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  • 1. Abom, A.E.
    et al.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Physics .
    Influence of gate metal film growth parameters on the properties of gas sensitive field-effect devices2002In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 409, no 2, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of Pt have been grown as gate metals on the oxide surface of gas sensitive field-effect devices. Both electron beam evaporation and dc magnetron sputtering has been used. The energy of the impinging Pt atoms, the substrate temperature and the thickness of the Pt film were used as parameters in this study. The influence of the growth parameters on the gas response has been investigated and compared with the properties of the films, studied by transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The conditions during growth of the Pt film are found to have a large impact on the properties of the device. As expected, crystallinity, morphology and the metal/substrate interfacial structure are also affected by processing parameters. Three different growth processes stand out as the most promising from gas sensor considerations, namely room temperature evaporation, sputtering at high pressures and sputtering at high temperatures. The correlation between gas responses and properties of the gas sensitive layer is discussed. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abrasonis, Gintautas
    et al.
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Oates, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kovacs, Gyoergy J
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Grenzer, Joerg
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heinig, Karl-Heinz H
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Martinavicius, Andrius
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Jeutter, Nicole
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Baehtz, Carsten
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Tucker, Mark
    University of Sydney.
    Bilek, Marcela M M
    University of Sydney.
    Moeller, Wolfhard
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendotf.
    Nanoscale precipitation patterns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite thin films: Period and tilt control via ion energy and deposition angle2010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 043503-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic precipitation patterns in C:Ni nanocomposites grown by energetic ion codeposition are investigated. Films were grown at room temperature by ionized physical vapor deposition using a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc. We reveal the role of the film composition, ion energy and incidence angle on the film morphology using transmission electron microscopy and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering. Under these growth conditions, phase separation occurs in a thin surface layer which has a high atomic mobility due to energetic ion impacts. This layer is an advancing reaction front, which switches to an oscillatory mode, producing periodic precipitation patterns. Our results show that the ion induced atomic mobility is not random, as it would be in the case of thermal diffusion but conserves to a large extent the initial direction of the incoming ions. This results in a tilted pattern under oblique ion incidence. A dependence of the nanopattern periodicity and tilt on the growth parameters is established and pattern morphology control via ion velocity is demonstrated.

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  • 3.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Jon M.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lattemann, Martina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wallin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Phase tailoring of Ta thin films by highly ionized pulsed magnetron sputtering2007In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 7-8, p. 3434-3438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ta thin films were grown on Si substrates at different inclination angles with respect to the sputter source using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), an ionized physical vapor deposition technique. The ionization allowed for better control of the energy and directionality of the sputtered species, and consequently for improved properties of the deposited films. Depositions were made on Si substrates with the native oxide intact. The structure of the as deposited films was investigated using X-ray diffraction, while a four-point probe setup was used to measure the resistivity. A substrate bias process-window for growth of bcc-Ta was observed. However, the process-window position changed with changing inclination angles of the substrate. The formation of this low-resistivity bcc-phase could be understood in light of the high ion flux from the HIPIMS discharge.

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  • 4.
    Alami, Jones
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Music, Denis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gudmundsson, J. T.
    University of Iceland, Reykjavik.
    Böhlmark, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ion-assisted Physical Vapor Deposition for enhanced film properties on non-flat surfaces2005In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 278-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized Ta thin films on Si substrates placed along a wall of a 2-cm-deep and 1-cm-wide trench, using both a mostly neutral Ta flux by conventional dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and a mostly ionized Ta flux by high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS). Structure of the grown films was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The Ta thin film grown by HPPMS has a smooth surface and a dense crystalline structure with grains oriented perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas the film grown by dcMS exhibits a rough surface, pores between the grains, and an inclined columnar structure. The improved homogeneity achieved by HPPMS is a direct consequence of the high ion fraction of sputtered species.

