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  • 1.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT, Linköping, Sweden.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transmodal interaction and user experience2016In: Proceedings of the 12'th SweCog Conference / [ed] Alexander Almér, Robert Lowe, Erik Billing, Skövde: The University of Skövde , 2016, p. 5-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We are in a series of studies, ranging from news production to computer gaming, looking into the intersection of transmodal interaction and user experience. The purpose of this abstract is to outline the theoretical framework for that intersection. The first area we are studying is Transmodal Interaction, which is a concept that refer to a specific aspect of multimodal interaction. Human action is multimodal (Streeck, Goodwin, & LeBaron, 2011), and different sensory modes play an important role in action. However, little attention has been given to the intricate ways in which sensory modalities (seeing – drawing, hearing – saying, moving – touching, etc.) integrate, affect, and transform each other during the course of an activity. There are transformations of meaning in every new materialisation of an idea or a thought, partly depending on the communication potential of the sensory modality. This render what we refer to as a transmodal process where ideas and thoughts materialise action by action in an emergent sequence across relatively long and discontinuous timespans (Murphy, 2012). Over a sequence of actions, the meanings expressed in one modality, dynamically blend and shape what is expressed in other modalities. This produces, according to (Murphy, 2012) “a series of semiotic modulations in which certain core qualities persist, but others are noticeably transformed in the transition from one mode to another. (p. 1969)” We can, in intersemiotic translation (Jakobson, 1959) between modalities, address what is lost, how we introduce distortions, or even introduce perceptions of things that do not exist. A question is then how continuity of meaning and experience is preserved in modality changes. The second area we are studying is User Experience. The term refers to a person's perceptions and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service (ISO, 2010). We employ a three level model of user experience based on Leontiev’s account of consciousness (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2012; Leont ́ev, 1978), which also relate closely to Norman’s model of emotional design (Norman, 2005). The first level is the sensory fabric of consciousness, Norman refers to this as the visceral level. It is the largely subconscious level of how things feel. The second level is the personal meaning of things, related to what and how we do things action by action. Norman (ibid.) refers to this level as the behavioural level. The third level has to do with meaning, and what Norman refers to as a reflective level. It is the level of cultural meaning and what things mean for us in our socially and historically rooted activities. The intersection of these two areas constitutes our current focus of research. We are, in domains as different as news production and computer gaming, investigating persons’ perceptions and actions resulting from interaction with each other and with materialisations across different sensory modalities that give rise to intersemiotic translation effects. 

    References ISO. (2010). ISO 9241-210: 2010 Ergonomics of human-system interaction -- Part 210: Human-centred design. Geneva: International Standardization Organization. Jakobson, R. (1959). On linguistic aspects of translation. In R. A. Brower (Ed.), On translation (pp. 232-239). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Kaptelinin, V., & Nardi, B. (2012). Activity theory in HCI: Fundamentals and Reflections. Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics, 5(1), 1-105.  Leont´ev, A. N. (1978). Activity, Consciousness, and Personality. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.: Prentice-Hall. Murphy, K. M. (2012). Transmodality and temporality in design interactions. Journal of Pragmatics, 44(14), 1966-1981. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2012.08.013 Norman, D. A. (2005). Emotional design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things. New York, NY.: Basic Books. Streeck, J. r., Goodwin, C., & LeBaron, C. (2011). Embodied interaction: language and body in the material

  • 2.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hägglund, Sture
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Hult, Lars
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Katarina, Bohm
    Karolinska Institutet, Institution of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset.
    Multi-Touchpoint Design of Multimodal Healthcare Services2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify research themes and outline a research-through-design project that will explore opportunities and challenges in human-centred multi- touchpoint design for multimodal emergency calls, healthcare counselling, and elderly patient monitoring. Relevant research areas for the project include multimodal user interfaces and interaction, transmodality, accessibility, and multi-touchpoint user experience (UX) and service design. Research questions will primarily focus on opportunities and challenges of interaction and visualisation; dialogue and communication; and operations and organisation. On a higher level, beyond the specific case, the overarching research questions concern what roles modalities play in multi-touchpoint UX and service design. The knowledge contribution is a better understanding of how different modalities can be designed, employed, combined, and transduced in and between multiple touchpoints. 

  • 3.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Högskolan Väst.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ragnemalm, Eva L.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simulated provocations: A hypermedia radio theatre for reflection on classroom management2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 98-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Learning to manage a classroom is a difficult but important part of teacher education. Earlier research on simulations for learning classroom management has highlighted the difficulty of supporting reflection.

    Purpose. This case study explores and evaluates the design of a simulation for student teachers’ reflection on classroom management.

    Design. The design process resulted in the scenario-based SIMPROV simulation, which was made in the form of a hypermedia radio theatre that students go through in pairs or triads. Authoritarian, authoritative, democratic, and compliant leadership styles were built into the choices student teachers made.

