9634, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 651-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are attractive carriers for vaccines. We have previously shown that a short peptide (Hp91) activates dendritic cells (DCs), which are critical for initiation of immune responses. In an effort to develop Hp91 as a vaccine adjuvant with NP carriers, we evaluated its activity when encapsulated in or conjugated to the surface of poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) NPs. We found that Hp91, when encapsulated in or conjugated to the surface of PLGA-NPs, not only activates both human and mouse DCs, but is in fact more potent than free Hp91. Hp91 packaged within NPs was about fivefold more potent than the free peptide, and Hp91 conjugated to the surface of NPs was similar to 20-fold more potent than free Hp91. Because of their capacity to activate DCs, such NP-Hp91 systems are promising as delivery vehicles for subunit vaccines against infectious disease or cancer.

  • 16.
    Crisci, Elisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Rondahl, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Serrander, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Bergström, Tomas
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Complement opsonization promotes HSV-2 infection of human dendritic cells2016In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 90, no 10, p. 4939-4950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herpes virus type 2 (HSV2) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections globally with a very high prevalence in many countries. During HSV2 infection viral particles become coated with complement proteins and antibodies, both existent in the genital fluids, which could influence the activation of the immune responses. In genital mucosa, the primary target cells for HSV2 infection are epithelial cells, but resident immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are also infected. The DCs are the activators of the ensuing immune responses directed against HSV2, and the aim of this study was to examine the effects opsonization of HSV2, either with complement alone or with complement and antibodies, had on the infection of immature DCs and their ability to mount inflammatory and antiviral responses. Complement opsonization of HSV2 enhanced both the direct infection of immature DCs and their production of new infectious viral particles. The enhanced infection required activation of the complement cascade and functional complement receptor 3. Furthermore, HSV2 infection of DCs required endocytosis of viral particles and their delivery into an acid endosomal compartment. The presence of complement in combination with HSV1 or HSV2 specific antibodies more or less abolished the HSV2 infection of DCs.Our results clearly demonstrate the importance of studying HSV2 infection under conditions that ensue in vivo, i.e. when the virions are covered in complement fragments and complement fragments and antibodies, as this will shape the infection and the subsequent immune response and needs to be further elucidated.

    IMPORTANCE: During HSV2 infection viral particles should become coated with complement proteins and antibodies, both existent in the genital fluids, which could influence the activation of the immune responses. The dendritic cells are the activators of the immune responses directed against HSV2, and the aim of this study was to examine the effects of complement alone or complement and antibodies, on the HSV2 infection of dendritic cells and their ability to mount inflammatory and antiviral responses.Our results demonstrate that the presence of antibodies and complement in the genital environment can influence HSV2 infection under in vitro conditions that reflect the in vivo situation. We believe that our findings are highly relevant for the understanding of HSV2 pathogenesis.

  • 17.
    Devito, Claudia
    et al.
    Swedish Inst Infect Dis Control, Sweden; HD Dept Clin Virol, Sweden.
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics.
    Falkeborn, Tina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ohlin, Mats
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Broliden, Kristina
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Human IgM monoclonal antibodies block HIV-transmission to immune cells in cervico-vaginal tissues and across polarized epithelial cells in vitro2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 10180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of natural IgM antibodies in protection against infections is still emerging and these antibodies have a potential role in the maintenance of homeostasis through clearance of apoptotic bodies, complement-dependent mechanisms, inflammation and exclusion of misfolded proteins. Natural IgM act as a first line of defence against unknown hazardous factors and are present in most vertebrates. We investigated the functional capacity of anti-HIV-1 IgM monoclonal antibodies, from a combinatorial Fab library derived from healthy individuals, and evaluated their protective role in inhibiting HIV-1 in vitro when passing across the human mucosal epithelial barrier. Primary HIV-1 isolates were efficiently transmitted over the tight polarized epithelial cells when added to their apical surface. Efficient inhibition of HIV-1 transmission was achieved when anti-HIV-1 IgM monoclonal antibodies were added to the basolateral side of the cells. Two of these human IgM MoAbs had the ability to neutralize HIV and reduced infection of dendritic cells in primary cervico-vaginal tissue biopsies in vitro. This indicates a potential role of natural IgM antibodies in the reduction of HIV-1 transmission in mucosal tissues and improve our understanding of how natural IgM antibodies against a neutralizing epitope could interfere with viral transmission.

  • 18.
    Ellegård, Rada
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Crisci, Elisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Impaired NK Cell Activation and Chemotaxis toward Dendritic Cells Exposed to Complement-Opsonized HIV-12015In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 195, no 4, p. 1698-1704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mucosa resident dendritic cells (DCs) may represent one of the first immune cells that HIV-1 encounters during sexual transmission. The virions in body fluids can be opsonized with complement factors because of HIV-mediated triggering of the complement cascade, and this appears to influence numerous aspects of the immune defense targeting the virus. One key attribute of host defense is the ability to attract immune cells to the site of infection. In this study, we investigated whether the opsonization of HIV with complement (C-HIV) or a mixture of complement and Abs (CI-HIV) affected the cytokine and chemokine responses generated by DCs, as well as their ability to attract other immune cells. We found that the expression levels of CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL17 were lowered after exposure to either C-HIV or CI-HIV relative to free HIV (F-HIV). DCs exposed to F-HIV induced higher cell migration, consisting mainly of NK cells, compared with opsonized virus, and the chemotaxis of NK cells was dependent on CCL3 and CXCL10. NK cell exposure to supernatants derived from HIV-exposed DCs showed that F-HIV induced phenotypic activation (e.g., increased levels of TIM3, CD69, and CD25) and effector function (e.g., production of IFN gamma and killing of target cells) in NK cells, whereas C-HIV and CI-HIV did not. The impairment of NK cell recruitment by DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV and the lack of NK activation may contribute to the failure of innate immune responses to control HIV at the site of initial mucosa infection.

  • 19.
    Ellegård, Rada
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Crisci, Elisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Burgener, Adam
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Inflammation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Birse, Kenzie
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada; Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Westmacott, Garrett
    Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lifson, Jeffrey D.
    Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick, MD, USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Complement Opsonization of HIV-1 Results in Decreased Antiviral and Inflammatory Responses in Immature Dendritic Cells via CR32014In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 193, no 9, p. 4590-4601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in genital and rectal mucosa may be one of the first cells to come into contact with HIV-1 during sexual transmission of virus. HIV-1 activates the host complement system, which results in opsonization of virus by inactivated complement fragments, for example, iC3b. We investigated antiviral and inflammatory responses induced in human iDCs after exposure to free HIV-1 (F-HIV), complement-opsonized HIV-1 (C-HIV), and complement and Ab-opsonized HIV-1 (CI-HIV). F-HIV gave rise to a significantly higher expression of antiviral factors such as IFN-beta, myxovirus resistance protein A, and IFN-stimulated genes, compared with C-HIV and CI-HIV. Additionally, F-HIV induced inflammatory factors such as IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, whereas these responses were weakened or absent after C-HIV or CI-HIV exposure. The responses induced by F-HIV were TLR8-dependent with subsequent activation of IFN regulatory factor 1, p38, ERK, PI3K, and NF-kappa B pathways, whereas these responses were not induced by C-HIV, which instead induced activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and Lyn. This modulation of TLR8 signaling was mediated by complement receptor 3 and led to enhanced infection. The impact that viral hijacking of the complement system has on iDC function could be an important immune evasion mechanism used by HIV-1 to establish infection in the host.