  • 5.
    Alnoor, Hatim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elsukova, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tseng, Eric Nestor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploring MXenes and their MAX phase precursors by electron microscopy2021In: Materials Today Advances, E-ISSN 2590-0498, Vol. 9, article id 100123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review celebrates the width and depth of electron microscopy methods and how these have enabled massive research efforts on MXenes. MXenes constitute a powerful recent addition to 2-dimensional materials, derived from their parent family of nanolaminated materials known as MAX phases. Owing to their rich chemistry, MXenes exhibit properties that have revolutionized ranges of applications, including energy storage, electromagnetic interference shielding, water filtering, sensors, and catalysis. Few other methods have been more essential in MXene research and development of corresponding applications, compared with electron microscopy, which enables structural and chemical identification at the atomic scale. In the following, the electron microscopy methods that have been applied to MXene and MAX phase precursor research are presented together with research examples and are discussed with respect to advantages and challenges.

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  • 6.
    Amloy, Supaluck
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Y. T.
    Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Chen, K. H.
    Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taiwan.
    Hsu, H. C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, C. L.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan.
    Chen, L. C.
    Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excitons and biexcitons in InGaN quantum dot like localization centersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium segregation in a narrow InGaN single quantum well creates quantum dot (QD) like exciton localization centers. Cross section transmission electron microscopy reveals varying shapes and lateral sizes in the range ~1-5 nm of the QD-like features, while scanning near field optical microscopy demonstrates a highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution of optically active individual localization centers. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy confirms the spectrally inhomogeneous distribution of localization centers, in which the exciton and the biexciton related emissions from single centers of varying geometry could be identified by means of excitation power dependencies. Interestingly, the biexciton binding energy (Ebxx) was found to vary from center to center, between 3 to -22 meV, in correlation with the exciton emission energy. Negative binding energies justify the three-dimensional quantum confinement, which confirms QD-like properties of the localization centers.! The observed energy correlation is proposed to be understood as variations of the lateral extension of the confinement potential, which would yield smaller values of Ebxx for reduced lateral extension and higher exciton emission energy. The proposed relation between lateral extension and Ebxx is further supported by the exciton and the biexciton recombination lifetimes of a single QD, which suggest a lateral extension of merely ~3 nm for a QD with strongly negative Ebxx = -15.5 meV.

  • 7.
    Amloy, Supaluck
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Thaksin University, Thailand.
    Karlsson, K. Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Martin O
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Y. T.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Academia Sinica, Taiwan .
    Chen, K. H.
    Academia Sinica, Taiwan; National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsu, H. C.
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Hsiao, C. L.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Chen, L. C.
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Excitons and biexcitons in InGaN quantum dot like localization centers2014In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, Vol. 25, no 49, p. 495702-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indium segregation in a narrow InGaN single quantum well creates quantum dot (QD) like exciton localization centers. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy reveals varying shapes and lateral sizes in the range ∼1–5 nm of the QD-like features, while scanning near field optical microscopy demonstrates a highly inhomogeneous spatial distribution of optically active individual localization centers. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy confirms the spectrally inhomogeneous distribution of localization centers, in which the exciton and the biexciton related emissions from single centers of varying geometry could be identified by means of excitation power dependencies. Interestingly, the biexciton binding energy (Ebxx) was found to vary from center to center, between 3 to −22 meV, in correlation with the exciton emission energy. Negative binding energies are only justified by a three-dimensional quantum confinement, which confirms QD-like properties of the localization centers. The observed energy correlation is proposed to be understood as variations of the lateral extension of the confinement potential, which would yield smaller values of Ebxx for reduced lateral extension and higher exciton emission energy. The proposed relation between lateral extension and Ebxx is further supported by the exciton and the biexciton recombination lifetimes of a single QD, which suggest a lateral extension of merely ∼3 nm for a QD with strongly negative Ebxx = −15.5 meV. 

