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  • 1.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been implicated in correlations with physiological functions as well as affecting fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three- spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

  • 2.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Division L5, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace & Civil Engineering, Dalton Nuclear Institute, FSE Research Institutes,The University of Manchester, UK.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. School of Biological Sciences, Centre for Ecology,Evolution and Behaviour, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham UK.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 222, nr 20, artikel-id jeb211888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been correlated with physiological functions as well as fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we experimentally investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three-spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

  • 3.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Favati, A.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlbom, J.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, S.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks2018Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, nr 4, s. 201-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks <i>(Gasterosteus aculeatus)</i> under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

  • 4.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Southern Oregon Univ, OR 97520 USA.
    Garnham, Laura
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundgren, Kristoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Child, Sarah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Manchester, England.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Experimental manipulation of monoamine levels alters personality in crickets2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 16211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personality has been described in a range of species with ecological and evolutionary consequences. Factors shaping and maintaining variation in personality are not fully understood, but monoaminergic systems are consistently linked to personality variation. We experimentally explored how personality was influenced by alterations in two key monoamine systems: dopamine and serotonin. This was done using ropinirole and fluoxetine, two common human pharmaceuticals. Using the Mediterranean field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), we focused on the personality traits activity, exploration, and aggression, with confirmed repeatability in our study. Dopamine manipulations explained little variation in the personality traits investigated, while serotonin manipulation reduced both activity and aggression. Due to limited previous research, we created a dose-response curve for ropinirole, ranging from concentrations measured in surface waters to human therapeutic doses. No ropinirole dose level strongly influenced cricket personality, suggesting our results did not come from a dose mismatch. Our results indicate that the serotonergic system explains more variation in personality than manipulations of the dopaminergic system. Additionally, they suggest that monoamine systems differ across taxa, and confirm the importance of the mode of action of pharmaceuticals in determining their effects on behaviour.

  • 5.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    et al.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60611 USA.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    West, Janne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Elliott, James M.
    Northwestern Univ, IL 60611 USA; Univ Queensland, Australia; Zurich Univ Appl Sci, Switzerland.
    Åslund, Ulrika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för fysioterapi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Radiofysikavdelningen US. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    The qualitative grading of muscle fat infiltration in whiplash using fat and water magnetic resonance imaging2018Ingår i: The spine journal, ISSN 1529-9430, E-ISSN 1878-1632, Vol. 18, nr 5, s. 717-725Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The development of muscle fat infiltration (MFI) in the neck muscles is associated with poor functional recovery following whiplash injury. Custom software and time-consuming manual segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is required for quantitative analysis and presents as a barrier for clinical translation. PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to establish a qualitative MRI measure for MFI and evaluate its ability to differentiate between individuals with severe whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), mild or moderate WAD, and healthy controls. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: This is a cross-sectional study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Thirty-one subjects with WAD and 31 age-and sex-matched controls were recruited from an ongoing randomized controlled trial. OUTCOME MEASURES: The cervical multifidus was visually identified and segmented into eighths in the axial fat/water images (C4-C7). Muscle fat infiltration was assessed on a visual scale: 0 for no or marginal MFI, 1 for light MFI, and 2 for distinct MFI. The participants with WAD were divided in two groups: mild or moderate and severe based on Neck Disability Index % scores. METHODS: The mean regional MFI was compared between the healthy controls and each of the WAD groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses were carried out to evaluate the validity of the qualitative method. RESULTS: Twenty (65%) patients had mild or moderate disability and 11 (35%) were considered severe. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was excellent when grading was averaged by level or when frequency of grade II was considered. Statistically significant differences (pamp;lt;.05) in regional MFI were particularly notable between the severe WAD group and healthy controls. The ROC curve, based on detection of distinct MFI, showed an area-under-the curve of 0.768 (95% confidence interval 0.59-0.94) for discrimination of WAD participants. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest a qualitative MRI measure for MFI is reliable and valid, and may prove useful toward the classification of WAD in radiology practice. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Abdalla, Maie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Egypt.
    Norblad, Rickard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Olsson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Landerholm, Kalle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Surgery, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Andersson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken ViN.
    Söderholm, Johan D.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Andersson, Roland
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Surgery, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Myrelid, Pär
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Anorectal Function After Ileo-Rectal Anastomosis Is Better than Pelvic Pouch in Selected Ulcerative Colitis Patients2020Ingår i: Digestive Diseases and Sciences, ISSN 0163-2116, E-ISSN 1573-2568, s. 250-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: With a lifelong perspective, 12% of ulcerative colitis patients will need a colectomy. Further reconstruction via ileo-rectal anastomosis or pouch can be affected by patients' perspective of their quality of life after surgery.

    AIM: To assess the function and quality of life after restorative procedures with either ileo-rectal anastomosis or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis in relation to the inflammatory activity on endoscopy and in biopsies.

    METHOD: A total of 143 UC patients operated with subtotal colectomy and ileo-rectal anastomosis or pouches between 1992 and 2006 at Linköping University Hospital were invited to participate. Those who completed the validated questionnaires (Öresland score, SF-36, Short Health Scale) were offered an endoscopic evaluation including multiple biopsies. Associations between anorectal function and quality of life with type of restorative procedure and severity of endoscopic and histopathologic grading of inflammation were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Some 77 (53.9%) eligible patients completed questionnaires, of these 68 (88.3%) underwent endoscopic evaluation after a median follow-up of 12.5 (range 3.5-19.4) years after restorative procedure. Patients with ileo-rectal anastomosis reported better overall Öresland score: median = 3 (IQR 2-5) for ileo-rectal anastomosis (n = 38) and 10 (IQR 5-15) for pouch patients (n = 39) (p < 0.001). Anorectal function (Öresland score) and endoscopic findings (Baron-Ginsberg score) were positively correlated in pouch patients (tau: 0.28, p = 0.006).

    CONCLUSION: Patients operated with ileo-rectal anastomosis reported better continence compared to pouches. Minor differences were noted regarding the quality of life. Ileo-rectal anastomosis is a valid option for properly selected ulcerative colitis patients if strict postoperative endoscopic surveillance is carried out.

  • 7.
    Abdelrahman, Islam
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Hand- och plastikkirurgiska kliniken US.
    Vieweg, Rosa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Anestesi- och intensivvårdskliniken US (ANOPIVA).
    Irschik, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Hand- och plastikkirurgiska kliniken US.
    Sjöberg, Folke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Hand- och plastikkirurgiska kliniken US. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Anestesi- och intensivvårdskliniken US (ANOPIVA).
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Hand- och plastikkirurgiska kliniken US.
    Development of delirium: Association with old age, severe burns, and intensive care2020Ingår i: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Delirium is defined as a disturbance of attention and awareness that develops over a short period of time, is a change from the baseline, and typically fluctuates over time. Burn care involves a high prevalence of known risk factors for delirium such as sedation, inflammation, and prolonged stay in hospital. Our aim was to explore the extent of delirium and the impact of factors associated with it for adult patients who have been admitted to hospital with burns. Methods In this retrospective study, all adult patients who had been admitted with burns during a four-year period were studied, including both those who were treated with intensive care and intermediate care only (no intensive care). Daily records of the assessment of delirium using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC) were analysed together with age, sex, the percentage of total body surface area burned, operations, and numbers of wound care procedures under anaesthesia, concentrations of plasma C-reactive protein, and other clinical variables. Logistic regression was used to analyse factors that were associated with delirium and its effect on mortality, and linear regression was used to analyse its effect on the duration of hospital stay. Results Fifty-one patients (19%) of the total 262 showed signs of delirium (Nu-DESC score of 2 or more) at least once during their stay in hospital. Signs of delirium were recorded in 42/89 patients (47%) who received intensive care, and in 9/173 (5%) who had intermediate care. Independent factors for delirium in the multivariable regression were: age over 74 years; number of operations and wound care procedures under anaesthesia; and the provision of intensive care (area under the curve 0.940, 95% CI 0.899–0.981). Duration of hospital stay, adjusted for age and burn size, was 13.2 (95% CI 7.4–18.9, p < 0.001) days longer in the group who had delirium. We found no independent effects of delirium on mortality. Conclusion We found a strong association between delirium and older age, provision ofr intensive care, and number of interventions under anaesthesia. A further 5% of patients who did not receive intensive care also showed signs of delirium, which is a finding that deserves to be thoroughly investigated in the future.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    Capodanno, Alessandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Röntgenkliniken i Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    Downregulation of tumor suppressive microRNAs in vivo in dense breast tissue of postmenopausal women2017Ingår i: OncoTarget, ISSN 1949-2553, E-ISSN 1949-2553, Vol. 8, nr 54, s. 92134-92142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Women with dense breast tissue on mammography are at higher risk of developing breast cancer but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. De-regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with the onset of breast cancer. miRNAs in the extracellular space participate in the regulation of the local tissue microenvironment. Here, we recruited 39 healthy postmenopausal women attending their mammography-screen that were assessed having extreme dense or entirely fatty breasts (nondense). Microdialysis was performed in breast tissue and a reference catheter was inserted in abdominal subcutaneous fat for local sampling of extracellular compounds. Three miRNAs, associated with tumor suppression, miR-193b, miR-365a, and miR-452 were significantly down-regulated in dense breast tissue compared with nondense breast tissue. In addition, miR-452 exhibited significant negative correlations with several pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo, which was confirmed in vitro by overexpression of miR-452 in breast cancer cells. No differences were found of miR-21, -29a, -30c, 146a, -148a, -203, or -451 in breast tissue and no miRs were different in plasma. Extracellular miRNAs may be among factors that should be included in studies of novel prevention strategies for breast cancer.