  • 20.
    Ellegård, Rada
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Clinical genetics.
    Khalid, Mohammad
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. King Khalid Univ, Saudi Arabia.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holgersson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thoren, Ylva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Wittgren, Mirja Karolina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Complement-Opsonized HIV-1 Alters Cross Talk Between Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer (NK) Cells to Inhibit NK Killing and to Upregulate PD-1, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T Cells2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 899Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendritic cells (DCs), natural killer (NK) cells, and T cells play critical roles during primary HIV-1 exposure at the mucosa, where the viral particles become coated with complement fragments and mucosa-associated antibodies. The microenvironment together with subsequent interactions between these cells and HIV at the mucosal site of infection will determine the quality of immune response that ensues adaptive activation. Here, we investigated how complement and immunoglobulin opsonization influences the responses triggered in DCs and NK cells, how this affects their cross talk, and what T cell phenotypes are induced to expand following the interaction. Our results showed that DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV (C-HIV) were less mature and had a poor ability to trigger IFN-driven NK cell activation. In addition, when the DCs were exposed to C-HIV, the cytotolytic potentials of both NK cells and CD8 T cells were markedly suppressed. The expression of PD-1 as well as co-expression of negative immune checkpoints TIM-3 and LAG-3 on PD-1 positive cells were increased on both CD4 as well as CD8 T cells upon interaction with and priming by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV. In addition, stimulation by NK-DC cross talk cultures exposed to C-HIV led to the upregulation of CD38, CXCR3, and CCR4 on T cells. Together, the immune modulation induced during the presence of complement on viral surfaces is likely to favor HIV establishment, dissemination, and viral pathogenesis.

  • 21.
    Ellegård, Rada
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology.
    Shankar, Esakimuthu
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Targeting HIV-1 innate immune responses therapeutically2011In: Current Opinion in HIV & AIDS, ISSN 1746-630X, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 435-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of review less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe early stage of HIV-1 infection is when the virus is most vulnerable, and should therefore offer the best opportunity for therapeutic interventions. This review addresses the recent progress in the understanding of innate immune responses against HIV-1 with focus on the potential targets for prevention of viral acquisition, replication and dissemination. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRecent findings less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResearch indicates that the host-derived factor trappin-2/elafin is protective against HIV, whereas semen-derived enhancer of viral infection and defensins 5 and 6 enhance viral transmission. Further, studies suggest that stimulation of TLR4 and inhibition of TLR7-9 pathways may be HIV suppressive. The regulation and function of viral restriction factors tetherin and APOBEC3G have been investigated and a molecule mimicking the premature uncoating achieved by TRIM5 alpha, PF74, has been identified. Chloroquine has been shown to inhibit plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation and suppress negative modulators of T-cell responses. Blockade of HMBG1 has been found to restore natural-killer-cell-mediated killing of infected dendritic cells, normally suppressed by HIV-1. Interestingly, when used as adjuvants, EAT-2 and heat shock protein gp96 reportedly enhance innate immune responses. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanSummary less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanSeveral targets for innate immunity-mediated therapeutics have been identified. Nonetheless, more research is required to unveil their underlying mechanisms and interactions before testing these molecules in clinical trials.

  • 22.
    Falkeborn, Tina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Brave, Andreas
    Swedish Institute Communicable Disease Control SMI, Sweden.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Åkerlind, Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Schroder, Ulf
    Eurocine Vaccines AB, Sweden.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Endocine™, N3OA and N3OASq; Three Mucosal Adjuvants That Enhance the Immune Response to Nasal Influenza Vaccination2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annual outbreaks of seasonal influenza are controlled or prevented through vaccination in many countries. The seasonal vaccines used are either inactivated, currently administered parenterally, or live-attenuated given intranasally. In this study three mucosal adjuvants were examined for the influence on the humoral (mucosal and systemic) and cellular influenza A-specific immune responses induced by a nasally administered vaccine. We investigated in detail how the anionic Endocine™ and the cationic adjuvants N3OA and N3OASq mixed with a split inactivated influenza vaccine induced influenza A-specific immune responses as compared to the vaccine alone after intranasal immunization. The study showed that nasal administration of a split virus vaccine together with Endocine™ or N3OA induced significantly higher humoral and cell-mediated immune responses than the non-adjuvanted vaccine. N3OASq only significantly increased the cell-mediated immune response. Furthermore, nasal administration of the influenza vaccine in combination with any of the adjuvants; Endocine™, N3OA or N3OASq, significantly enhanced the mucosal immunity against influenza HA protein. Thus the addition of these mucosal adjuvants leads to enhanced immunity in the most relevant tissues, the upper respiratory tract and the systemic circulation. Nasal influenza vaccination with an inactivated split vaccine can therefore provide an important mucosal immune response, which is often low or absent after traditional parenteral vaccination.

  • 23. Fonteneau, Jean Francois
    et al.
    Kavanagh, Daniel G.
    Lirvall, Margareta
    Sanders, Catherine
    Cover, Timothy L.
    Bhardwaj, Nina
    Larsson, Marie
    Characterization of the MHC class I cross-presentation pathway for cell-associated antigens by human dendritic cells2003In: Blood, ISSN 0006-4971, E-ISSN 1528-0020, Vol. 102, no 13, p. 4448-4455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation of exogenous antigens is the mechanism enabling professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to induce CD8+ T-cell responses against viruses and tumors that do not have access to the classical MHC class I pathway. We have characterized the uptake, processing, and MHC class I cross-presentation by human dendritic cells (DCs) of cell-associated antigens derived from physiologically relevant sources, namely, vaccinia virus-infected apoptotic and necrotic cells. We show that cross-presentation is a rapid process, detectable within 2 to 4 hours after uptake of dead cells, and that proteolysis by cathepsin D in an acidic endosomal compartment is essential for cross-presentation. The presentation is abolished when the phagocytic or macropinocytic functions of the cells are inhibited and is dependent on transporter associated with antigen processing, sensitive to brefeldin A, and requires functional proteasomes. Altogether, these data suggest that antigens derived from apoptotic and necrotic cells require access to the cytosol to intersect with the conventional MHC class I pathway for presentation of cytosolic proteins.