  • 8.
    Azina, Clio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tunca, Bensu
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xin, Binbin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yildizhan Özyar, Melike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vleugels, Jozef
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Lambrinou, Konstantina
    SCK CEN, Belgium; Univ Huddersfield, England.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Deposition of MAX phase-containing thin films from a (Ti,Zr)(2)AlC compound target2021In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 551, article id 149370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on sputter depositions carried out from a compound (Ti,Zr)(2)AlC target on Al2O3(0 0 0 1) substrates at temperatures ranging between 500 and 900 degrees C. Short deposition times yielded 30-40 nm-thick Al-containing (Ti,Zr)C films, whereas longer depositions yielded thicker films up to 90 nm which contained (Ti,Zr)C and intermetallics. At 900 degrees C, the longer depositions led to films that also consisted of solid solution MAX phases. Detailed transmission electron microscopy showed that both (Ti,Zr)(2)AlC and (Ti,Zr)(3)AlC2 solid solution MAX phases were formed. Moreover, this work discusses the growth mechanism of the thicker films, which started with the formation of the mixed (Ti,Zr)C carbide, followed by the nucleation and growth of aluminides, eventually leading to solid state diffusion of Al within the carbide, at the highest temperature (900 degrees C) to form the MAX phases.

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  • 9.
    Badr, Hussein O.
    et al.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    El-Melegy, Tarek
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Carey, Michael
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Natu, Varun
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Hassig, Mary Q.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Johnson, Craig
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Qian, Qian
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Li, Christopher Y.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Kushnir, Kateryna
    Worcester Polytech Inst, MA 01609 USA.
    Colin-Ulloa, Erika
    Worcester Polytech Inst, MA 01609 USA.
    Titova, Lyubov V
    Worcester Polytech Inst, MA 01609 USA.
    Martin, Julia L.
    Worcester Polytech Inst, MA 01609 USA.
    Grimm, Ronald L.
    Worcester Polytech Inst, MA 01609 USA.
    Pai, Rahul
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Kalra, Vibha
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Karmakar, Avishek
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Ruffino, Anthony
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Masiuk, Stefan
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Liang, Kun
    Tulane Univ, LA 70118 USA.
    Naguib, Michael
    Tulane Univ, LA 70118 USA.
    Wilson, Olivia
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Magenau, Andrew
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Montazeri, Kiana
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Zhu, Yucheng
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Cheng, Hao
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Torita, Takeshi
    Murata Mfg Co Ltd, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Masashi
    Murata Mfg Co Ltd, Japan.
    Yanagimachi, Akimaro
    Murata Mfg Co Ltd, Japan.
    Ouisse, Thierry
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Barbier, Maxime
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France; European Synchrotron Radiat Facil ESRF, France.
    Wilhelm, Fabrice
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil ESRF, France.
    Rogalev, Andrei
    European Synchrotron Radiat Facil ESRF, France.
    Björk, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Yong-Jie
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Barsoum, Michel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Bottom-up, scalable synthesis of anatase nanofilament-based two-dimensional titanium carbo-oxide flakes2022In: Materials Today, ISSN 1369-7021, E-ISSN 1873-4103, Vol. 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer advantages that their 3D counterparts do not. The conventional method for the bulk synthesis of 2D materials has predominantly been through etching layered solids. Herein, we convert - through a bottom-up approach - 10 binary and ternary titanium carbides, nitrides, borides, phosphides, and silicides into 2D flakes by immersing them in a tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution at temperatures in the 25-85 degrees C range. Based on X-ray diffraction, density functional theory, X-ray photoelectron, electron energy loss, Raman, X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopies, transmission and scanning electron microscope images and selected area diffraction, we conclude that the resulting flakes are carbon containing anatase-based layers that are, in turn, comprised of approximate to 6 x 10 angstrom(2) nanofilaments in cross-section some of which are few microns long. Electrodes made from some of these films performed well in lithium-ion and lithium-sulphur systems. These materials also reduce the viability of cancer cells thus showing potential in biomedical applications. Synthesizing 2D materials, at near ambient conditions, with non-layered, inexpensive, green precursors (e.g., TiC) is paradigm shifting and will undoubtedly open new and exciting avenues of research and applications.