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Röntgenkliniken i Linköping.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    Equal Pro-inflammatory Profiles of CCLs, CXCLs, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Extracellular Microenvironment In Vivo in Human Dense Breast Tissue and Breast Cancer2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 8, artikel-id 1994Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The inflammatory microenvironment affects breast cancer progression. Proteins that govern the inflammatory response are secreted into the extracellular space, but this compartment still needs to be characterized in human breast tissues in vivo. Dense breast tissue is a major risk factor for breast cancer by yet unknown mechanisms and no non-toxic prevention for these patients exists. Here, we used the minimal invasive technique of microdialysis for sampling of extracellular proteins in live tissues in situ in breast cancers of women before surgery and in healthy women having dense or non-dense breast tissue on mammography. Proteins were profiled using a proximity extension assay. Out of the 32 proteins assessed, 26 exhibited similar profiles in breast cancers and dense breast tissues; CCL-4, -7, -8, -11, -15, -16, -22, -23, and -25, CXCL-5, -8, -9, -16 as well as sIL-6R, IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor, TGF-a, fibroblast growth factor 19, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were all increased, whereas CCL-3, CX3CL1, hepatocyte growth factor, and MMP-9 were unaltered in the two tissues. CCL-19 and -24, CXCL-1 and -10, and IL-6 were increased in dense breast tissue only, whereas IL-18BP was increased in breast cancer only. Our results provide novel insights in the inflammatory microenvironment in human breast cancer in situ and define potential novel therapeutic targets. Additionally, we show previously unrecognized similarities of the pro-inflammatory microenvironment in dense breast tissue and breast cancer in vivo suggesting that anti-inflammatory breast cancer prevention trials for women with dense breast tissue may be feasible.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    Rzepecka, Anna
    Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Röntgenkliniken i Linköping. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Dabrosin, Charlotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    Increased nutrient availability in dense breast tissue of postmenopausal women in vivo2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 42733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Nutrient availability in the tissue microenvironment determines cellular events and may play a role in breast carcinogenesis. High mammographic density is an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Whether nutrient availability differs in normal breast tissues with various densities is unknown. Therefore we investigated whether breast tissues with various densities exhibited differences in nutrient availability. Healthy postmenopausal women from the regular mammographic screening program who had either predominantly fatty breast tissue (nondense), n = 18, or extremely dense breast tissue (dense), n = 20, were included. Microdialysis was performed for the in vivo sampling of amino acids (AAs), analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy, glucose, lactate and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in breast tissues and, as a control, in abdominal subcutaneous (s.c.) fat. We found that dense breast tissue exhibited significantly increased levels of 20 proteinogenic AAs and that 18 of these AAs correlated significantly with VEGF. No differences were found in the s.c. fat, except for one AA, suggesting tissue-specific alterations in the breast. Glucose and lactate were unaltered. Our findings provide novel insights into the biology of dense breast tissue that may be explored for breast cancer prevention strategies.

  • 11.
    Abtahi, Jahan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Käkkliniken US.
    Henefalk, Gustav
    Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Käkkliniken US.
    Aspenberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Ortopedkliniken i Linköping.
    Impact of a zoledronate coating on early post-surgical implant stability and marginal bone resorption in the maxilla-A split-mouth randomized clinical trial.2019Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 49-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this clinical study was to evaluate the effect of a bisphosphonate coating on a titanium implant on the implant stability quotient (ISQ) and the radiographic marginal bone levels at implants during early healing (2-8 weeks).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized double-blind trial with internal controls, 16 patients received a dental implant coated with zoledronate and one uncoated implant as a control. The coated and uncoated implants which were visually indistinguishable were bone level titanium implants with a moderately rough surface and a microthreaded neck. ISQ values were obtained at insertion and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Radiographs were obtained at insertion and at 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the difference in ISQ values between the coated implants and the control implants at 4 and 6 weeks, corrected for insertion values. The secondary outcome was loss of marginal bone level from insertion to 8 weeks.

    RESULTS: Implant stability quotient values remained largely constant over the 8 weeks, and there was no significant difference between coated and uncoated implants at any time point. There was 0.12 (SD 0.10) mm marginal bone loss at the control implants and 0.04 (SD 0.08) mm at the coated implants. The difference was 0.17 mm; SD 0.14; p < 0.006). On blind qualitative scoring, 13 of the 15 control implants and two of 15 coated implants showed small marginal bone defects (p = 0.003).

    CONCLUSIONS: There were no statistically significant differences observed in ISQ values between the coated and uncoated implants during the early healing. There was less marginal bone loss at the coated implants.

  • 12.
    Abtahi, Jahan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Käkkliniken US.
    Malakuti, Iman
    Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Käkkliniken US.
    Ajan, Aida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Käkkliniken US.
    Surgical Management of Granular Cell Tumor of the Orbit: Case Report and Literature Review2019Ingår i: Open Dentistry Journal, ISSN 1874-2106, E-ISSN 1874-2106, Vol. 13, s. 33-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Granular Cell Tumors (GCTs) of the orbit are rare-entity soft-tissue tumors, and few reports have been published in the literature. The treatment of the choice is total excision. Early diagnosis prior to surgery is valuable for the distinction of malignant from benign tumor.

    Case presentation: We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a solitary slow-growing mass in the right orbit with the involvement of the rectus inferior muscle, and present a review of the recent literature. The lesion had a diameter of 1 cm and was noticed 2 years before the examination. Excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of GCT. The tumor was resected through a retroseptal transconjunctival approach. The final histological examination revealed findings characteristic of GCT, including positive reaction for protein S-100, SOX10, and calcitonin and negative reaction for desmin, myogenin, Smooth Muscle Antigen (SMA), Melan-A, and HMB-45. There were no signs of malignancy in this sample. Disturbance of motility was not noted by the patient after surgery.

    Conclusion: GCT should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraorbital lesions, particularly those that involve the orbit muscles. A biopsy is recommended before surgical resection, to exclude malignancy and prevent radical resection.