  • 24.
    Futalan, Diahnn
    et al.
    University of California San Diego.
    Huang, Chien-Tze
    University of California San Diego.
    Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H
    University of Bonn.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Messmer, Davorka
    University of California San Diego.
    Effect of Oxygen Levels on the Physiology of Dendritic Cells: Implications for Adoptive Cell Therapy2011In: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass. Print), ISSN 1076-1551, E-ISSN 1528-3658, Vol. 17, no 9-10, p. 910-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based adoptive tumor immunotherapy approaches have shown promising results, but the incidence of tumor regression is low and there is an evident call for identifying culture conditions that produce DCs with a more potent Th1 potential. Routinely, DCs are differentiated in CO(2) incubators under atmospheric oxygen conditions (21% O(2)), which differ from physiological oxygen levels of only 3-5% in tissue, where most DCs reside. We investigated whether differentiation and maturation of DCs under physiological oxygen levels could produce more potent T-cell stimulatory DCs for use in adoptive immunotherapy. We found that immature DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen levels showed a small but significant reduction in their endocytic capacity. The different oxygen levels did not influence their stimuli-induced upregulation of cluster of differentiation 54 (CD54), CD40, CD83, CD86, C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR or the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-10 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or a cytokine cocktail. However. DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen level secreted higher levels of IL-12(p70) after exposure to LPS or CD40 ligand. Immature DCs differentiated at physiological oxygen levels caused increased T-cell proliferation, but no differences were observed for mature DCs with regard to T-cell activation. In conclusion, we show that although DCs generated under atmospheric or physiological oxygen conditions are mostly similar in function and phenotype, DCs differentiated under physiological oxygen secrete larger amounts of IL-12(p70). This result could have implications for the use of ex vivo-generated DCs for clinical studies, since DCs differentiated at physiological oxygen could induce increased Th1 responses in vivo.

  • 25.
    Hedlund, Sebastian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vujic, Ana
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fru Che, Karlhans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dendritic cell activation by sensing Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced apoptotic neutrophils via DC-SIGN2010In: HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY, ISSN 0198-8859, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 535-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) manipulates cells of the innate immune system to provide the bacteria with a sustainable intracellular niche. Mtb spread through aerosol carrying them deep into the lungs, where they are internalized by phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils (PMNs), dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages. PMNs undergo accelerated apoptosis after interaction with the bacterium, and apoptotic cells are sequestered by neighboring phagocytes. Removal of aged apoptotic cells because of natural tissue turnover is described as an immunologically silent process facilitating resolution of inflammation and inhibition of DC maturation. Silencing of immune cells could be favorable for intracellular bacteria. The aim of this study was to clarify the interaction between Mtb-induced apoptotic PMNs and DCs, and evaluate whether this interaction follows the proposed anti-inflammatory pathway. In contrast to aged apoptotic cells, Mtb-induced apoptotic PMNs induced functional DC maturation. We found that the cell fraction from Mtb-induced apoptotic PMNs contained almost all stimulatory capacity, suggesting that cell-cell interaction is crucial for DC activation. Inhibitory studies showed that this cell contact-dependent activation required binding of the PMN Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) to the DC via DC-SIGN and endocytic activity involving the alpha(v)beta(5) but did not involve the scavenger receptor CD36. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the DCs can distinguish between normal and infected apoptotic PMNs via cellular crosstalk, where the DCs can sense the presence of danger on the Mtb-infected PMNs and modulate their response accordingly.

  • 26.
    Hedlund, Sebastian R.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vujic, Ana
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Dendritic cell activation by sensing Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced apoptotic neutrophils via DC-SIGNManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected individuals cells of the innate immune system accumulate in the spleen and in granulomas, but how this relates to the protection against Mtb or in the pathogenesis is unknown. Mtb is internalized in the lung by phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils (PMNs), dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. PMNs undergo accelerated apoptosis after internalization of the bacterium and are subsequently sequestered by neighbouring phagocytes. Removal of aged apoptotic cells is an immunologically silent process and the aim of this study was to clarify the interaction between Mtb-induced apoptotic PMNs and DCs, and evaluate if this interaction induced functional maturation of the DCs. In fact, Mtb-induced apoptotic PMNs induced DC maturation, whereas exposure to spontaneous apoptotic PMNs had no effect on DCs maturation status. We found that the cell fraction contained almost all stimulatory capacity, suggesting that the cell-cell interaction is crucial for DC activation. Inhibitory studies showed that this cell contact-dependent activation required binding of the PMN Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) to the DC via DC-SIGN and endocytic activity. Taken together, this study proves that the DCs can distinguish between normal and infected apoptotic PMNs via cellular cross talk, where the DCs can sense the presence of danger on the Mtb-infected PMNs and modulate their response accordingly.

  • 27.
    Hwei Yap, Siew
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Kamila Abdullah, Noor
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    McStea, Megan
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Takayama, Kozo
    Hoshi University, Japan.
    Li Chong, Meng
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Crisci, Elisa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Azwa, Iskandar
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Hoong Leong, Kok
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ling Woo, Yin
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Rajasuriar, Reena
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    HIV/Human herpesvirus co-infections: Impact on tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and immune reconstitution2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 10, article id e0186000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Co-infections with human herpesvirus (HHV) have been associated with residual chronic inflammation in antiretroviral (ART)-treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, the role of HHV in modulating the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected individuals is poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the seroprevalence of four common HHVs among treated HIV-infected participants and their impact on kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio and long-term CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV/HHV co-infected participants. Method In this cross-sectional study, HIV-infected participants receiving suppressive ART for a minimum of 12 months were recruited from the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia. Stored plasma was analyzed for CMV, VZV, HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG antibody levels, immune activation markers (interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, neopterin and sCD14), kynurenine and tryptophan concentrations. The influence of the number of HHV co-infection and K/T ratio on CD4 T-cell recovery was assessed using multivariate Poisson regression. Results A total of 232 HIV-infected participants were recruited and all participants were seropositive for at least one HHV; 96.1% with CMV, 86.6% with VZV, 70.7% with HSV-1 and 53.9% with HSV-2. K/T ratio had a significant positive correlation with CMV (rho = 0.205, p = 0.002), VZV (rho = 0.173, p = 0.009) and a tendency with HSV-2 (rho = 0.120, p = 0.070), with CMV antibody titer demonstrating the strongest modulating effect on K/T ratio among the four HHVs assessed in SOM analysis. In multivariate analysis, higher K/T ratio (p = 0.03) and increasing number of HHV co-infections (pamp;lt;0.001) were independently associated with poorer CD4 T-cell recovery following 12 months of ART initiation. Conclusion Multiple HHV co-infections are common among ART-treated HIV-infected participants in the developing country setting and associated with persistent immune activation and poorer CD4 T-cell recovery.

