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  • 1.
    Guijarro, M.
    et al.
    University of Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Riomoros, I.
    University of Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Pajares, G.
    University of Complutense Madrid, Spain.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Discrete wavelets transform for improving greenness image segmentation in agricultural images2015In: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, ISSN 0168-1699, E-ISSN 1872-7107, Vol. 118, p. 396-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a segmentation strategy for agricultural images in order to successfully distinguish between both soil and green parts, the last ones including weeds and crop plants, based on discrete wavelets transform. Vegetation indices have been commonly used for greenness image segmentation, but improvements are still possible. In agricultural images weeds and crops plants display high spatial variability with irregular and random distributions. Textures descriptors have the ability to capture this information, which conveniently combined with vegetation indices improve the greenness segmentation results. The proposed approach consists of the following steps: (a) greenness extraction based on vegetation indices; (b) application of the wavelets transform to the resulting image, allowing the extraction of spatial structures in three bands (horizontal, vertical and diagonal) containing detailed information; (c) use of texture descriptors to capture the spatial variability in the three bands; (d) combination of greenness and texture information, in the approximation coefficients of the wavelets transform, for enhancing plants (weeds and crops) identification; and (e) application of an image thresholding method for final image identification. The wavelets transform allows both capture of spatial texture and its fusion with the greenness information, making the main contribution of this paper. This approach is especially useful when the quality of imaging greenness is low. It has been favorably compared against existing strategies, obtaining better results, quantified by 4,5%. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson Coppel, Ludovic
    et al.
    Gjøvik University College, Norway.
    Le Moan, Steven
    Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Slavuj, Radovan
    Gjøvik University College, Norway.
    Hardeberg, Jon Yngve
    Gjøvik University College, Norway.
    Next generation printing - Towards spectral proofing2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Namedanian, Mahziar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Physical and optical dot gain: characterization and relation to dot shape and paper properties2014In: COLOR IMAGING XIX: DISPLAYING, PROCESSING, HARDCOPY, AND APPLICATIONS / [ed] Reiner Eschbach, Gabriel G. Marcu and Alessandro Rizzi, International Society for Optical Engineering; 1999 , 2014, Vol. 9015, p. 9015-09-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tone value increase in halftone printing commonly referred to as dot gain actually encompasses two fundamentally different phenomena. Physical dot gain refers to the fact that the size of the printed halftone dots differs from their nominal size, and is related to the printing process. Optical dot gain originates from light scattering inside the substrate, causing light exchanges between different chromatic areas. Due to their different intrinsic nature, physical and optical dot gains need to be treated separately. In this study, we characterize and compare the dot gain properties for offset prints on coated and uncoated paper, using AM and first and second generation FM halftoning. Spectral measurements are used to compute the total dot gain. Microscopic images are used to separate the physical and optical dot gain, to study ink spreading and ink penetration, and to compute the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for the different substrates. The experimental results show that the physical dot gain depends on ink penetration and ink spreading properties. Microscopic images of the prints reveal that the ink penetrates into the pores and cavities of the uncoated paper, resulting in inhomogeneous dot shapes. For the coated paper, the ink spread on top of the surface, giving a more homogenous dot shape, but also covering a larger area, and hence larger physical dot gain. The experimental results further show that the total dot gain is larger for the uncoated paper, because of larger optical dot gain. The effect of optical dot gain depends on the lateral light scattering within the substrate, the size of the halftone dots, and on the halftone dot shape, especially the dot perimeter.