  • 10.
    Bakhit, Babak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O.Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosen, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, Urbana IL 61801, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-organized columnar Zr0.7Ta0.3B1.5 core/shell-nanostructure thin films2020In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 401, article id 126237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently showed that Zr1−xTaxBy thin films have columnar nanostructure in which column boundaries are B-rich for x < 0.2, while Ta-rich for x ≥ 0.2. Layers with x ≥ 0.2 exhibit higher hardness and, simultaneously, enhanced toughness. Here, we determine the atomic-scale nanostructure of sputter-deposited columnar Zr0.7Ta0.3B1.5 thin films. The columns, 95 ± 17 Å, are core/shell nanostructures in which 80 ± 15-Å cores are crystalline hexagonal-AlB2-structure Zr-rich stoichiometric Zr1−xTaxB2. The shell structure is a narrow dense, disordered region that is Ta-rich and highly B-deficient. The cores are formed under intense ion mixing via preferential Ta segregation, due to the lower formation enthalpy of TaB2 than ZrB2, in response to the chemical driving force to form a stoichiometric compound. The films with unique combination of nanosized crystalline cores and dense metallic-glass-like shells provide excellent mechanical properties.

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  • 11.
    Bakhit, Babak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Improving the high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiB2 thin films by alloying with Al2020In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 196, p. 677-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refractory transition-metal diborides (TMB2) are candidates for extreme environments due to melting points above 3000 degrees C, excellent hardness, good chemical stability, and thermal and electrical conductivity. However, they typically suffer from rapid high-temperature oxidation. Here, we study the effect of Al addition on the oxidation properties of sputter-deposited TiB2-rich Ti1-xAlxBy thin films and demonstrate that alloying the films with Al significantly increases the oxidation resistance with a slight decrease in hardness. TiB2.4 layers are deposited by dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) from a TiB2 target, while Ti1-xAlxBy alloy films are grown by hybrid high-power impulse and dc magnetron co-sputtering (Al-HiPIMS/TiB2-DCMS). All as-deposited films exhibit columnar structure. The column boundaries of TiB2.4 are B-rich, while Ti0.68Al0.32B1.35 alloys have Ti-rich columns surrounded by a Ti(1-x)Al(x)By tissue phase which is predominantly Al rich. Air-annealing TiB2.4 at temperatures above 500 degrees C leads to the formation of oxide scales that do not contain B and mostly consist of a rutile-TiO2 (s) phase. The resulting oxidation products are highly porous due to the evaporation of B2O3 (g) phase as well as the coarsening of TiO2 crystallites. This poor oxidation resistance is significantly improved by alloying with Al. While air-annealing at 800 degrees C for 0.5 h results in the formation of an similar to 1900-nm oxide scale on TiB2.4, the thickness of the scale formed on the Ti0.68Al0.32B1.35 alloys is similar to 470 nm. The enhanced oxidation resistance is attributed to the formation of a dense, protective Al-containing oxide scale that considerably decreases the oxygen diffusion rate by suppressing the oxide-crystallites coarsening. (C) 2020 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 12.
    Bakhit, Babak
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Zhengtao
    School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, China.
    Sortica, Mauritio A.
    Applied Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Applied Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Greene, Joseph E.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Materials Research Laboratory and Department of Materials Science, University of Illinois, USA; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Age hardening in superhard ZrB2-rich Zr1-xTaxBy thin films2021In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 191, p. 120-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We recently showed that sputter-deposited Zr1-xTaxBy thin films have hexagonal AlB2-type columnar nanostructure in which column boundaries are B-rich for x < 0.2, while Ta-rich for x ≥ 0.2. As-deposited layers with x ≥ 0.2 exhibit higher hardness and, simultaneously, enhanced toughness. Here, we study the mechanical properties of ZrB2.4, Zr0.8Ta0.2B1.8, and Zr0.7Ta0.3B1.5 films annealed in Ar atmosphere as a function of annealing temperature Ta up to 1200 °C. In-situ and ex-situ nanoindentation analyses reveal that all films undergo age hardening up to Ta = 800 °C, with the highest hardness achieved for Zr0.8Ta0.2B1.8 (45.5±1.0 GPa). The age hardening, which occurs without any phase separation or decomposition, can be explained by point-defect recovery that enhances chemical bond density. Although hardness decreases at Ta > 800 °C due mainly to recrystallization, column coarsening, and planar defect annihilation, all layers show hardness values above 34 GPa over the entire Ta range.