  • 28.
    Idh, Jonna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lerm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Raffetseder, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pienaar, Elsje
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Forslund, Tony
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Werngren, Jim
    Department of Preparedness, Unit of Highly Pathogenic Microorganisms, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Sweden.
    Juréen, Pontus
    Department of Preparedness, Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Sweden.
    Ängeby, Kristian
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Tommy
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Schön, Thomas
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Susceptibility of Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Reactive Nitrogen Species in Activated MacrophagesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in macrophages by the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) upon activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. NO has been shown to be essential for the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in murine models whereas its importance in man is not as clear. There is a lack of studies regarding the susceptibility to reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and the relation to first-line drug resistance, such as to isoniazid (INH). The aim of this study was to explore susceptibility to RNS and intracellular survival of clinical strains of M. tuberculosis, with or without INH resistance.

    Method: Seven clinical strains of M. tuberculosis were transformed with the pSMT1-plasmid encoding Vibrio harveyi luciferase. Survival was analysed by luminometry following exposure to the NO donor DETA/NO or peroxynitrite (SIN-1). Intracellular killing was studied in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) activated with interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

    Results: There was a significant effect on growth control of M. tuberculosis strains upon macrophage activation, which showed variability among clinical isolates. In the cell-free system, all strains showed a dose-dependent susceptibility to DETA/NO and SIN-1, and clinical strains were in general more resistant than H37Rv to DETA/NO. INH-resistant strains with an inhA mutation were significantly more tolerant to DETA/NO than inhA wild type.

    Conclusion: Reactive nitrogen species inhibited growth of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates both in an intra- and extracellular model with significant difference between strains. Increased tolerance to NO was associated with isoniazid resistance mediated by inhA.

  • 29. Istrate, C
    et al.
    Douagi, I
    Charpilienne, A
    McInnerney, GM
    Hidmark, Å
    Johansen, K
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular Virology.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Medical Microbiology.
    Poncet, D
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular Virology.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Molecular Virology.
    Bone marrow dendritic cells internalize live RF-81 bovine rotavirus and rotavirus-like particles (RF 2/6-GFP-VLP and RF 8*2/6/7-VLP) but are only activated by live bovine rotavirus2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 494-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendritic cells (DC) represent the link between innate and adaptive immunity. They are classified as antigen-presenting cells (APC) and can initiate and modulate the immune response. To investigate the interaction with DCs, live RF-81 bovine rotavirus strain (RFV) and rotavirus-like particles (rota-VLP), RF 2/6-GFP-VLP and rota RF 8*2/6/7-VLP, were added in vitro to murine bone marrow-derived DCs (bmDCs). Live RFV, RF 2/6-GFP-VLP and RF 8*2/6/7-VLP all bound to bmDC and were internalized but only live RFV stimulated phenotypic maturation of the bmDCs as shown by the upregulation of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86. Even though bmDCs internalized RF 2/6-GFP-VLP and RF 8*2/6/7-VLP as efficiently as live RFV, these rota-VLP were not able to activate the cells. Supernatants derived from bmDC cultures treated with live RFV, RF 2/6-GFP-VLP or RF 8*2/6/7-VLP were examined for TNF-α production. At 6, 18 and 24 h post-infection, TNF-α concentrations were significantly increased in cultures treated with live RFV and rota-VLP compared with untreated cultures. In conclusion, this study showed that live RF-81 bovine rotavirus strain was internalized and induced bmDCs activation, whereas both RF 2/6-GFP-VLP and RF 8*2/6/7-VLP were internalized by bmDCs without triggering their activation. © 2007 The Authors.

  • 30.
    Kuninty, Praneeth R.
    et al.
    Department of Biomaterials, Science and Technology, Section: Targeted Therapeutics, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Bojmar, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Tjomsland, Vegard
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Hepato-pancreato-biliary Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Storm, Gert
    Department of Biomaterials, Science and Technology, Section: Targeted Therapeutics, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, The Netherlands / Department of Pharmaceutics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Östman, Arne
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Centre Karolinska, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Prakash, Jai
    Department of Biomaterials, Science and Technology, Section: Targeted Therapeutics, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, The Netherlands / Department of Oncology-Pathology, Cancer Centre Karolinska, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    MicroRNA-199a and -214 as potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic stellate cells in pancreatic tumor2016In: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 7, no 13, p. 16396-16408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the key precursor cells for cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in pancreatic tumor stroma. Although depletion of tumor stroma is debatable, attenuation of PSC activity is still an interesting strategy to treat pancreatic cancer. In this study, we explored miRNA as therapeutic targets in tumor stroma and found miR-199a-3p and miR-214-3p induced in patient-derived pancreatic CAFs as well as in TGF-β-activated human PSCs (hPSCs). Inhibition of miR-199a or miR-214 using their hairpin inhibitors in hPSCs significantly inhibited their TGFβ-induced differentiation (gene and protein levels of α-SMA, Collagen, PDGFβR), migration and proliferation. Furthermore, heterospheroids of Panc-1 and hPSCs were prepared, which attained smaller size when hPSCs were transfected with anti-miR-199a or -214 than those transfected with control anti-miR. The conditioned medium obtained from TGFβ-activated hPSCs induced tumor cell proliferation and endothelial cell tube formation, but these effects were abrogated when hPSCs were transfected with anti-miR-199a or miR-214. Moreover, IPA analyses revealed signaling pathways related to miR-199a (TP53, mTOR, Smad1) and miR-214 (PTEN, Bax, ING4). Taken together, this study reveals miR-199a-3p and miR-214-3p as major regulators of PSC activation and PSC-induced pro-tumoral effects, representing them as key therapeutic targets in PSCs in pancreatic cancer.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Marie
    New York University.
    HIV-1 and the hijacking of dendritic cells: a tug of war.2005In: Springer Seminars in Immunopathology, ISSN 0344-4325, E-ISSN 1432-2196, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 309-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dendritic cells are critical for host immunity and are involved both in the innate and adaptive immune responses. They are among the first cells targeted by HIV-1 in vivo at mucosal sites. Dendritic cells can sequester HIV-1 in endosomal compartments for several days and transmit infectious HIV-1 to interacting T cells in the lymph node, which is the most important site for viral replication and spread. Initially, the cellular immune response developed against HIV-1 is strong, but eventually it fails to control and resolve the infection. The most dramatic effect seen on the immune system during untreated HIV-1 infection is the destruction of helper CD4+ T cells, which leads to subsequent immune deficiency. However, the immunomodulatory effects of HIV-1 on different dendritic cell subpopulations may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. This review discusses the effects HIV-1 exerts on dendritic cells in vivo and in vitro, including the binding and uptake of HIV by dendritic cells, the formation of infectious synapses, infection, and the role of dendritic cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis.