  • 13.
    Adham, Khalis Ibrahim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för Lärarutbildning.
    Planning Higher Education in IRAQ I: Planning Medical Education1975Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Adil, Mohammed Yasin
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Norway; Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway.
    Xiao, Jiaxin
    Univ Oslo, Norway; Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway.
    Olafsson, Jonatan
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Chen, Xiangjun
    Univ Oslo, Norway; Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway; Arendal Hosp, Norway; Vestre Viken Hosp Trust, Norway; Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Norway.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Raeder, Sten
    Norwegian Dry Eye Clin, Norway.
    Utheim, Oygunn A.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Dartt, Darlene A.
    Harvard Med Sch, MA 02115 USA.
    Utheim, Tor P.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Univ Oslo, Norway; Vestre Viken Hosp Trust, Norway; Univ Coll Southeast Norway, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway.
    Meibomian Gland Morphology Is a Sensitive Early Indicator of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction2019Ingår i: American Journal of Ophthalmology, ISSN 0002-9394, E-ISSN 1879-1891, Vol. 200, s. 16-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between meibomian gland (MG) morphology and clinical dry eye tests in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Total 538 MGD patients and 21 healthy controls. METHODS: MG loss on meibography images of upper (UL) and lower lids (LL) was graded on a scale of 0 (lowest degree of MG loss) to 3. MG length, thickness, and interglandular space in the UL were measured. Clinical tests included meibum expression and quality, tear film break-up time, ocular staining, osmolarity, Schirmer I, blink interval timing, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean UL and LL meibogrades were significantly higher in MGD patients compared to controls (P amp;lt; .001 for UL and LL). The sensitivity and specificity of the meibograde as a diagnostic parameter for MGD was 96.7% and 85%, respectively. Schirmer I was significantly increased in MGD patients with meibograde 1 compared to patients with meibograde 0, 2, and 3 in the UL (P amp;lt; .05 ). MG thickness increased with higher meibograde (P amp;lt; .001). MG morphology correlated significantly but weakly with several clinical parameters (P amp;lt; .05). OSDI did not correlate with any MG morphologic parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Grading of MG loss using meibograde effectively diagnoses MGD. Compensatory mechanisms such as increased aqueous tear production and dilation of MGs make early detection of MGD difficult by standard clinical measures of dry eye, whereas morphologic analysis of MGs reveals an early stage of MGD, and therefore represents a complementary clinical parameter with diagnostic potential. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Agren, Martin
    et al.
    Prosthodont Specialist Clin, Sweden.
    Sahin, Christofer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland.
    Pettersson, Mattias
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    The effect of botulinum toxin injections on bruxism: A systematic review2020Ingår i: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To systematize evidence on the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) in the treatment of bruxism measured through bite force or electromyography (EMG) at the masseter muscle. Method Identification of relevant articles through databases PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Ovid and EBSCO and manual search were performed for sources from review articles. Studies scoring less than 3 on the Jadad Scale were excluded. Results Four articles were included after an exclusion of 333 articles. 3 articles measured EMG and 1 bite force. 1 article did not record a significant drop of activity, 1 article recorded reduction midway and at final endpoint. 2 articles recorded initial reduction, but a non significant difference at later follow up. Conclusion The available research is inconclusive and does not show enough evidence that bruxism can be treated with BTA injections. However, promising results have been shown in individual studies and further research in this area is needed.

  • 16.
    Ahlbeck, Lars
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Allergicentrum US.
    Ahlberg, Emelie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Nyström Kronander, Ulla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Hjärt- och Medicincentrum, Allergicentrum US.
    Björkander, Janne
    Futurum, Academy of Health and Care, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Jenmalm, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Intralymphatic allergen immunotherapy against pollen allergy. A 3-year open follow-up study of 10 patients2018Ingår i: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, ISSN 1081-1206, E-ISSN 1534-4436, Vol. 121, nr 5, s. 626-627Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment that affects the long-term development of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and induces clinical tolerance primarily by stimulating regulatory T (Treg) cells, attenuating T helper 2 (Th2) responses and synthesis of blocking antibodies1. Conventional AIT with subcutaneous injections, sublingual tablets or drops is effective, but consumes time and resources 2.

  • 17.
    Ahlberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling.
    Elfström, Johan
    Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling.
    Borgstedt Risberg, Madeleine
    Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Region Östergötland, Regionstyrelsen.
    Andersson, Christer
    Region Östergötland, Regionstyrelsen.
    Sjödahl, Rune
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Regionstyrelsen. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Learning From Incident Reporting?: Analysis of Incidents Resulting in Patient Injuries in a Web-Based System in Swedish Health Care2017Ingår i: Journal of patient safety, ISSN 1549-8417, E-ISSN 1549-8425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Incident reporting (IR) systems have the potential to improve patient safety if they enable learningfrom the reported risks and incidents. The aim of this study was to investigate incidents registered in an IR system in a Swedish county council.

    Methods The study was conducted in the County Council of Östergötland, Sweden. Data were retrieved from the IR system, which included 4755 incidents occurring in somatic care that resulted in patient injuries from 2004 to 2012. One hundred correctly classified patient injuries were randomly sampled from 3 injury severity levels: injuries leading to deaths, permanent harm, and temporary harm. Three aspects were analyzed: handling of the incident, causes of the incident, and actions taken to prevent its recurrence.

    Results Of the 300 injuries, 79% were handled in the departments where they occurred. The department head decided what actions should be taken to prevent recurrence in response to 95% of the injuries. A total of 448 causes were identified for the injuries; problems associated with procedures, routines, and guidelines were most common. Decisions taken for 80% of the injuries could be classified using the IR system documentation and root cause analysis. The most commonly pursued type of action was change of work routine or guideline.

    Conclusions The handling, causes, and actions taken to prevent recurrence were similar for injuries of different severity levels. Various forms of feedback (information, education, and dialogue) were an integral aspect of the IR system. However, this feedback was primarily intradepartmental and did not yield much organizational learning.

  • 18.
    Ahlstrand, Erik
    et al.
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Jan
    Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Hematologiska kliniken US.
    Lindgren, Marie
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Helna
    NU Hosp Grp, Sweden.
    Liljeholm, Maria
    Univ Hosp Nouthern Sweden, Sweden.
    Ravn-Landtblom, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Stockholm South Hosp, Sweden.
    Scheding, Stefan
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Bjorn
    NU Hosp Grp, Sweden.
    Highly reduced survival in essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera patients with vascular complications during follow-up2020Ingår i: European Journal of Haematology, ISSN 0902-4441, E-ISSN 1600-0609, Vol. 104, nr 3, s. 271-278Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To explore the relative importance of risk factors, treatments, and blood counts for the occurrence of vascular complications and their impact on life expectancy in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). Methods Nested case-control study within the Swedish MPN registry. From a cohort of 922 ET patients and 763 PV patients, 71 ET and 81 PV cases with vascular complications were compared with matched controls. Results Incidence of vascular complications was 2.0 and 3.4 events per 100 patient-years in ET and PV, respectively. At diagnosis, no significant risk factor differences were observed between cases and controls in neither of the diseases. At the time of vascular event, ET complication cases did not differ significantly from controls but in PV, cases had significantly higher WBCs and were to a lesser extent treated with anti-thrombotic and cytoreductive therapy. Life expectancy was significantly decreased in both ET and PV cases compared with controls. Conclusions The risk of vascular complications is high in both ET and PV, and these complications have a considerable impact on life expectancy. The protective effect of anti-thrombotic and cytoreductive therapy for vascular complications in PV underscores the importance of avoiding undertreatment.

