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  • 1.
    Evestedt, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljungqvist, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Axehill, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Motion planning for a reversing general 2-trailer configuration using Closed-Loop RRT2016In: 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 3690-3697Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversing with a dolly steered trailer configura- tion is a hard task for any driver without extensive training. In this work we present a motion planning and control framework that can be used to automatically plan and execute complicated manoeuvres. The unstable dynamics of the reversing general 2- trailer configuration with off-axle hitching is first stabilised by an LQ-controller and then a pure pursuit path tracker is used on a higher level giving a cascaded controller that can track piecewise linear reference paths. This controller together with a kinematic model of the trailer configuration is then used for forward simulations within a Closed-Loop Rapidly Exploring Random Tree framework to generate motion plans that are not only kinematically feasible but also include the limitations of the controller’s tracking performance when reversing. The approach is evaluated over a series of Monte Carlo simulations on three different scenarios and impressive success rates are achieved. Finally the approach is successfully tested on a small scale test platform where the motion plan is calculated and then sent to the platform for execution. 

  • 2.
    Evestedt, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ljungqvist, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Axehill, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Path tracking and stabilization for a reversing general 2-trailer configuration using a cascaded control approach2016In: Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2016 IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, p. 1156-1161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a cascaded approach for stabilizationand path tracking of a general 2-trailer vehicle configurationwith an off-axle hitching is presented. A low level LinearQuadratic controller is used for stabilization of the internalangles while a pure pursuit path tracking controller is used ona higher level to handle the path tracking. Piecewise linearityis the only requirement on the control reference which makesthe design of reference paths very general. A Graphical UserInterface is designed to make it easy for a user to design controlreferences for complex manoeuvres given some representationof the surroundings. The approach is demonstrated with challengingpath following scenarios both in simulation and on asmall scale test platform.

  • 3.
    Ljungqvist, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Axehill, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmersson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Path following control for a reversing general 2-trailer system2016In: 2016 IEEE 55TH CONFERENCE ON DECISION AND CONTROL (CDC), IEEE , 2016, p. 2455-2461Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to meet the requirements for autonomous systems in real world applications, reliable path following controllers have to be designed to execute planned paths despite the existence of disturbances and model errors. In this paper we propose a Linear Quadratic controller for stabilizing a 2-trailer system with possible off-axle hitching around preplanned paths in backward motion. The controller design is based on a kinematic model of a general 2-trailer system including the possibility for off-axle hitching. Closed-loop stability is proved around a set of paths, typically chosen to represent the possible output from the path planner, using theory from linear differential inclusions. Using convex optimization tools a single quadratic Lyapunov function is computed for the entire set of paths.

  • 4.
    Ljungqvist, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evestedt, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cirillo, Marcello
    Scania Tech Ctr, Sweden.
    Axehill, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmer, Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lattice-based Motion Planning for a General 2-trailer system2017In: 2017 28TH IEEE INTELLIGENT VEHICLES SYMPOSIUM (IV 2017), IEEE , 2017, p. 819-824Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motion planning for a general 2-trailer system poses a hard problem for any motion planning algorithm and previous methods have lacked any completeness or optimality guarantees. In this work we present a lattice-based motion planning framework for a general 2-trailer system that is resolution complete and resolution optimal. The solution will satisfy both differential and obstacle imposed constraints and is intended either as a part of an autonomous system or as a driver support system to automatically plan complicated maneuvers in backward and forward motion. The proposed framework relies on a precomputing step that is performed offline to generate a finite set of kinematically feasible motion primitives. These motion primitives are then used to create a regular state lattice that can be searched for a solution using standard graph-search algorithms. To make this graph-search problem tractable for real-time applications a novel parametrization of the reachable state space is proposed where each motion primitive moves the system from and to a selected set of circular equilibrium configurations. The approach is evaluated over three different scenarios and impressive real-time performance is achieved.

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