  • 32.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology .
    The dendritic cell: The Immune system's adjuvant-a strategy to develop a HCV vaccine?2006In: Gastroenterology, ISSN 0016-5085, E-ISSN 1528-0012, Vol. 130, no 2, p. 603-606Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 33.
    Larsson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Che, Karlhans F.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Saeidi, Alireza
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory University, GA USA .
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Molecular signatures of T-cell inhibition in HIV-1 infection2013In: Retrovirology, ISSN 1742-4690, E-ISSN 1742-4690, Vol. 10, no 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular immune responses play a crucial role in the control of viral replication in HIV-infected individuals. However, the virus succeeds in exploiting the immune system to its advantage and therefore, the host ultimately fails to control the virus leading to development of terminal AIDS. The virus adopts numerous evasion mechanisms to hijack the host immune system. We and others recently described the expression of inhibitory molecules on T cells as a contributing factor for suboptimal T-cell responses in HIV infection both in vitro and in vivo. The expression of these molecules that negatively impacts the normal functions of the host immune armory and the underlying signaling pathways associated with their enhanced expression need to be discussed. Targets to restrain the expression of these molecular markers of immune inhibition is likely to contribute to development of therapeutic interventions that augment the functionality of host immune cells leading to improved immune control of HIV infection. In this review, we focus on the functions of inhibitory molecules that are expressed or secreted following HIV infection such as BTLA, CTLA-4, CD160, IDO, KLRG1, LAG-3, LILRB1, PD-1, TRAIL, TIM-3, and regulatory cytokines, and highlight their significance in immune inhibition. We also highlight the ensemble of transcriptional factors such as BATF, BLIMP-1/PRDM1, FoxP3, DTX1 and molecular pathways that facilitate the recruitment and differentiation of suppressor T cells in response to HIV infection.

  • 34.
    Lubong Sabado, Rachel
    et al.
    NYU.
    OBrien, Meagan
    NYU.
    Subedi, Abhignya
    NYU.
    Qin, Li
    NIAID.
    Hu, Nan
    NIAID.
    Taylor, Elizabeth
    NIAID.
    Dibben, Oliver
    NIAID.
    Stacey, Andrea
    NIAID.
    Fellay, Jacques
    NIAID.
    Shianna, Kevin V
    NIAID.
    Siegal, Frederick
    St Vincent Catholic Medical Centre.
    Shodell, Michael
    St Vincent Catholic Medical Centre.
    Shah, Kokila
    St Vincent Catholic Medical Centre.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lifson, Jeffrey
    NCI.
    Nadas, Arthur
    NYU.
    Marmor, Michael
    NYU.
    Hutt, Richard
    NYU.
    Margolis, David
    NIAID.
    Garmon, Donald
    NIAID.
    Markowitz, Martin
    NIAID.
    Valentine, Fred
    NYU.
    Borrow, Persephone
    NIAID.
    Bhardwaj, Nina
    NYU.
    Evidence of dysregulation of dendritic cells in primary HIV infection2010In: BLOOD, ISSN 0006-4971, Vol. 116, no 19, p. 3839-3852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) are important mediators of both innate and adaptive immunity against pathogens such as HIV. During the course of HIV infection, blood DC numbers fall substantially. In the present study, we sought to determine how early in HIV infection the reduction occurs and whether the remaining DC subsets maintain functional capacity. We find that both myeloid DC and plasmacytoid DC levels decline very early during acute HIV infection. Despite the initial reduction in numbers, those DCs that remain in circulation retain their function and are able to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses, and up-regulate maturation markers plus produce cytokines/chemokines in response to stimulation with TLR7/8 agonists. Notably, DCs from HIV-infected subjects produced significantly higher levels of cytokines/chemokines in response to stimulation with TLR7/8 agonists than DCs from uninfected controls. Further examination of gene expression profiles indicated in vivo activation, either directly or indirectly, of DCs during HIV infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that despite the reduction in circulating DC numbers, those that remain in the blood display hyperfunctionality and implicates a possible role for DCs in promoting chronic immune activation.

  • 35.
    Sabado, Rachel L.
    et al.
    Department of Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, United States.
    Babcock, Ethan
    Department of Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, United States.
    Kavanagh, Daniel G.
    Department of Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, United States, Partner AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States.
    Tjomsland, Veronica
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Walker, Bruce D.
    Partner AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, United States.
    Lifson, Jeffrey D.
    AIDS Vaccine Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD, United States.
    Bhardwaj, Nina
    Department of Medicine and Pathology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, United States.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology.
    Pathways utilized by dendritic cells for binding, uptake, processing and presentation of antigens derived from HIV-12007In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1752-1763Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The outcome following HIV infection depends on the nature and durability of the HIV-specific T cell response induced initially. The activation of protective T cell responses depends upon dendritic cells (DC), antigen-presenting cells which have the capacity to process and present viral antigens. DC pulsed with aldrithiol-2-inactivated HIV and delivered in vivo were reported to induce immune responses and promote virologic control in chronically HIV-1-infected subjects. To gain an understanding of this phenomenon, we characterized the steps involved in the presentation of antigens derived from aldrithiol-2-treated vs. infectious HIV-1 by DC. Antigen presentation, on both MHC class I and II, was independent of DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing integrin, DEC-205 and macrophage mannose receptor, C-type lectins expressed by the DC. Inhibitor studies showed that presentation on MHC class I was dependent on viral fusion in a CD4/coreceptor-dependent manner, both at the cell surface and within endosomes, and access to the classical endosomal processing pathway. MHC class II presentation of HIV-associated antigens was dependent on active endocytosis, probably receptor-mediated, and subsequent degradation of virions in acidified endosomes in the DC. Our study brings forth new facts regarding the binding, uptake, and processing of chemically inactivated virions leading to efficient antigen presentation and should aid in the design of more effective HIV vaccines. © 2007 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 36.
    Sabado, R.L.
    et al.
    New York University School of Medicine.
    Kavanagh, D.G.
    Partners AIDS Research Center.
    Kaufmann, D.E.
    Partners AIDS Research Center.
    Fru Che, Karlhans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Babcock, E.
    New York University School of Medicine.
    Rosenberg, E.
    Partners AIDS Research Center.
    Walker, B.
    Partners AIDS Research Center.
    Lifson, J.
    SAIC Fredrick, Inc..
    Bhardwaj, N.
    New York University School of Medicine.
    Larsson , Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    In vitro priming recapitulates in vivo HIV-1 specific T cell responses, revealing rapid loss of virus reactive CD4+ T cells in acute HIV-1 infection2009In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 1, p. e4256-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The requirements for priming of HIV-specific T cell responses initially seen in infected individuals remain to be defined. Activation of T cell responses in lymph nodes requires cell-cell contact between T cells and DCs, which can give concurrent activation of T cells and HIV transmission. Methodology: The study aim was to establish whether DCs pulsed with HIV-1 could prime HIV-specific T cell responses and to characterize these responses. Both infectious and aldrithiol-2 inactivated noninfectious HIV-1 were compared to establish efficiencies in priming and the type of responses elicited. Findings: Our findings show that both infectious and inactivated HIV-1 pulsed DCs can prime HIV-specific responses from na�ve T cells. Responses included several CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes shown to be recognized in vivo by acutely and chronically infected individuals and some CD4+ T cell epitopes not identified previously. Follow up studies of acute and recent HIV infected samples revealed that these latter epitopes are among the earliest recognized in vivo, but the responses are lost rapidly, presumably through activation-induced general CD4+ T cell depletion which renders the newly activated HIV-specific CD4+ T cells prime targets for elimination. Conclusion: Our studies highlight the ability of DCs to efficiently prime na�ve T cells and induce a broad repertoire of HIV-specific responses and also provide valuable insights to the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection in vivo.