  • 19.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    VTI, Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Stockholm Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Effects of the road environment on the development of driver sleepiness in young male drivers2018Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 112, s. 127-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Latent driver sleepiness may in some cases be masked by for example social interaction, stress and physical activity. This short-term modulation of sleepiness may also result from environmental factors, such as when driving in stimulating environments. The aim of this study is to compare two road environments and investigate how they affect driver sleepiness. Thirty young male drivers participated in a driving simulator experiment where they drove two scenarios: a rural environment with winding roads and low traffic density, and a suburban road with higher traffic density and a more built-up roadside environment. The driving task was essentially the same in both scenarios, i.e. to stay on the road, without much interaction with other road users. A 2 x 2 design, with the conditions rural versus suburban, and daytime (full sleep) versus night-time (sleep deprived), was used. The results show that there were only minor effects of the road environment on subjective and physiological indicators of sleepiness. In contrast, there was an increase in subjective sleepiness, longer blink durations and increased EEG alpha content, both due to time on task and to night-time driving. The two road environments differed both in terms of the demand on driver action and of visual load, and the results indicate that action demand is the more important of the two factors. The notion that driver fatigue should be countered in a more stimulating visual environment such as in the city is thus more likely due to increased task demand rather than to a richer visual scenery. This should be investigated in further studies.

  • 20.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jansson, Sabina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Anund, Anna
    Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Rehabiliteringsmedicinska kliniken. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Local changes in the wake electroencephalogram precedes lane departures2017Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 816-819Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate if lane departures are associated with local sleep, measured via source-localized electroencephalography (EEG) theta power in the 5-9 Hz frequency range. Thirty participants drove in an advanced driving simulator, resulting in 135 lane departures at high levels of self-reported sleepiness. These lane departures were compared to matching non-departures at the same sleepiness level within the same individual. There was no correspondence between lane departures and global theta activity. However, at the local level an increased risk for lane departures was associated with increased theta content in brain regions related to motor function.

  • 21.
    Al Nimaa, Ali
    et al.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cloninger, Kevin M.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Anthropedia Fdn, MO USA.
    Persson, Bjorn N.
    Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Turku, Finland.
    Sikstrom, Sverker
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Blekinge Ctr Competence, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Validation of Subjective Well-Being Measures Using Item Response Theory2020Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 3036Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective well-being refers to the extent to which a person believes or feels that her life is going well. It is considered as one of the best available proxies for a broader, more canonical form of well-being. For over 30 years, one important distinction in the conceptualization of subjective well-being is the contrast between more affective evaluations of biological emotional reactions and more cognitive evaluations of ones life in relation to a psychologically self-imposed ideal. More recently, researchers have suggested the addition of harmony in life, comprising behavioral evaluations of how one is doing in a social context. Since measures used to assess subjective well-being are self-reports, often validated only using Classical Test Theory, our aim was to focus on the psychometric properties of the measures using Item Response Theory. Method: A total of 1000 participants responded to the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. At random, half of the participants answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale or to the Harmony in life Scale. First, we evaluate and provide enough evidence of unidimensionality for each scale. Next, we conducted graded response models to validate the psychometric properties of the subjective well-being scales. Results: All scales showed varied frequency item distribution, high discrimination values (Alphas), and had different difficulty parameters (Beta) on each response options. For example, we identified items that respondents found difficult to endorse at the highest/lowest point of the scales (e.g., "Proud" for positive affect; item 5, "If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing," for life satisfaction; and item 3, "I am in harmony," for harmony in life). In addition, all scales could cover a good portion of the range of subjective well-being (Theta): -2.50 to 2.30 for positive affect, -1.00 to 3.50 for negative affect, -2.40 to 2.50 for life satisfaction, and -2.40 to 2.50 for harmony in life. Importantly, for all scales, there were weak reliability for respondents with extreme latent scores of subjective well-being. Conclusion: The affective component, especially low levels of negative affect, were less accurately measured, while both the cognitive and social component were covered to an equal degree. There was less reliability for respondents with extreme latent scores of subjective well-being. Thus, to improve reliability at the level of the scale, at the item level and at the level of the response scale for each item, we point out specific items that need to be modified or added. Moreover, the data presented here can be used as normative data for each of the subjective well-being constructs.

  • 22.
    Albinsson-Stenholm, Erina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Bergsen, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Ingues, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Vilhelmsson, Nathalie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Guldbrand, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Primärvården i västra länsdelen. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Fredrik H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Cityhälsan Centrum, Norrköping.
    Subjects with high fasting insulin also have higher postprandial GLP-1 and glucagon levels than controls with lower insulin2019Ingår i: Nutrition Research, ISSN 0271-5317, E-ISSN 1879-0739, Vol. 72, s. 111-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about postprandial release of serum ghrelin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in relation with differing fasting insulin levels. We hypothesized that these hormones are affected by insulin resistance, and hence, we compared different postprandial responses of GLP-1, glucagon, and ghrelin in subjects with relatively high (RHI) or relatively low (RLI) fasting insulin levels. The trial was a randomized crossover study with 4 different meal conditions. Fourteen nonobese or obese, healthy, men and 14 women were randomly assigned to the order of supervised intake of a 750 kcal drink with the same protein contents but with 20 energy-percent (E%) or 55 E% from carbohydrates, and the remaining energy from fat. Participants were also randomized to consume the drinks as 1 large beverage or as five 150-kcal portions every 30 minutes. The 28 subjects were divided into 2 equally sized groups based on fasting insulin levels. Statistics were done with general linear mixed model. Fasting insulin levels were 3-fold higher in the group with RHI compared with the RLI group (RHI: 1004 +/- 510 pg/mL, RLI: 324 +/- 123 pg/mL, P amp;lt; .0005). Serum GLP-1 was highest in the RHI group after both single meals and after 5 drinks and following high- and low-carbohydrate meals (both P amp;lt;= .002), and this was the case also for glucagon levels (both P amp;lt;= .018), whereas ghrelin levels did not differ between groups. Thus, subjects with RHI displayed both higher postprandial serum GLP-1 and glucagon than the participants with RLI, suggesting that glucagon could play a role in the advent of dysglycemia by insulin resistance. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-10-27 15:08
  • 23.
    Albonico, Andrea
    et al.
    Human Vision and Eye Movement Laboratory, Departments of Medicine (Neurology), Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Furubacke, Amanda
    Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Human Vision and Eye Movement Laboratory, Departments of Medicine (Neurology), Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Barton, Jason J. S.
    Human Vision and Eye Movement Laboratory, Departments of Medicine (Neurology), Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Oruc, Ipek
    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Canada; Program in Neuroscience, University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Perceptual efficiency and the inversion effect for faces, words and houses2018Ingår i: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 153, s. 91-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Face and visual word recognition are two key forms of expert visual processing. In the domain of object recognition, it has been suggested that expert processing is characterized by the use of different mechanisms from the ones involved in general object recognition. It has been suggested that one traditional marker of expert processing is the inversion effect. To investigate whether face and word recognition differ from general object recognition, we compared the effect of inversion on the perceptual efficiency of face and visual word recognition as well as on the recognition of a third, non-expert object category, houses. From the comparison of identification contrast thresholds to an ideal observer, we derived the efficiency and equivalent input noise of stimulus processing in both upright and inverted orientations. While efficiency reflects the efficacy in sampling the available information, equivalent input noise is associated with the degradation of the stimulus signal within the visual system. We hypothesized that large inversion effects for efficiency and/or equivalent input noise should characterize expert high-level processes, and asked whether this would be true for both faces and words, but not houses. However, we found that while face recognition efficiency was profoundly reduced by inversion, the efficiency of word and house recognition was minimally influenced by the orientation manipulation. Inversion did not affect equivalent input noise. These results suggest that even though faces and words are both considered expert processes, only the efficiency of the mechanism involved in face recognition is sensitive to orientation.

  • 24.
    Alfredson, Jens
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Saab Aeronaut, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Trabasso, Luís Gonzaga
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. ITA, Brazil.
    Blomstrand, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eckerberg, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Klamer, Linda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ledin, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tarander, Jasmine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Engine Failure Induced Task Load Transient for Simulation Based Certification Aiding for Aircraft2018Ingår i: ADVANCES IN HUMAN ASPECTS OF TRANSPORTATION, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2018, Vol. 597, s. 79-86Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is one of a series of studies, researching various aspects that all aim at enhanced simulation based certification aiding for aircraft. An experimental within-group design study was performed with 10 participants ( 5 male, and 5 female). The results showed a significant difference, F(2,16) = 5.11, p = 0.019, in mental workload between an engine failure condition and an normal condition for eye blink frequency. No effect of speed at the engine failure event on mental workload was found.