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  • 13.
    Bakoglidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Manchester, England.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    dos Santos, Renato B.
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Rivelino, Roberto
    Univ Fed Bahia, Brazil.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-Healing in Carbon Nitride Evidenced As Material Inflation and Superlubric Behavior2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 19, p. 16238-16243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All known materials wear under extended mechanical contacting. Superlubricity may present solutions, but is an expressed mystery in C-based materials. We report negative wear of carbon nitride films; a wear-less condition with mechanically induced material inflation at the nanoscale and friction coefficient approaching ultralow values (0.06). Superlubricity in carbon nitride is expressed as C-N bond breaking for reduced coupling between graphitic-like sheets and eventual N-2 desorption. The transforming surface layer acts as a solid lubricant, whereas the film bulk retains its high elasticity. The present findings offer new means for materials design at the atomic level, and for property optimization in wear-critical applications like magnetic reading devices or nanomachines.

  • 14.
    Bangolla, Hemanth Kumar
    et al.
    Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Siao, Ming-Deng
    Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Huang, Yi-Hua
    Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Chen, Ruei-San
    Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Zukauskaite, Agne
    Fraunhofer Inst Organ Elect Electron Beam & Plasm, Germany.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Composition-dependent photoconductivities in indium aluminium nitride nanorods grown by magnetron sputter epitaxy2022In: Nanoscale Advances, E-ISSN 2516-0230, Vol. 4, no 22, p. 4886-4894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoconduction (PC) properties were investigated for ternary indium aluminium nitride (InxAl1-xN) nanorods (NRs) with different indium compositions (x) from 0.35 to 0.68, as grown by direct-current reactive magnetron sputter epitaxy. Cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) reveals single-crystal quality of the vertically aligned InxAl1-xN NRs. Single-rod photodetector devices with good ohmic contacts were fabricated using the focused-ion-beam technique (FIB), where the In-rich In0.68Al0.32N NR exhibits an optimal photocurrent responsivity of 1400 A W-1 and photoconductive gain of 3300. A transition from a positive photoresponse to a negative photoresponse was observed, while increasing the In composition x from 0.35 to 0.57. The negative PC was further enhanced by increasing x to 0.68. A model based on the coexistence and competition of deep electron trap states and recombination centers was proposed to explain the interesting composition-dependent PC in these ternary III-nitride 1D nanostructures.

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  • 15.
    Bartosik, M.
    et al.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Keckes, J.
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Riedl, H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Mayrhofer, P. H.
    TU Wien, Austria.
    Interface controlled microstructure evolution in nanolayered thin films2016In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 123, p. 13-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray nano-diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were conducted along the thickness of a similar to 4 pm thick CrN/AlN multilayer with continuously increasing AlN layer thicknesses from similar to 1 to 15 nm on similar to 7 nm thick CrN template layers. The experiments reveal coherent growth, large columnar grains extending over several (bi-)layers for thin AlN layer thicknesses below similar to 4 nm. Above similar to 4 nm, the nucleation of the thermodynamically stable wurtzite structured AlN is favored, leading to coherency breakdown and reduction of the overall strains, disrupting the columnar microstructure and limiting the maximum grain size in film growth direction to the layer thickness. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 16.
    Beckers, Manfred
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Höglund, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Baehtz, Carsten
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Martins, R.M.S.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Möller, W.
    Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
    The influence of substrate temperature and Al mobility on the microstructural evolution of magnetron sputtered ternary Ti-Al-N thin films2009In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 064915-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary Ti-Al-N films were deposited onto Al2O3 (0001) substrates by reactive co‑sputtering from elemental Ti and Al targets and analyzed by in situ and ex situ x-ray scattering, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The deposition parameters were set to values that yield Ti:Al:N ratios of 2:1:1 and 4:1:3 at room temperature. 2TiAlN depositions at 675 °C result in epitaxial Ti2AlN growth with basal planes parallel to the substrate surface. Nominal 4TiAl3N depositions at 675 °C and above, however, yield TiN and Ti2AlN domains due to Al loss to the vacuum. Depositions at a lower temperature of 600 °C yield films with correct 4:1:3 stoichiometry, but Ti4AlN3 formation is supposedly prevented by insufficient adatom mobility. Instead, an incoherent Tin+1AlNn structure with random twinned stacking sequences n is obtained, that exhibits both basal plane orientations parallel as well as nearly perpendicular to the substrate interface. X‑ray photoemission spectroscopy shows that in contrast to stoichiometric nitrides the Al is metallically bonded and hence acts as twinning plane within the Tin+1AlNn stackings. Domains with perpendicular basal plane orientation overgrowth those with parallel ones in a competitive growth mode. The resulting morphology is a combination of smooth‑surfaced parallel basal plane orientation domains interrupted by repeated facetted hillock-like features with perpendicular basal plane orientation.