  • 37.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Buggert, Marcus
    University of Penn, PA 19104 USA.
    Che, Karlhans F.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kong, Yong Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory University, GA 30322 USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Regulation of CD8+T-cell cytotoxicity in HIV-1 infection2015In: Cellular Immunology, ISSN 0008-8749, E-ISSN 1090-2163, Vol. 298, no 1-2, p. 126-133Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the mechanisms involved in cellular immune responses against control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is key to development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies against viral proliferation. Clear insights into the regulation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells is crucial to development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies due to their unique ability to eliminate virus-infected cells during the course of infection. Here, we reviewed the roles of transcription factors, co-inhibitory molecules and regulatory cytokines following HIV infection and their potential significance in regulating the cytotoxic potentials of CD8+ T cells. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Chong, Yee K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Yong, Yean K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Tan, Hong Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Rajarajeswaran, Jayakumar
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Sabet, Negar S.
    SEGi University, Malaysia.
    Sekaran, Shamala D.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Che, Karlhans F.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory Vaccine Centre, GA 30329 USA.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Concurrent loss of co-stimulatory molecules and functional cytokine secretion attributes leads to proliferative senescence of CD8(+) T cells in HIV/TB co-infection2015In: Cellular Immunology, ISSN 0008-8749, E-ISSN 1090-2163, Vol. 297, no 1, p. 19-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of T-cell immunosenescence and functional CD8(+) T-cell responses in HIV/TB co-infection is unclear. We examined and correlated surrogate markers of HIV disease progression with immune activation, immunosenescence and differentiation using T-cell pools of HIV/TB co-infected, HIV-infected and healthy controls. Our investigations showed increased plasma viremia and reduced CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio in HIV/TB co-infected subjects relative to HIV-infected, and also a closer association with changes in the expression of CD38, a cyclic ADP ribose hydrolase and CD57, which were consistently expressed on late-senescent CD8(+) T cells. Up-regulation of CD57 and CD38 were directly proportional to lack of co-stimulatory markers on CD8(+) T cells, besides diminished expression of CD127 (IL-7R alpha) on CD57(+)CD4(+) T cells. Notably, intracellular IFN-gamma, perforin and granzyme B levels in HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells of HIV/TB co-infected subjects were diminished. Intracellular CD57 levels in HIV gag p24-specific CD8(+) T cells were significantly increased in HIV/TB co-infection. We suggest that HIV-TB co-infection contributes to senescence associated with chronic immune activation, which could be due to functional insufficiency of CD8(+) T cells. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Yong, Yean K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Tan, Hong Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory University, GA 30322 USA.
    Ussher, James E.
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Functional role of mucosal-associated invariant T cells in HIV infection2016In: Journal of Leukocyte Biology, ISSN 0741-5400, E-ISSN 1938-3673, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 305-314Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MAIT cells represent an evolutionarily conserved, MR1-restricted, innate-like cell subset that express high levels of CD161; have a canonical semi-invariant TCR iV alpha 7.2; and may have an important role in mucosal immunity against various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Mature MAIT cells are CD161(hi)PLZF(hi)IL-18R alpha(+)iV alpha 7.2(+)gamma delta-CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells and occur in the peripheral blood, liver, and mucosa of humans. MAIT cells are activated by a metabolic precursor of riboflavin synthesis presented by MR1 and, therefore, respond to many bacteria and some fungi. Despite their broad antibacterial properties, their functional role in persistent viral infections is poorly understood. Although there is an increasing line of evidence portraying the depletion of MAIT cells in HIV disease, the magnitude and the potential mechanisms underlying such depletion remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that MAIT cells are vulnerable to immune exhaustion as a consequence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections and HIV/tuberculosis coinfections. HIV infection also appears to cause functional depletion of MAIT cells resulting from abnormal expression of T-bet and EOMES, and effective ART is unable to completely salvage functional MAIT cell loss. Depletion and exhaustion of peripheral MAIT cells may affect mucosal immunity and could increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections during HIV infection. Here, we review some of the important mechanisms associated with depletion and functional loss of MAIT cells and also suggest potential immunotherapeutic strategies to restore MAIT cell functions, including the use of IL-7 to restore effector functions in HIV disease.

  • 40.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Tien Tien, Vicky L.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Al-Batran, Rami
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Al-Darraji, Haider A.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Tan, Hong Y.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Yong, Yean K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Rukumani, Devi V.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Ansari, Abdul W.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory Vaccine Centre, GA 30329 USA.
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia; University of Malaya, Malaysia.
    Attrition of TCR Va7.2+CD161++ MAIT Cells in HIV-Tuberculosis Co-Infection Is Associated with Elevated Levels of PD-1 Expression2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4, p. e0124659-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8+ T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR V alpha 7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161++ CD8+ T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naive HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naive HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono-and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono-and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses.

  • 41.
    Saeidi, Alireza
    et al.
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Zandi, Keivan
    Emory Univ, GA USA.
    Cheok, Yi Ying
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Saeidi, Hamidreza
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Wong, Won Fen
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Lee, Chalystha Yie Qin
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Cheong, Heng Choon
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia.
    Yong, Yean Kong
    Univ Malaya, Malaysia; Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shankar, Esaki Muthu
    Cent Univ Tamil Nadu, India.
    T-Cell Exhaustion in Chronic Infections: Reversing the State of Exhaustion and Reinvigorating Optimal Protective Immune Responses2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 2569Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    T-cell exhaustion is a phenomenon of dysfunction or physical elimination of antigen-specific T cells reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections as well as cancer. Exhaustion appears to be often restricted to CD8+ T cells responses in the literature, although CD4+ T cells have also been reported to be functionally exhausted in certain chronic infections. Although our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the transcriptional regulation of T-cell exhaustion is advancing, it is imperative to also explore the central mechanisms that control the altered expression patterns. Targeting metabolic dysfunctions with mitochondrion-targeted antioxidants are also expected to improve the antiviral functions of exhausted virus-specific CD8+ T cells. In addition, it is crucial to consider the contributions of mitochondrial biogenesis on T-cell exhaustion and how mitochondrial metabolism of T cells could be targeted whilst treating chronic viral infections. Here, we review the current understanding of cardinal features of T-cell exhaustion in chronic infections, and have attempted to focus on recent discoveries, potential strategies to reverse exhaustion and reinvigorate optimal protective immune responses in the host.