  • 25.
    Ali, Zaheer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Islam, Anik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sherrell, Peter
    Imperial Coll London, England.
    Le-Moine, Mark
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lolas, Georgios
    Univ Athens, Greece.
    Syrigos, Konstantinos
    Univ Athens, Greece.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Avdelningen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Lasse
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Adjustable delivery of pro-angiogenic FGF-2 by alginate: collagen microspheres2018Ingår i: BIOLOGY OPEN, ISSN 2046-6390, Vol. 7, nr 3, artikel-id UNSP bio027060Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Therapeutic induction of blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) in ischemic tissues holds great potential for treatment of myocardial infarction and stroke. Achieving sustained angiogenesis and vascular maturation has, however, been highly challenging. Here, we demonstrate that alginate: collagen hydrogels containing therapeutic, pro-angiogenic FGF-2, and formulated as microspheres, is a promising and clinically relevant vehicle for therapeutic angiogenesis. By titrating the amount of readily dissolvable and degradable collagen with more slowly degradable alginate in the hydrogel mixture, the degradation rates of the biomaterial controlling the release kinetics of embedded proangiogenic FGF-2 can be adjusted. Furthermore, we elaborate a microsphere synthesis protocol allowing accurate control over sphere size, also a critical determinant of degradation/release rate. As expected, alginate: collagen microspheres were completely biocompatible and did not cause any adverse reactions when injected in mice. Importantly, the amount of pro-angiogenic FGF-2 released from such microspheres led to robust induction of angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos similar to that achieved by injecting FGF-2-releasing cells. These findings highlight the use of microspheres constructed from alginate: collagen hydrogels as a promising and clinically relevant delivery system for pro-angiogenic therapy.

  • 26.
    Aljabery, Firas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Urologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Halili, Shefqet
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Hildebrand, Eric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, Kvinnokliniken i Linköping.
    Vesico-Uterine Fistula after TURB in pregnancy, a rare cause of genitourinary fistula2018Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 162-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 27.
    Aljabery, Firas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Urologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Urologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Shabo, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US. Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    M2-macrophage infiltration and macrophage traits of tumor cells in urinary bladder cancer2018Ingår i: Urologic Oncology, ISSN 1078-1439, E-ISSN 1873-2496, Vol. 36, nr 4, artikel-id 159.e19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) constitute a subset of nonneoplastic cells in tumor stroma and influence cancer progression in solid tumors. The clinical significance of TAMs in urinary bladder cancer(UBC) is controversial.

    Methods

    We prospectively studied 103 patients with stage pT1–T4 UBC treated with cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Tumor sections were immunostained with M2-specific macrophage marker CD163 and proliferation marker Ki-67. The expression of these markers in cancer cells as well as macrophage infiltration (MI) in tumor stroma was analyzed in relation to clinical data and outcome.

    Results

    The mean rate of CD163 and Ki-67 expressed by cancer cells were 35% and 78%, respectively. With borderline significance, MI was associated with lower rate of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.06). CD163 expression in cancer cells was proportional to MI (P<0.014). Patients with CD163-positive tumors and strong MI had significantly longer cancer-specific survival (CSS) (76 months), compared to patient with CD163-positive tumors and weak MI (28 months) (P = 0.02).

    Conclusions

    M2-specific MI tends to be inversely correlated with LN metastasis and improved CSS in UBC. MI might have protective impact in CD163-positive tumors. Expression of CD163 in cancer cells is significantly correlated with MI and might have a tumor promoting impact.

  • 28.
    Aljabery, Firas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Urologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Shabo, Ivan
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Urologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi.
    The expression profile of p14, p53 and p21 in tumour cells is associated with disease-specific survival and the outcome of postoperative chemotherapy treatment in muscle-invasive bladder cancer2018Ingår i: Urologic Oncology, ISSN 1078-1439, E-ISSN 1873-2496, Vol. 36, nr 12, s. 530.e7-530.e18, artikel-id 530.e7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of alterations in the biological markers p14, p53, p21, and p16 in relation to tumour cell proliferation, T-category, N- category, lymphovascular invasion, and the ability to predict prognosis in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) treated with cystectomy and, if applicable, chemotherapy.

    Materials and methods: We prospectively studied patients with urinary bladder cancer pathological stage pT1 to pT4 treated with cystectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection and postoperative chemotherapy. Tissue microarrays from paraffin-embedded cystectomy tumour samples were examined for expression of immunostaining of p14, p53, p21, p16 and Ki-67 in relation to other clinical and pathological factors as well as cancer-specific survival.

    Results: The median age of the 110 patients was 70 years (range 51-87 years), and 85 (77%) were male. Pathological staging was pT1 to pT2 (organ-confined) in 28 (25%) patients and pT3 to pT4 (non-organ-confined) in 82 (75%) patients. Lymph node metastases were found in 47 patients (43%). P14 expression was more common in tumours with higher T-stages (P = 0.05). The expression of p14 in p53 negative tumours was associated with a significantly shorter survival time (P=0.003). Independently of p53 expression, p14 expression was associated with an impaired response to chemotherapy (P=0.001). The expression of p21 in p53 negative tumours was associated with significantly decrease levels of tumour cell proliferation detected as Ki-67 expression (P=0.03).

    Conclusions: The simultaneous expression of the senescence markers involved in the p53-pathway shows a more relevant correlation to the pathological outcome of MIBC than each protein separately. P14 expression in tumours with non-altered (p53-) tumours is associated with poor prognosis. P14 expression is associated with impaired response to chemotherapy. P21 expression is related to decreased tumour cell proliferation.

  • 29.
    Aljabery, Firas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Urologiska kliniken i Östergötland.
    Shabo, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US. Endocrine and Sarcoma Surgery Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna Stockholm, Sweden .
    Olsson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi.
    Gimm, Oliver
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Urologiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi.
    Radio-guided sentinel lymph node detection and lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer: a prospective clinical study.2017Ingår i: BJU International, ISSN 1464-4096, E-ISSN 1464-410X, Vol. 120, nr 3, s. 329-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possibility of detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SNs) in patients with urinary bladder cancer (BCa) intra-operatively and whether the histopathological status of the identified SNs reflected that of the lymphatic field.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 103 patients with BCa pathological stage T1-T4 who were treated with cystectomy and pelvic lymph node (LN) dissection during 2005-2011 at the Department of Urology, Linköping University Hospital. Radioactive tracer Nanocoll 70 MBq and blue dye were injected into the bladder wall around the primary tumour before surgery. SNs were detected ex vivo during the operation with a handheld Geiger probe (Gamma Detection System; Neoprobe Corp., Dublin, OH, USA). All LNs were formalin-fixed, sectioned three times, mounted on slides and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. An experienced uropathologist evaluated the slides.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 69 years, and 80 (77%) were male. Pathological staging was T1-12 (12%), T2-20 (19%), T3-48 (47%) and T4-23 (22%). A mean (range) number of 31 (7-68) nodes per patient were examined, totalling 3 253 nodes. LN metastases were found in 41 patients (40%). SNs were detected in 83 of the 103 patients (80%). Sensitivity and specificity for detecting metastatic disease by SN biopsy (SNB) varied between LN stations, with average values of 67% and 90%, respectively. LN metastatic density (LNMD) had a significant prognostic impact; a value of ≥8% was significantly related to shorter survival. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) occurred in 65% of patients (n = 67) and was significantly associated with shorter cancer-specific survival (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that SNB is not a reliable technique for peri-operative localization of LN metastases during cystectomy for BCa; however, LNMD has a significant prognostic value in BCa and may be useful in the clinical context and in BCa oncological and surgical research. LVI was also found to be a prognostic factor.