  • 4.
    Nyström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Addressing the colorimetric redundancy in 11-ink color separation2017In: Color Imaging XXII: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications, The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2017, p. 184-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve color reproduction, many printers today use extra colorants, in addition to the traditional four inks (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black). Adding the complementary colorants (Red, Green and Blue) increases the gamut of reproducible colors, while lighter versions of the primary inks can be added to reduce graininess and dot visibility. Using more than three inks introduces colorimetric redundancy in the color separation process, because different ink combinations can reproduce the same target color. When additional inks are introduced, this redundancy rapidly increases, and it is thus crucial to introduce additional constraints in the color separation process, to improve determinacy and to optimize different aspects of print quality. This study focuses on an analysis of the redundancy in the color separation process for an 11-ink printer. It is investigated how the extensive colorimetric redundancy can be utilized to select optimal ink combinations to meet the, sometimes contradictory, criteria of color accuracy, graininess and ink consumption. Analysis of the results of applying different criteria in the color separation process shows that the result heavily depends on the selected criterion. For example, prioritizing graininess will improve print quality by reducing dot visibility, imposing the use of lighter inks, but it will also increase ink consumption.

  • 5.
    Qu, Yuanyuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Color prediction modeling for five-channel CMYLcLm printing2014In: Color Imaging XIX: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications / [ed] Reiner Eschbach, Gabriel G. Marcu, Alessandro Rizzi, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2014, Vol. 9015, p. 901508-1-901508-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In printing, halftoning algorithms are applied in order to reproduce a continuous-tone image by a binary printing system. The image is transformed into a bitmap composed of dots varying in size and/or frequency. Nevertheless, this causes that the sparse dots found in light shades of cyan (C) and magenta (M) appear undesirably noticeable against white substrate. The solution is to apply light cyan (Lc) and light magenta (Lm) inks in those regions. In order to predict the color of CMYLcLm prints, we make use of the fact that Lc and Lm have similar spectral characteristics as C and M respectively. The goal of this paper is to present a model to characterize a five-channel CMYLcLm printing system using a three-channel color prediction model, where we treat the ink combinations Lc+C and Lm+M as new compound inks. This characterization is based on our previous three-channel CMY color prediction model that is capable of predicting both colorimetric tri-stimulus values and spectral reflectance. The drawback of the proposed model in this paper is the requirement of large number of training samples. Strategies are proposed to reduce this number, which resulted in expected larger but acceptable color differences.

  • 6.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Multilevel Halftoning and Color Separation for Eight-Channel Printing2016In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 60, no 5, article id 50403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multichannel printing employs additional colorants to achieve higher quality reproduction, assuming their physical overlap restrictions are met. These restrictions are commonly overcome in the printing workflow by controlling the colorant choice at each point. Our multilevel halftoning algorithm bundles inks of same hues in one channel with no overlap, separating them into eight channels, consequentially benefitting of increased ink options at each point. In this article, implementation and analysis of the algorithm is carried out. Color separation is performed using the cellular Yule‐Nielsen modified spectral Neugebauer model. The channels are binarized with the multilevel halftoning algorithm. The workflow is evaluated with an eight-channel inkjet at 600 dpi resulting in mean and maximum ΔE 94 color differences around 1 and 2, respectively. The halftoning algorithm is analyzed using S-CIELAB, thus involving the human visual system, in which multilevel halftoning showed improvement in terms of image quality compared to the conventional approach.

  • 7.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Multilevel halftoning applied to achromatic inks in multi-channel printing2014In: Abstracts from 41st International research conference of iarigai: Advances in Printing and Media Technology,  Print and media research for the benefit of industry and society, 2014, p. 25-25Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Printing using more than four ink channels visually improves the reproduction. Nevertheless, if the ink layer thickness at any given point exceeds a certain limit, ink bleeding and colour accuracy problems would occur. Halftoning algorithms that process channels dependently are one way of dealing with this shortcoming of multi-channel printing. A multilevel halftoning algorithm that processes a channel so that it is printed with multiple inks of same chromatic value was introduced in our research group. Here we implement this multilevel algorithm using three achromatic inks – photo grey, grey, black – in a real paper-ink setup. The challenges lay in determining the thresholds for ink separation and in dot gain compensation. Dot gain results in a darker reproduction and since it originates from the interaction between a specific ink and paper, compensating the original image for multilevel halftone means expressing dot gain of three inks in terms of the nominal coverage of a single ink. Results prove a successful multilevel halftone implementation workflow using multiple inks while avoiding dot-on-dot placement and accounting for dot gain. Results show the multilevel halftoned image is visually improved in terms of graininess and detail enhancement when compared to the bi-level halftoned image.