  • 42.
    Saenz, R
    et al.
    University of California.
    da Silva Souza, C
    University of Sao Paulo.
    Huang, C-T
    University of California.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Esener, S
    University of California.
    Messmer, D
    University of California.
    HMGB1-derived peptide acts as adjuvant inducing immune responses to peptide and protein antigen2010In: VACCINE, ISSN 0264-410X, Vol. 28, no 47, p. 7556-7562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for new adjuvants that will induce immune responses to subunit vaccines. We show that a short peptide, named Hp91, whose sequence corresponds to an area within the endogenous molecule high mobility group box (HMGB1) protein 1 potentiates cellular immune responses to peptide antigen and cellular and humoral immune responses to protein antigen in vivo. Hp91 promoted the in vivo production of the immunomodulatory cytokines, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12 (p70), as well as antigen-specific activation of CD8+ T cells. These results demonstrate the ability of a short immunostimulatory peptide to serve as an adjuvant for subunit vaccines.

  • 43.
    Saenz, R.
    et al.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Messmer, B.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Futalan, D.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Tor, Y.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA USA .
    Larsson, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Daniels, G.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Esener, S.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA UCSD, CA USA .
    Messmer, D.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Activity of the HMGB1-derived immunostimulatory peptide Hp91 resides in the helical C-terminal portion and is enhanced by dimerization2014In: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that an 18 amino acid long peptide, named Hp91, whose sequence corresponds to a region within the endogenous protein HMGB1, activates dendritic cells (DCs) and acts as adjuvant in vivo by potentiating Thl -type antigen-specific immune responses. We analyzed the structure-function relationship of the Hp91 peptide to investigate the amino acids and structure responsible for immune responses. We found that the cysteine at position 16 of Hp91 enabled formation of reversible peptide dimmers, monomer and dimmer were compared for DC binding and activation. Stable monomers and dimers were generated using a maleimide conjugation reaction. The dimer showed enhanced ability to bind to and activate DCs. Furthermore, the C-terminal 9 amino acids of Hp91, named UC1018 were sufficient for DC binding and Circular dichroism showed that UC1018 assumes an alpha-helical structure. The ninemer peptide UC1018 induced more potent antigen-specific CTL responses in vivo as compared to Hp91 and it protected mice from tumor development when used in a prophylactic vaccine setting. We have identified a short alpha helical peptide that acts as potent adjuvant inducing protective immune responses in vivo.

  • 44.
    Saenz, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Futalan, Diahnn
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Leutenez, Lien
    University of Coll Ghent, Belgium .
    Eekhout, Fien
    University of Coll Ghent, Belgium .
    Fecteau, Jessie F.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Sundelius, Simeon
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundqvist, Stig
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hayashi, Tomoko
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Minev, Boris
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA Genelux Corp, CA USA .
    Carson, Dennis
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Esener, Sadik
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA UCSD, CA USA .
    Messmer, Bradley
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    Messmer, Davorka
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA .
    TLR4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by an HMGB1-derived peptide adjuvant2014In: Journal of Translational Medicine, ISSN 1479-5876, E-ISSN 1479-5876, Vol. 12, no 211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) acts as an endogenous danger molecule that is released from necrotic cells and activated macrophages. We have previously shown that peptide Hp91, whose sequence corresponds to an area within the B-Box domain of HMGB1, activates dendritic cells (DCs) and acts as an adjuvant in vivo. Here we investigated the underlying mechanisms of Hp91-mediated DC activation. Hp91-induced secretion of IL-6 was dependent on clathrin-and dynamin-driven endocytosis of Hp91 and mediated through a MyD88- and TLR4-dependent pathway involving p38 MAPK and NF kappa B. Endosomal TLR4 has been shown to activate the MyD88-independent interferon pathway. Hp91-induced activation of pIRF3 and IL-6 secretion was reduced in IFN alpha beta R knockout DCs, suggesting an amplification loop via the IFN alpha beta R. These findings elucidate the mechanisms by which Hp91 acts as immunostimulatory peptide and may serve as a guide for the future development of synthetic Th1-type peptide adjuvants for vaccines.

  • 45.
    Salim, Sa'ad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Silva, Manuel A
    McMaster University.
    Keita, Åsa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    Magnusson, Karl-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perdue, Mary H
    McMaster University.
    Söderholm, Johan D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery in Östergötland.
    CD83(+)CCR7(-) Dendritic Cells Accumulate in the Subepithelial Dome and Internalize Translocated Escherichia coli HB101 in the Peyers Patches of Heal Crohns Disease2009In: American Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0002-9440, E-ISSN 1525-2191, Vol. 174, no 1, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurrent Crohns disease originates with small erosions in the follicle-associated epithelium overlying the Peyers patches. Animal studies have illustrated mucosal immune regulation by dendritic cells located in the subepithelial dome. The aim of this study was to characterize the dendritic cells at this specific site in patients with Crohns disease. Heal tissues were obtained after surgery performed on Crohns patients; ileal samples from noninflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis served as standard and inflammatory controls, respectively. Flow cytometry of isolated intestinal mononuclear cells showed a larger subset of dendritic cells in Crohns samples compared with controls. This finding was corroborated by confocal microscopy, showing enhanced infiltrates of cells positive for the dendritic cell markers, DC-SIGN(+) and CD83(+), in the subepithelial dome. Moreover, the CD83(+) cells in Crohns tissues showed reduced expression of the lymph node migratory receptor, CCR7, possibly contributing to the high numbers of dendritic cells. After exposure to nonpathogenic Escherichia coli in Ussing chambers, dendritic cells in the subepithelial dome of Crohns disease demonstrated increased co-localization with translocated bacteria. Immunohistochemical results revealed that DC-SIGN(+) cells in Crohns tissues were found to express toll-like receptor 4 and produce tumor necrosis factor-a. In conclusion, nonmigrating dendritic cells that accumulate in the subepithelial dome and internalize nonpathogenic bacteria may be important for the onset and perpetuation of mucosal inflammation in Crohns disease.

  • 46.
    Salim, Sa'ad Yislam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fru Che, Karlhans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderholm, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Surgery . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Surgery Östergötland.
    T-cell expansion capacity of Dendritic cells isolated from patients wiht Chron's diseaseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aphtoid lesions at the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) are one of the earliest observable signs of recurrent ileal Crohn’s disease (CD). In an earlier study, we found an abnormal accumulation of dendritic cells (DCs) situated beneath the FAE, in the sub-epithelial dome (SED) of patients with CD. These DCs were prone to E.coli uptake. The aim here was to isolate and characterise DCs from patients with CD and determine their functional properties in T-cell expansion. Initially, DCs were isolated from eleal mucosa and blood of 5 CD patients and 5 patients with non-IBD disorders, via magnetic bead separation. DCs were also isolated from blood of 5 patients in long-term remission and 5 healthy volunteers, via FACS sorting and separation. Mixed lymphocyte reaction was performed on the isolated DCs and expansion of T-cells was recorded. DCs that were isolated from blood were also characterised via FACS analysis. DCs from patients with active CD had the tendency of having lower T-cell expansion capacity than DCs from non-IBD controls. The capacity to stimulate T-cells proliferation was restored to similar levels as healthy controls in DCs isolated from patients in remission. However, there was more than 10-fold increase in myeloid (CD11c+) DCs present in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CD than in healthy controls. The myeloid DCs were primarily immature (CD83-) and expressed the lymph node migratory receptor CCR7. This population of DCs may be responsible for inducing a tolerogenic or regulatory effect. Our results hint to a complex immune-regulatory mechanism where DCs at different stages of chronic inflammation exert different immune-modulatory effects.