  • 30.
    Alkner, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Orthopaedics, Eksjö, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Halvardsson, Christina
    Falun Cent Hosp, Sweden.
    Brakenhielm, Gustaf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Department of Orthopaedics, Eksjö, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Falun Cent Hosp, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erika
    Falun Cent Hosp, Sweden.
    Fritzell, Peter
    Falun and Futurum Acad Hlth and Care, Sweden.
    Effect of postoperative pneumatic compression after volar plate fixation of distal radial fractures: a randomized controlled trial2018Ingår i: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume, ISSN 1753-1934, E-ISSN 2043-6289, Vol. 43, nr 8, s. 825-831Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the difference between postoperative rehabilitation with or without adjunctive intermittent pneumatic compression therapy following distal radial fracture treated with volar plating. A total of 115 patients were randomized to a control or to an experimental group. After 4 weeks of immobilization the experimental group received intermittent pneumatic compression therapy in addition to conventional postoperative rehabilitation. Primary outcome up to 1 year postoperatively was assessed using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. No significant differences between groups were found. There were no clinically relevant differences regarding the secondary outcome measures swelling, strength, pain and flexibility. We conclude that postoperative intermittent pneumatic compression treatment had no major benefits. The results of the present study do not support general use of intermittent pneumatic compression initiated 4 weeks following volar plating surgery for distal radial fracture. Level of evidence: I

  • 31.
    Allard, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Takman, Johanna
    Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst, Sweden.
    Uddin, Gazi Salah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ahmed, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Nationalekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach2018Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 5848-5861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate the N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) using panel quantile regression analysis. We investigate the relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita for 74 countries over the period of 1994-2012. We include additional explanatory variables, such as renewable energy consumption, technological development, trade, and institutional quality. We find evidence for the N-shaped EKC in all income groups, except for the upper-middle-income countries. Heterogeneous characteristics are, however, observed over the N-shaped EKC. Finally, we find a negative relationship between renewable energy consumption and CO2 emissions, which highlights the importance of promoting greener energy in order to combat global warming.

  • 32.
    Allström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Sweco TransportSystem, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bayen, Alexandre M.
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Fransson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Sweco TransportSystem, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gundlegård, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Patire, Anthony D.
    University of California Berkeley, USA.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sandin, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Calibration Framework based on Bluetooth Sensors for Traffic State Estimation Using a Velocity based Cell Transmission Model2014Ingår i: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 3, s. 972-981Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The velocity based cell transmission model (CTM-v) is a discrete time dynamical model that mimics the evolution of the traffic velocity field on highways. In this paper the CTM-v model is used together with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for the purpose of velocity sensor data assimilation. We present a calibration framework for the CTM-v and EnKF. The framework consists of two separate phases. The first phase is the calibration of the parameters of the fundamental diagram and the second phase is the calibration of demand and filter parameters. Results from the calibrated model are presented for a highway stretch north of Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 33.
    Alm, Anders
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Kirurgi- och onkologicentrum, Kirurgiska kliniken i Östergötland. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    On the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Lesions, Reconstruction, Morphology and Tensile Strength - A Clinical and Experimental Study1974Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Almby, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Edholm, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Anastomotic Strictures After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: a Cohort Study from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry2019Ingår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 172-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundRoux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure worldwide. Anastomotic stricture is a known complication of RYGB. The aim was to explore the incidence and outcomes of strictures within the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg).MethodSOReg included prospective data from 36,362 patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the years 2007-2013. Outcomes were recorded at 30-day and at 1-year follow-up according to the standard SOReg routine. The medical charts of patients suffering from stricture after RYGB were requested and assessed.SettingNational bariatric surgery registryResultsAnastomotic stricture within 1year of surgery was confirmed in 101 patients representing an incidence of 0.3%. Risk factors for stricture were patient age above 60years (odds ratio (OR), 6.2 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.7-14.3), circular stapled gastrojejunostomy (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.5), postoperative anastomotic leak (OR 8.9 95%, CI 4.7-17.0), and marginal ulcer (OR 30.0, 95% CI 19.2-47.0). Seventy-five percent of the strictures were diagnosed within 70days of surgery. Two dilatations or less was sufficient to successfully treat 50% of patients. Ten pecent of patients developed perforation during dilatation, and the risk of perforating at each dilatation was 3.8%. Perforation required surgery in six cases but there was no mortality. Strictures in SOReg may be underreported, which could explain the low incidence in the study.ConclusionMost strictures present within 2months and are successfully treated with two dilatations or less. Dilating a strictured gastrojejunostomy entails a risk of perforation (3.8%).

  • 35.
    Almén, Lisbeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reducing the effects of driver distraction: a comparison of distraction alerts on driver attention2003Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advancement of technology the traffic environment is becoming increasingly complex. Not only is there an increase in the number of in-vehicle displays and systems that are installed or brought into the car, there is also an increasing number of vehicles as well as other road users and messages on the road. All these factors have a potential of causing the driver to become distracted. Since a major contributor to traffic accidents today is driver distraction it is becoming increasingly important to understand how to mitigate the effects associated with distraction.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate what effects the use of a distraction alert into the car has on driver attention.

    The thesis is based on three experimental studies, in which the topic of driver distraction and how it can be reduced is central. Two of the studies were performed in a simulated driving environment in which two different distraction alerts were tested and compared. The Kansei study was performed to acquire knowledge and input for the second simulator study.

    The studies show that it is rather difficult to make a driver distracted on demand with an artificial distracter. They further show that the used method needs to be developed before a potential distraction alert can be recommended.

  • 36.
    Alvehus, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mötets metaforer: en studie av berättelser om möten1999Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although meetings are, for most, an important part of the daily routine, they are easily disregarded. When viewed as a form of interaction, meetings become more problematic. While the form of interaction is important for the interpretation of content, it also opens up possibilities for manipulation.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to an increased understanding of the possibilities for constructing the form of interaction in meetings. This has been achieved through a study of narratives on meetings, here in terms of normative management literature.

    The literature on meeting management offers distinct views on how meetings supposedly function. These views can be expressed in terms of two metaphors: meetings as organisms and meetings as machines. Metaphors serve to both highlight and conceal certain aspects of a phenomenon. The organism metaphor highlights the homogeneity and dynamics of meetings. In contrast, the machine metaphor helps explain how meetings work, as well as how they can be measured and evaluated.

    Different metaphors are often portrayed as either totally distinct from, or directly related to each other. However, the literature on managing meetings reveals that the organism and machine metaphors are both related and discrete. Accordingly, the dialectics of highlighting and concealing aspects of a phenomenon must be complemented by the dialectics between the metaphors. The latter can be expressed in terms of links that integrate the metaphors, as well as links that separate the metaphors and define differences between them. In the literature these links emerge as options for action, i.e., alternatives for enacting a particular metaphor using specific techniques. Accordingly, certain techniques provide options for choosing the form of interaction. However, meetings in themselves can also be viewed as a kind of information technology in the same way as e-mail or videoconferencing technology. Normative statements, e.g. the literature on managing meetings, are important clues for the analysis of how different forms of social action can be designed.

    In studying interaction and communication, an analysis of conscious attempts to design or influence situations should be considered. Such analysis is facilitated by working with a refined concept of form-the double dialectics of form/content and form/form-along with the concept of techniques.