  • 17.
    Bouhafs, Chamseddine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tiberj, A.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paillet, M.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Zahab, A. -A.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Landois, P.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Juillaguet, S.
    University of Montpellier 2, France.
    Schoeche, S.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA; University of Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structural properties and dielectric function of graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on 4H-SiC(000-1)2015In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 117, no 8, p. 085701-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and controlling growth of graphene on the carbon face (C-face) of SiC presents a significant challenge. In this work, we study the structural, vibrational, and dielectric function properties of graphene grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by high-temperature sublimation in an argon atmosphere. The effect of growth temperature on the graphene number of layers and crystallite size is investigated and discussed in relation to graphene coverage and thickness homogeneity. An amorphous carbon layer at the interface between SiC and the graphene is identified, and its evolution with growth temperature is established. Atomic force microscopy, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and high-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy are combined to determine and correlate thickness, stacking order, dielectric function, and interface properties of graphene. The role of surface defects and growth temperature on the graphene growth mechanism and stacking is discussed, and a conclusion about the critical factors to achieve decoupled graphene layers is drawn. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 18.
    Chang, Jui-Che
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tseng, Eric Nestor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lo, Yi-Ling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nayak, Sanjay Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Horng, Ray-Hua
    National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30010, Taiwan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    HiPIMS-grown AlN buffer for threading dislocation reduction in DC-magnetron sputtered GaN epifilm on sapphire substrate2023In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 217, article id 112553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial films on sapphire (Al2O3) substrates have been grown using reactive magnetron sputter epitaxy with a liquid Ga target. Threading dislocations density (TDD) of sputtered GaN films was reduced by using an inserted high-quality aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layer grown by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (R-HiPIMS) in a gas mixture of Ar and N2. After optimizing the Ar/N2 pressure ratio and deposition power, a high-quality AlN film exhibiting a narrow full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) value of the double-crystal x-ray rocking curve (DCXRC) of the AlN(0002) peak of 0.086° was obtained by R-HiPIMS. The mechanism giving rise the observed quality improvement is attributed to the enhancement of kinetic energy of the adatoms in the deposition process when operated in a transition mode. With the inserted HiPIMS-AlN as a buffer layer for direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) GaN growth, the FWHM values of GaN(0002) and (10 1‾ 1) XRC decrease from 0.321° to 0.087° and from 0.596° to 0.562°, compared to the direct growth of GaN on sapphire, respectively. An order of magnitude reduction from 2.7 × 109 cm−2 to 2.0 × 108 cm−2 of screw-type TDD calculated from the FWHM of the XRC data using the inserted HiPIMS-AlN buffer layer demonstrates the improvement of crystal quality of GaN. The result of TDD reduction using the HiPIMS-AlN buffer was also verified by weak beam dark-field (WBDF) cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