  • 47.
    Shankar, Esaki M.
    et al.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Vignesh, Ramachandran
    YRG Centre AIDS Research and Educ YRG CARE, India .
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Barathan, Muttiah
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Chong, Yee K.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Bador, M. Kahar
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Rukumani, Devi V.
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Sabet, Negar S.
    SEGi University, Malaysia .
    Kamarulzaman, Adeeba
    University of Malaya, Malaysia .
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Emory Vaccine Centre, GA USA .
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    HIV-Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-infection: a `danger-couplemodel of disease pathogenesis2014In: PATHOGENS AND DISEASE, ISSN 2049-632X, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 110-118Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection interfere and impact the pathogenesis phenomena of each other. Owing to atypical clinical presentations and diagnostic complications, HIV/TB co-infection continues to be a menace for healthcare providers. Although the increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a reduction in HIV-associated opportunistic infections and mortality, the concurrent management of HIV/TB co-infection remains a challenge owing to adverse effects, complex drug interactions, overlapping toxicities and tuberculosis -associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Several hypotheses have been put forward for the exacerbation of tuberculosis by HIV and vice versa supported by immunological studies. Discussion on the mechanisms produced by infectious cofactors with impact on disease pathology could shed light on how to design potential interventions that could decelerate disease progression. With no vaccine for HIV and lack of an effective vaccine for tuberculosis, it is essential to design strategies against HIV–TB co-infection.

  • 48.
    Shankar, Esakimuthu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fru Che, Karlhans
    University of California San Diego.
    Lifson, Jeffrey D
    NCI.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Molecular Virology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expression of a Broad Array of Negative Costimulatory Molecules and Blimp-1 in T Cells following Priming by HIV-1 Pulsed Dendritic Cells2011In: MOLECULAR MEDICINE, ISSN 1076-1551, Vol. 17, no 3-4, p. 229-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulating evidence indicates that immune impairment in persistent viral infections could lead to T-cell exhaustion. To evaluate the potential contribution of induction of negative costimulatory molecules to impaired T-cell responses, we primed naive T cells with mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) pulsed with HIV-1 in vitro. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively, to compare the gene and surface-protein expression profiles of naive T cells primed with HIV-pulsed or mock-pulsed DCs. We detected elevated expressions of negative costimulatory molecules, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3). CD160, cytolytic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-containing domain-3 (TIM-3), programmed death-1 (PD-1) and TRAIL (tumor necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) in T cells primed by HIV-pulsed DCs. The PD-1(+) T-cell population also coexpressed TIM-3, LAG-3, and CTLA-4. Interestingly, we also found an increase in gene expression of the transcriptional repressors Blimp-1 (B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1) and Foxp3 (forkhead transcription factor) in T-cells primed by HIV-pulsed DCs; Blimp-1 expression was directly proportional to the expression of the negative costimulatory molecules. Furthermore, levels of the effector cytokines interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and perforin and granzyme B were decreased in T-cell populations primed by HIV-pulsed DCs. In conclusion, in vitro priming of halve T-cells with HIV-pulsed DC leads to expansion of T cells with coexpression of a broad array of negative costimulatory mclecules and Blimp-1, with potential deleterious consequences for T-cell responses.

  • 49.
    Singh, Susmita K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Andersson, Anna-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ellegård, Rada
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S.
    La Jolla Institute Allergy and Immunol, CA USA.
    Sette, Alessandro
    La Jolla Institute Allergy and Immunol, CA USA.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Blomgran, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    HIV Interferes with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen Presentation in Human Dendritic Cells2016In: American Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0002-9440, E-ISSN 1525-2191, Vol. 186, no 12, p. 3083-3093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HIV coinfection is the most prominent risk factor for progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection into active tuberculosis (TB) disease. The mechanisms behind the increased transition from latent to active TB in coinfected individuals have not been well elucidated at the cellular level. We hypothesized that HIV infection contributes to Mtb pathogenesis by interfering with the dendritic cell (DC) mediated immune control. Mtb-antigen processing and presentation are key events in the immune response against TB. Human immature DCs coinfected with HIV/Mtb had decreased expression of human leukocyte antigen antigen D related and the costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86. In addition, Mtb-infected DCs triggered a significant release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas coinfected DCs did not. To assess the DC antigen presentation capacity, we measured interferon-gamma from co-cultures of DCs and autologous Mtb antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells. Interferon-gamma release was significantly reduced when purified protein derivative- and Ag85B-specific CD4(+) T cells had been activated with coinfected DCs compared to Mtb-infected DCs, and this effect was attributed to Mtb antigen processing rather than peptide major histocompatibility complex class II loading. Evaluating autophagy as a measure of vesicular processing and maturation further revealed that HIV efficiently blocks initiation of this pathway during coinfection. Overall, our results demonstrate that HIV impairs Mtb antigen presentation in DCs, thereby suppressing an important cell linking innate and adaptive immune response in TB.

  • 50.
    Singh, Susmita K.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Stendahl, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Blomgran, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    HIV Interferes with the Dendritic Cell-T Cell Axis of Macrophage Activation by Shifting Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4 T Cells into a Dysfunctional Phenotype2019In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 202, no 3, p. 816-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HIV coinfection is the greatest risk factor for transition of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection into active tuberculosis (TB). Epidemiological data reveal both the reduction and the impairment of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells, although the cellular link and actual mechanisms resulting in immune impairment/suppression need further characterization. M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells play a central role in development of protective immunity against TB, in which they participate in the activation of macrophages through the dendritic cell (DC)-T cell axis. Using an in vitro priming system for generating Ag-specific T cells, we explored if HIV-M. tuberculosis-infected (coinfected) human DCs can dysregulate the M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cell phenotype and functionality and subsequently mediate the failure to control M. tuberculosis infection in macrophages. After coculture with coinfected DCs, M. tuberculosis Ag-specific CD4 T cells lost their ability to enhance control of M. tuberculosis infection in infected macrophages. Coinfection of DCs reduced proliferation of M. tuberculosis Ag-specific CD4 T cells without affecting their viability, led to increased expression of coinhibitory factors CTLA-4, PD-1, and Blimp-1, and decreased expression of costimulatory molecules CD40L, CD28, and ICOS on the T cells. Expression of the regulatory T cell markers FOXP3 and CD25, together with the immunosuppressive cytokines TGF-beta and IL-10, was also significantly increased by coinfection compared with M. tuberculosis single infection. Our data suggest a pattern in which HIV, through its effect on DCs, impairs the ability of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells to maintain a latent TB within human macrophages, which could play an early role in the subsequent development of TB.

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