    Evaluation. The simulation was evaluated in two courses where the participants’ level of reflection and perceived knowledge improvement was measured using a questionnaire. Forty three first-year student teachers, 48 third-year student teachers, and 38 of the student teachers’ mentors participated in the evaluation.

    Results. The results indicate that participants engaged in reflection and understanding to a high degree, and only to a low degree in critical reflection or habitual action.

    Conclusions. The conclusions are that the scenario-based simulation designed as a hypermedia radio theatre supported knowledge improvement, understanding, and reflection and that social interaction during and after simulation sessions was an important feature.

  • 4.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Westin, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Josefsson, Billy
    LFV, Sweden.
    Cognitive work analysis in the conceptual design of first-of-a-kind systems - designing urban air traffic management2018In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 37, no 9, p. 904-925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is an appropriate approach in design for high-stakes domains, such as air traffic management (ATM) since it focuses on human expert performance in regular and contingency situations. However, CWA is not suitable for the design of a first-of-a-kind system since there is nothing to analyse before the start of the design process. In 2017, unmanned air traffic management (UTM) for intense drone traffic in cities was such a system. Making things worse, the UTM system has to be in place before the traffic, since it provides basic safety. In this research-through-design study, we present conceptual designing as a bootstrapping approach to CWA in the design of a first-of-a-kind UTM system. In a series of co-design workshops, we identified future services, traffic patterns, and regulations that framed the design of UTM system concepts. They were based on combinations of four basic building blocks: points, lines, planes, and volumes. Concepts of point-based control, airport geofences, grid squares, layers, and tubes were discussed. Throughout the conceptual designing, results were documented in an evolving Work Domain Analysis (WDA), which is a cornerstone of CWA. This approach allowed us to bootstrap the CWA for a first-of-a-kind-system.

  • 5.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Sightlence Game: Designing a Haptic Computer Game Interface2013In: DiGRA '13 - Proceedings of the 2013 DiGRA International Conference: DeFragging Game Studies, Tampere: DiGRA , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The haptic modality is currently underutilized and poorly understood as a design material in game design. There are few computer games to draw on for inspiration during design explorations. This design case study explores how to use the haptic modality as a design material for computer game interfaces that requires neither graphics nor audio. The idea behind the case study is that a better understanding of haptic computer game interfaces can increase interface innovation and accessibility by giving game designers a third modality to work with together with graphics and audio. The design problem was approached through design explorations, development of an interface translation method, iterative game development of a haptic translation of Pong, and playtests with 34 people comprised of game design students and professors, adults with and without deafblindness, and children with deafblindness and congenital cognitive disabilities. The results show that computer games can be designed with haptic interfaces that only require standard gamepads rather than expensive or custom-made hardware. This also holds for computer games with time-critical features and complex interfaces with concurrent haptic signals.

  • 6.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Perception, meaning and transmodal design2016In: Proceedings of DRS 2016: Design Research Society 50th Anniversary Conference, 2016, Vol. 3, p. 1089-1100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our perceptual system allows us to experience and make meaning of the world through different modalities. We can move between feeling, seeing and hearing things and still makes sense of our world. Our cognitive activities are transmodal. In interaction design this means that both our design processes and our users’ interactions are transmodal. We have gained insights into how transitions between modalities, both in the design context and in the users’ interaction context, modulate meaning and experience, by analysing three interactive systems: SimProv, VibEd, and Sightlence. We propose that a transmodal design approach facilitate designers to realize the communicative potential of different modalities, and hence present users with a transmodal perspective on their interaction space that allow for continuous rearrangement and use of modalities.

  • 7.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Boström, Emil
    SICS East Swedish ICT.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Overkamp, Timothy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vibed: A prototyping tool for haptic game interfaces2016In: iConference 2016 Proceedings, iSchools , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Haptics in the form of vibrations in game interfaces have the potential to strengthen visual and audio components, and also improve accessibility for certain populations like people with deafblindness. However, building vibrotactile game interfaces is difficult and time consuming. Our research problem was how to make a prototyping tool that facilitated prototyping of vibrotactile game interfaces for phones and gamepads. The results include a description of the prototyping tool we built, which is called VibEd. It allows designers to draw vibrotactile patterns, referred to as vibes, that can easily be tested on phones and gamepads, and exported to code that can be used in game development. It is concluded, based on user tests, that a haptic game interface prototyping tool such as VibEd, can facilitate haptic game interface design and development, and by that contribute to game accessibility for persons with deafblindness. 