  • 37.
    Anandapadamanaban, Madhanagopal
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kyriakidis, Nikolaos C.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden; UDLA, Ecuador.
    Csizmok, Veronika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wallenhammar, Amélie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Espinosa, Alexander C.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Ahlner, Alexandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Round, Adam R.
    Grenoble Outstn, France; European XFEL GmbH, Germany.
    Trewhella, Jill
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Sydney, Australia.
    Moche, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Wahren-Herlenius, Marie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Sunnerhagen, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21-mediated lysine capture by UBE2E1 reveals substrate-targeting mode of a ubiquitin-conjugating E22019Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol. 294, nr 30, s. 11404-11419Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TRIM21, of the RING-containing tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, is a major autoantigen in autoimmune diseases and a modulator of innate immune signaling. Together with ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 E1 (UBE2E1), TRIM21 acts both as an E3 ligase and as a substrate in autoubiquitination. We here report a 2.82-angstrom crystal structure of the human TRIM21 RING domain in complex with the human E2-conjugating UBE2E1 enzyme, in which a ubiquitin-targeted TRIM21 substrate lysine was captured in the UBE2E1 active site. The structure revealed that the direction of lysine entry is similar to that described for human proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-targeted substrate, and thus differs from the canonical SUMO-targeted substrate entry. In agreement, we found that critical UBE2E1 residues involved in the capture of the TRIM21 substrate lysine are conserved in ubiquitin-conjugating E2s, whereas residues critical for SUMOylation are not conserved. We noted that coordination of the acceptor lysine leads to remodeling of amino acid side-chain interactions between the UBE2E1 active site and the E2-E3 direct interface, including the so-called linchpin residue conserved in RING E3s and required for ubiquitination. The findings of our work support the notion that substrate lysine activation of an E2-E3-connecting allosteric path may trigger catalytic activity and contribute to the understanding of specific lysine targeting by ubiquitin-conjugating E2s.

  • 38.
    Andersen, Pia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Reg Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Lendahls, Lena
    Reg Kronoberg, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Sara
    Reg Kronoberg, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Patients experiences of physical activity on prescription with access to counsellors in routine care: a qualitative study in Sweden2019Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, artikel-id 210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundPhysical activity on prescription (PAP) has been implemented in several countries, including Sweden, to support patients who might benefit from increased physical activity. This study explores the experiences of recipients of PAP in routine health care in Sweden that offers the recipients support from physical activity counsellors. The aim was to explore influences on engagement in physical activity by PAP recipients from a long-term perspective.MethodsWe conducted individual semi-structured interviews using a topic guide with a purposively selected sample of 13 adult PAP recipients 1.5 to 2.5years after PAP. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed through inductive and deductive content analysis. The questions were informed by Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B), which was also used as a framework to analyse the data by means of categorizing the factors (influences on the behaviour).ResultsTen factors (i.e. sub-categories) that influenced the participants engagement in physical activity were identified. PAP recipients capability to engage in physical activity was associated with adapting the PAP to the individuals physical capacity and taking into account the individuals previous experiences of physical activity. PAP recipients opportunity to engage in physical activity was related to receiving a prescription, receiving professional counselling and follow-up from a physical activity counsellor, collaboration between prescriber and counsellor, having access to appropriate activities, having a balanced life situation and having support from someone who encouraged continued physical activity. PAP recipients motivation to engage in physical activity was associated with the desire to improve his or her health condition and finding activities that encouraged continuation.ConclusionsPAP recipients engagement in physical activity was influenced by their capability, opportunity and motivation to undertake this behaviour. Numerous extraneous factors influence capability and motivation. Physical activity counsellors were found to be important for sustained activity because they use an individual approach to counselling and flexible follow-up adapted to each individuals need of support.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Asa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Vilhelmsson, Mattias
    Reg Hosp Vaxjo, Sweden.
    Fomichov Casaballe, Victoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för verksamhetsstöd och utveckling, Regionalt Cancercentrum.
    Lindhoff Larsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Björnsson, Bergthor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Sandström, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för kirurgi, ortopedi och onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Drott, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för omvårdnad och reproduktiv hälsa. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken US.
    Patient involvement in surgical care-Healthcare personnel views and behaviour regarding patient involvement2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background All professions in surgical care have a responsibility to include patients in their health care. By Swedish law, all care should be done in dialogue with the patient. The essential part of health care is the meeting between patient and healthcare professional. In the interaction, a decision can be made, and needs can be identified to a safer care. Previous studies on patient participation have focussed on patients perspectives in surgical care, but there is a paucity of studies about the personnels perspective of estimated patient involvement in surgical care. Aim The aim of this study was to identify and describe healthcare personnels view and behaviour regarding patient involvement in surgical care. Method A quantitative study with various professions was conducted. A validated questionnaire was used, remaining questions grouped under following areas: patient involvement, acute phase, hospital time, discharge phase and questions on employment and workplace. Results A total of 140 questionnaires were sent out to a surgical clinic in Sweden, and 102 questionnaires were answered. All professionals stated that clear information is an important part of patient involvement in surgical care. Statistically significant differences existed between the professions in the subscale information. Physicians rated their information higher than the Registered Nurses (p = 0.005) and the practical nurses did (p = 0.001). Hindrances to involving patients were lack of time and other priority tasks. Conclusions Professionals in surgical care graded information to be the most important thing for patient involvement. Participation in important decisions, including the possibility to express personal views and ask questions, is important factors for patient involvement. Barriers against patient involvement are lack of time and prioritisation of other work activities.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-01-31 15:54
  • 40.
    Andersson, Bengt E. W.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Samverkande informationssystem mellan aktörer i offentliga åtaganden: en teori om aktörsarenor i samverkan om utbyte av information1998Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arfwidsson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Benchmarking energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized enterprises using an energy efficiency index: Results based on an energy audit policy program2018Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, s. 883-895Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency among industrial companies is recognized as a key effort to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. In this context, benchmarking industrial energy efficiency plays an important part in increasing industrial companies awareness of their energy efficiency potential. A method for calculating an energy efficiency index is proposed in this paper. The energy efficiency index is used to benchmark the energy performance of industrial small and medium-sized companies support and production processes. This enables the possibility to compare the energy performance of single energy end-use processes. This papers proposed energy efficiency index is applied to energy data from 11 sawmills that participated in the Swedish national energy audit program. The index values were compared with each sawmills energy saving potential, as stated in the energy audits. One conclusion is that the energy efficiency index is suitable as an energy strategy tool in industrial energy management and could be used both by industrial SMEs and by governmental agencies with an auditing role. However, it does require a harmonized categorization of energy end-use processes as well as quality assured energy data. Given this, a national energy end-use database could be created to facilitate the calculation of an energy efficiency index. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Ellen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Kirurgiska kliniken ViN.
    Albertsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US.
    Holmqvist, Annica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för kliniska vetenskaper. Region Östergötland, Centrum för kirurgi, ortopedi och cancervård, Onkologiska kliniken US. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    GRACE: Geriatric patients tReated with Avastin in CRC multiple linEs2017Ingår i: Clinical Practice, ISSN 2044-9038, E-ISSN 2044-9046, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 175-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous treatment with bevacizumab in elderly patients with mCRC: A phase IV prospective, open-label, single-arm trial to evaluate outcomes and safety with continuous bevacizumab treatment in combination with chemotherapy over disease progression.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bilder av småföretagares ekonomistyrning1995Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Utvecklingen av ekonomisk styrning och även den aktuella debatten inom området är till stora delar koncentrerad till stora företag. Under en seminarieserie om risker i samband med nyföretagande anordnad av Närings- och teknikutvecklingsverket (NUTEK) aktualiserades frågan om ekonomisk styrning i små och nystartade företag.Inför denna studie blev det därför naturligt att ställa sig frågan om hur de teorier och metoder som idag finns till förfogande för ekonomistyrning fungerar i små företag. Syftet med denna studie är att öka insikterna om hur ekonomisk styrning bedrivs i små företag. Detta sker genom att beskriva och analysera den ekonomiska styrningen i ett antal små företag.Undersökningen omfattar intervjuer med nio småföretagsledare. Centrala forskningsfrågor är vilka mål företagsledaren har, vilka ekonomiska verktyg som används, hur beslutsfattande sker samt hur samarbetet med externa aktörer i form av banker, revisorer och konsulter fungerar.Studien visar att långsiktiga mål ofta anges i kvalitativa termer. Mer sällan är de monetära målen konkret formulerade. Företagandet bygger ofta på ett praktiskt kunnande hos företags-ledaren. Affärsidén kan antingen vara explicit formulerad eller mer outtalad. Vidare visas hur komplext beslutsfattande kan vara i den typ av verksamhet som har studerats. I vissa fall kan en sekventiell och rationell beslutsmodell spåras. I andra fall kan irrationella beslutsmodeller beskriva beslutsprocessen. Tydligt är dock att både formella beslutsunderlag och intuition och erfarenhet spelar en viktig roll vid beslutsfattande. Studien visar dessutom att många av de metoder och verktyg som anges inom ekonomistyrningslitteratur också används i de studerade företagen. Vilka verktyg som upplevs som mest betydelsefulla varierar mellan de olika företagsledarna. I studien tolkas användningen av formella ekonomistyrningsmetoder som ett utslag för en avvägning mellan nytta och kostnader i en situation där resurserna är mycket begränsade. Dessutom framkommer att företagsledare har förhållandevis få externa kontakter med vilka affärsverksamheten diskuteras. Av dessa upplevs samarbetet med revisor i många fall som det viktigaste.Slutligen argumenteras för att nya metoder för styrning av verksamheter mot ekonomiska mål behöver utvecklas. Traditionella metoder för ekonomistyrning kan behöva kompletteras med andra metoder där verksamhetens centrala resultatskapande faktorer identifieras och utnyttjas för styrning, vilket kan innebära att icke-monetära mått får en ökad betydelse.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westling, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The role of the Swedish municipalities in the transition towards sustainable energy systems2019Ingår i: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy, ISSN 2059-2353, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 124-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is affecting the planet on a global level and it is of vital importance that actors in the energy system work together to achieve political goals, such as the United Nations' goal which states that the global temperature increase should be kept far below 2 °C. There is a need of actions and collaboration throughout the society. The aim of this paper is to make visible the role of Swedish municipalities in the transition towards sustainable energy systems. The paper presents a study of some ongoing activities and collaborations for increased sustainability where municipalities play a clear role. The study focuses on three areas; (1) municipalities´ activities towards citizens and business community, (2) municipalities’ activities linked to collaboration with other actors, and (3) challenges related to these activities. The study is based on information from a literature search and interviews. Representatives from eight Swedish municipalities have been interviewed. The result shows that the municipalities are involved in various activities and collaborations. This is done via networks, projects, consulting, information dissemination, showing good examples, tryout activities and nudging. Some important challenges have been found. One of them is the transport sector and how to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Another is to consider that the Swedish energy system is spread over a large geographical area with different opportunities and limitations concerning electricity production and the sizes of the municipalities. Energy system measures and policy programs need to consider these differences to minimize the risk for sub-optimal energy-system measures. A third challenge is the lack of time and resources within the municipalities to engage enough in energy and climate issues.