  • 8.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    MULTILEVEL HALFTONING AS AN ALGORITHM TO CONTROL INK OVERLAP IN MULTI-CHANNEL PRINTING2015In: 2015 COLOUR AND VISUAL COMPUTING SYMPOSIUM (CVCS), IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multilevel halftoning algorithm can be used to overcome some of the challenges of multi-channel printing. In this algorithm, each channel is processed so that it can be printed using multiple inks of approximately the same hue, achieving a single ink layer. The computation of the threshold values required for ink separation and dot gain compensation pose an interesting challenge. Since the dot gain depends on the specific combination of ink, paper and print resolution, compensating the original image for multilevel halftoning means expressing the dot gain of multiple inks of same hue in terms of the coverage of a single ink. The applicability of the proposed multilevel halftoning workflow is demonstrated using chromatic inks while avoiding dot overlap and accounting for dot gain. The results indicate that the multilevel halftoned image is visually improved in terms of graininess when compared to bi-level halftoned images.

  • 9.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Color separation for improved perceived image quality in terms of graininess and gamut2017In: Color Research and Application, ISSN 0361-2317, E-ISSN 1520-6378, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 486-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-channel printing employs additional inks to improve the perceived image quality by reducing the graininess and augmenting the printer gamut. It also requires a color separation that deals with the one-to-many mapping problem imposed when using more than three inks. The proposed separation model incorporates a multilevel halftoning algorithm, reducing the complexity of the print characterization by grouping inks of similar hues in the same channel. In addition, a cost function is proposed that weights selected factors influencing the print and perceived image quality, namely color accuracy, graininess and ink consumption. The graininess perception is qualitatively assessed using S-CIELAB, a spatial low-pass filtering mimicking the human visual system. By applying it to a large set of samples, a generalized prediction quantifying the perceived graininess is carried out and incorporated as a criterion in the color separation. The results of the proposed model are compared with the separation giving the best colorimetric match, showing improvements in the perceived image quality in terms of graininess at a small cost of color accuracy and ink consumption. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 10.
    Zitinski Elias, Paula
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Multi-channel printing by orthogonal and non-orthogonal AM halftoning2013In: Proceedings of 12th International AIC Colour Congress: Bringing Colour to Life, Newcastle, UK, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-channel printing with more than the conventional four colorants brings numerous advantages, but also challenges, like implementation of halftone algorithms. This paper concentrates on amplitude modulated (AM) halftoning for multi-channel printing. One difficulty is the correct channel rotation to avoid the moiré effect and to achieve colour fidelity in case of misregistration. 20 test patches were converted to seven-channel images and AM halftoning was applied using two different approaches in order to obtain a moiré-free impression. One method was to use orthogonal screens and adjust the channels by overlapping the pairs of complimentary colours, while the second was to implement non-orthogonal halftone screens (ellipses). By doing so, a wider angle range is available to accommodate a seven-channel impression. The performance was evaluated by simulating misregistration in both position and angle for a total of 1600 different scenarions. ΔE values were calculated between the misregistered patches and the correct ones, for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal screens. Results show no visible morié and improvement in colour fidelity when using non-orthogonal screens for seven-channel printing, producing smaller colour differences in case of misregistration.

  • 11.
    Žitinski Elías, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Halftoning for Multi-Channel Printing: Algorithm Development, Implementation and Verification2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A seemingly straightforward way to enhance the quality of printed images is to increase the number of colorants, beyond the four traditionally used, in multi-channel printing. Potential improvements to reproduced images include: increased colour accuracy, enhanced colour smoothness and reduced image graininess. Nevertheless, numerous challenges exist, one of them being the implementation of halftoning algorithms, which transform the original image into a binary one that is reproducible by the printing system. This thesis concerns the development, implementation and verification of halftoning algorithms suitable for an increased number of colorants in multi-channel printing.