  • 8.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marcus, Samuelsson
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploring Simulated Provocations: Supporting Pre-service Teachers' Reflection on Classroom Management2014In: Learning and Collaboration Technologies. Technology-Rich Environments for Learning and Collaboration / [ed] Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Ioannou, Andri, Springer, 2014, p. 182-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our research project is to explore the design of game-like simulations that allow pre-service teachers to explore and experiment with problematic classroom situations to develop proficiency in classroom management. The research problem for this paper is how to design a plausible, valuable to learn, and interesting game-like simulation that also is usable and opens up for reflection on and understanding of the scenarios in the simulation. We used ‘research through design’ and combined interaction design and game design to develop the SimProv simulation. 21 pre-service teachers were invited to evaluate it in a play session with constructive interaction and questionnaires. SimProv consists of text-based scenarios where pre-service teachers can take actions corresponding to classic leadership styles. The results show that it provides a plausible, valuable, exploratory, playful, but not always interesting experience for pre-service teachers. The participants did engage in reflective discussions about the choices they made.

  • 9.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Boström, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sightlence: Haptics for games and accessibility2013In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (FDG 2013), 2013, p. 406-409Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sightlence is a haptic game interface translation of Pong. The goal of the game design was to answer the question if it’s possible to design computer games that only communicate through the haptic modality, if it’s possible to translate classic computer games to the haptic modality, and if it can be accomplished with ordinary gamepads.

    The two-fold purpose of answering these questions was to explore if it is possible to make computer games more accessible with haptic interfaces, and the possibility of using the haptic modality alone in a manner similar to the graphic and audio modalities when designing computer games.

    The Sightlence game demonstrates that game designers can create haptic game interfaces with expressive capabilities closer to that of its graphical and audio counterparts even though it’s currently not common to do so in game development projects.

  • 10.
    Nordvall, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A Design-Oriented Computer Simulation Project for Enabling Reflective Action-Focused Mentoring for Preservice Teachers2013In: Education and poverty: theory, research, policy and praxis, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is a dearth of authentic learning spaces for pre-service teachers to experience maximized variation of disturbances, provocations, and conflicts that are a natural part of teaching. To provoke such situations for practice with real pupils would be ethically problematic, as it would compromise the integrity, mutual respect, and ethic of caring within the teacher-learner relationship. Its pedagogical scope would also be limited, as real-time classroom management do not allow for adequate reflection. Our paper will explore the use of computer simulations as a tool to use during mentorship for pre-service teachers when learning classroom management. We will therefore focus on understanding the personal leadership experiences that pre-service teachers can develop in computer simulators to become confident leaders in their classroom and how this understanding can be integrated into the design process of such simulators. Perspectives: Earlier empirical studies by (Granström & Einarsson, 1998; removed for blind review) documents problematic situations of disturbances, provocations, and conflicts that affect teachers as well as pupils in Swedish schools. Previous work by (Lewis, 2001) reveals that teachers might resort to punishment when conflicts arise, while (Woolfolk & Weinstein, 2006; Lewis, Romi, Katz & Xing, 2008) problematize the falsely perceived effectiveness of punishment. Our project therefore seeks to empower pre-service teachers by grounding their leadership in personal experiences through classroom computer simulations that allow exploration of alternative strategies for classroom management and continuous reflection on their appropriateness. Modes of Inquiry: A phenomenographical analysis, based on stimulated recall interviews, will focus on pre-service teachers’ verbalized descriptions of classroom management decisions taken within the simulator. This explorative form of reflective action-focused mentoring is contrasted with the standard formats as it seeks to understand the appropriateness of using computer simulations to teach classroom management. Data sources: Data from the project Simulerade Provokationer (eng. Simulated Provocations) generated by pre-service teachers from a Swedish university is utilized. This data includes the choices and verbalized reflections that the pre-service teachers made while exploring the simulation. Results: In the simulation the pre-service teachers are forced to take actions, reflect on choices, and change their decisions in an explorative fashion. The hypothesis being that through active participation and continuous self-reflection pre-service teachers will feel better prepared to be the classroom leaders they are expected to be and will carry out a leadership that’s consistent with their desired self-image. Scholarly significance: Numerous Swedish teachers resign in the beginning of their careers as the reality-check hits them of being unprepared for the leadership required of them (Akin-Little & Little, 2008; Colnerud, Karlsson & Szklarski, 2008). Despite the number of academically proposed approaches to classroom management all Swedish pre-service teachers do not successfully manage to apply those approaches as practical knowledge in the classroom. As academics we need to explore new ways of supporting pre-service teachers in learning how to perform classroom management as they after graduation will join a community of practice that is currently unable to support them in that growth.

  • 11.
    Samuelsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Colnerud, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Ragnemalm, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mathias, Nordvall
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simuleringar tränar förmågan att leda klassrummet2015In: Venue, ISSN 1652-3415, Vol. 12, p. 1-5Article in journal (Other academic)
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