  • 45.
    Angelhoff, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Askenteg, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Barn- och kvinnocentrum, H.K.H. Kronprinsessan Victorias barn- och ungdomssjukhus.
    Wikner, Ulrica
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för omvårdnad. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    "To Cope with Everyday Life, I Need to Sleep" - A Phenomenographic Study Exploring Sleep Loss in Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis.2018Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 43, s. E59-E65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The whole family is affected when a child has atopic dermatitis (AD), and parents experience sleep disruption related to the child's condition leading to physical and mental exhaustion, mood swings, loss of concentration and lower job performance. This study aimed to explore and describe perceptions of sleep in parents of children <2 years old with AD, consequences of parental sleep loss, and what strategies the parents used to manage sleep loss and to improve sleep.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: This qualitative interview study had an inductive and descriptive design. Twelve parents (eleven mothers and one father) participated in the study. Data analysis was performed using a phenomenographic approach.

    RESULTS: Three categories of description were found: Acceptance and normalization of parental sleep loss; Changed routines and behavior to compensate for sleep loss; and Support is needed to gain sleep and manage daily life.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sleep loss due to the child's AD affected the parents' emotional state, mood, well-being, cognitive function, ability to concentrate and take initiative, and sensitivity to stress and sound negatively. The parents managed their sleep loss mainly by changing their behavior and creating new routines, by taking me-time and through support from partners.

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Pediatric nurses should acknowledge sleep loss in parents of small children with AD in time to prevent negative consequences, which affect the well-being of the entire family. Advice on how to improve sleep should be given early to increase the parents' understanding, make them feel safer and strengthen them in their parenthood.

  • 46.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute VTI, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Rd and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjorn
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 88-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than nonprofessional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  • 47.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, s. 71-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale 8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337 s; split shift 0.347 s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 48.
    Appelgren, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Optimal auditing of social benefit fraud: a case study2019Ingår i: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 203-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of different audit strategies on fraud in one particular social benefit system in Sweden. The efficiency of different audit strategies is compared using a computer-based optimization algorithm. Two types of audit strategies are used. One is to adapt the audit intensity to the propensity for errors and fraud in different segments of the group studied. This type of strategy is denoted segmentation strategy. The second type of audit strategy is based on adaptation of behaviour through information. The model developed by Erard and Feinstein for tax auditing is adapted for benefit fraud. In this model, the audit intensity is controlled by a variable, and the auditees are informed of the relationship between control variable and audit intensity. The control variable used in this paper is the benefit amount claimed during a certain period. As the audit intensity increases with the claim amount, the rational fraudster understands that reducing the amount of fraud decreases the risk of being audited. This type of strategy is denoted information strategy. One main result is that the Erard and Feinstein model can be successfully adapted to benefit fraud. Using coarse estimates of audit unit costs, the result of the study is that all persons should be audited. For higher audit costs, it is shown that the information strategy is much more effective when compared to the segmentation strategy.

  • 49.
    Aresu, Emanuela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Design process management for successful assembly systems2001Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Assembly system design is an important task for a manufacturing company regardless of the nature of its existing assembly activities. However, unlike the product development process, the process of designing assembly systems has not been emphasised.

    The research presented in this thesis aims at identifying and structuring the performance of assembly systems and their design processes, and proposing a framework for identifying important relationships between the results of specific design projects and influencing factors in the field of the design process. These objectives have been accomplished through theoretical and empirical studies. The empirical studies were carried out in the form of an interview study at 15 companies and three case studies at Swedish manufacturing companies both aimed at describing and analysing companies' assembly systems as well as their assembly system design processes.

    A number of characteristics of successful assembly systems have been identified and classified according to the system theory. They have then been structured in a model where the mentioned characteristics have been classified into nine groups indicating the performance of the assembly system. Assembly system performance is represented from a higher level of abstraction by assembly strategy, to a lower level of abstraction by quality, lead time and delivery precision, flexibility, cost and productivity of the assembly system.

    The assembly system design processes have also been investigated and analysed empirically, showing that structured methods are seldom used in the assembly system design process, but mainly experience and knowledge of system designers is utilised. Although larger companies worked more systematically, no specific method for the design of assembly system has been found. The performance of the assembly system design process has been identified and presented in a model with nine performance indicators into three levels, from a higher level of abstraction (design process strategy) to a lower level of abs traction (quality, lead time and delivery precision, flexibility, cost and productivity).

    From the two performance models, an approach to a matrix linking design factors to the design project results has been developed. Examples of the design factors have been given based on research studies in the field of product development, and on the theoretical and empirical studies presented in this thesis. The matrix described is an approach to a tool for the support of production managers and system designers in order to design successful assembly systems.

  • 50.
    Arvola, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wahlman, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lifelogging in User Experience Research: Supporting Recall and Improving Data Richness2017Ingår i: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 20, s. S3954-S3965Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of lifelogging is to help users collect data for self-monitoring and reflection. We have in this study explored how lifelogging technology (a camera and a heart rate monitor) can change user experience (UX) research, and we describe a novel approach. Data was collected for three days with four participants, and a 4-6-hours co-creation workshop with stimulated recall interview was held with each of them to create an experience timeline. The timeline includes selfreported key experiences, lifelog stimulated experiences, heart rate, decisions, and valence. The results show that the number of experiences in the timeline that come from data points stimulated by the lifelogging, are as many as the self-reported data points. Lessons learned include that the use of lifelogging produces highly detailed UX research, but it is very time consuming, due to the sheer amount of data.

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