    The first focus in this thesis is on the implementation of an amplitude modulated (AM) halftoning method for seven-channel printing utilizing CMYKRGB colorants. The proposed AM halftoning method utilizes non-orthogonal halftone screens instead of orthogonal ones (dots), thus enabling a wider angle range for the channels that makes possible to accommodate multi-channel impressions. The performance of the non-orthogonal halftoning method was evaluated by computational simulation of channel misregistration for 1600 different scenarios and assessment of printed orthogonal and non-orthogonal patches. The simulated and printed results demonstrate that the proposed halftoning method utilizing non-orthogonal screens shows no visible moiré and produces smaller colour shifts in case of misregistration when compared to orthogonal halftoning.

    However, the layer thickness of the combined colorants is not controlled by the aforementioned multi-channel AM halftoning approach. Therefore, the second focus in this thesis concerns the adjustment and implementation of a multilevel halftoning algorithm for achromatic and chromatic inks. In this algorithm, a channel is processed so that it can be printed using multiple inks of same hue value, achieving a single ink layer. Here, the thresholds for ink separation and dot gain compensation pose an interesting challenge. Since dot gain originates from the interaction between a specific ink and specific paper, compensating the original image for multilevel halftoning means expressing the dot gain of multiple inks in terms of the nominal coverage of a single ink. The applicability of the proposed multilevel halftoning workflow is demonstrated using multiple inks while avoiding dot-on-dot placement and accounting for dot gain. The results also show that the multilevel halftoned image is visually improved in terms of graininess and detailenhancement when compared to a bi-level halftoned image.

  • 12.
    Žitinski Elías, Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Improving image quality in multi-channel printing - multilevel halftoning, color separation and graininess characterization2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Color printing is traditionally achieved by separating an input image into four channels (CMYK) and binarizing them using halftoning algorithms, in order to designate the locations of ink droplet placement. Multi-channel printing means a reproduction that employs additional inks other than these four in order to augment the color gamut (scope of reproducible colors) and reduce undesirable ink droplet visibility, so-called graininess.

    One aim of this dissertation has been to characterize a print setup in which both the primary inks CMYK and their light versions are used. The presented approach groups the inks, forming subsets, each representing a channel that is reproduced with multiple inks. To halftone the separated channels in the present methodology, a specific multilevel halftoning algorithm is employed, halftoning each channel to multiple levels. This algorithm performs the binarization from the ink subsets to each separate colorant. Consequently, the print characterization complexity remains unaltered when employing the light inks, avoiding the normal increase in computational complexity, the one-to-many mapping problem and the increase in the number of training samples. The results show that the reproduction is visually improved in terms of graininess and detail enhancement.

    The secondary color inks RGB are added in multi-channel printing to increase the color gamut. Utilizing them, however, potentially increases the perceived graininess. Moreover, employing the primary, secondary and light inks means a color separation from a three-channel CIELAB space into a multi-channel colorant space, resulting in colorimetric redundancy in which multiple ink combinations can reproduce the same target color. To address this, a proposed cost function is incorporated in the color separation approach, weighting selected factors that influence the reproduced image quality, i.e. graininess and color accuracy, in order to select the optimal ink combination. The perceived graininess is modeled by employing S-CIELAB, a spatial low-pass filtering mimicking the human visual system. By applying the filtering to a large dataset, a generalized prediction that quantifies the perceived graininess is carried out and incorporated as a criterion in the color separation.

    Consequently, the presented research increases the understanding of color reproduction and image quality in multi-channel printing, provides concrete solutions to challenges in the practical implementation, and rises the possibilities to fully utilize the potential in multi-channel printing for superior image quality.

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