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  • 19.
    Chen, Ding-Yuan
    et al.
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Persson, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. TheMAC, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Structural investigation of ultra-low resistance deeply recessed sidewall ohmic contacts for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs based on Ti/Al/Ti-metallization2023In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 38, no 10, article id 105006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a novel approach to forming low-resistance ohmic contacts for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The optimized contacts exhibit an outstanding contact resistance of approximately 0.15 & omega;& BULL;mm. This is achieved by firstly recessing the barrier of the heterostructure to a depth beyond the channel. In this way, the channel region is exposed on the sidewall of the recess. The coverage of the Ti/Al/Ti ohmic metalization on the sidewall is ensured through tilting of the sample during evaporation. The annealing process is performed at a low temperature of 550 & DEG;C. The approach does not require precise control of the recess etching. Furthermore, the method is directly applicable to most barrier designs in terms of thickness and Al-concentration. The impact of recessed sidewall angle, thickness and ratio of Ti and Al layers, and the annealing procedure are investigated. Structural and chemical analyses of the interface between the ohmic contacts and epi-structure indicate the formation of ohmic contacts by the extraction of nitrogen from the epi-structure. The approach is demonstrated on HEMT-structures with two different barrier designs in terms of Al-concentration and barrier thickness. The study demonstrate large process window in regard to recess depth and duration of the annealing as well as high uniformity of the contact resistance across the samples, rendering the approach highly suitable for industrial production processes.

  • 20.
    Chen, Ding-Yuan
    et al.
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Persson, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wen, Kai-Hsin
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Sommer, Daniel
    United Monolith Semicond GmbH, Germany.
    Grunenputt, Jan
    United Monolith Semicond GmbH, Germany.
    Blanck, Herve
    United Monolith Semicond GmbH, Germany.
    Thorsell, Mattias
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Kordina, Olof
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    SweGaN AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Rorsman, Niklas
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Impact of in situ NH3 pre-treatment of LPCVD SiN passivation on GaN HEMT performance2022In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 37, no 3, article id 035011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact on the performance of GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) of in situ ammonia (NH3) pre-treatment prior to the deposition of silicon nitride (SiN) passivation with low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD ) is investigated. Three different NH3 pre-treatment durations (0, 3, and 10 min) were compared in terms of interface properties and device performance. A reduction of oxygen (O) at the interface between SiN and epi-structure is detected by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM )-electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) measurements in the sample subjected to 10 min of pre-treatment. The samples subjected to NH3 pre-treatment show a reduced surface-related current dispersion of 9% (compared to 16% for the untreated sample), which is attributed to the reduction of O at the SiN/epi interface. Furthermore, NH3 pre-treatment for 10 min significantly improves the current dispersion uniformity from 14.5% to 1.9%. The reduced trapping effects result in a high output power of 3.4 W mm(-1) at 3 GHz (compared to 2.6 W mm(-1) for the untreated sample). These results demonstrate that the in situ NH3 pre-treatment before LPCVD of SiN passivation is critical and can effectively improves the large-signal microwave performance of GaN HEMTs.

  • 21.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Classic WBG Semiconductors AB, LEAD, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth optimization of AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure on 100 mm SiC substrate: Utilizing bottom-to-top approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on group-III nitride materials generally consists of three important blocks; a nucleation layer, a semi-insulating (SI) GaN buffer layer, and active layers. In this work, we present an overall growth optimization, which leads to superior crystalline quality and ultra-low thermal boundary resistance (TBR) of a 35-nm AlN nucleation layer, excellent crystalline quality of carbon-doped GaN buffer layer, and high mobility (> 2000 cm2/Vs) of two-dimensional gas (2DEG) in a simple AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown on a SI SiC substrate.

  • 22.
    Chen, Jr-Tai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Room-Temperature mobility above 2200 cm2/V.s of two-dimensional electron gas in a sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure2015In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 106, no 25, article id 251601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high mobility of 2250 cm2/V·s of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was demonstrated. The mobility enhancement was a result of better electron confinement due to a sharp AlGaN/GaN interface, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis, not owing to the formation of a traditional thin AlN exclusion layer. Moreover, we found that the electron mobility in the sharp-interface heterostructures can sustain above 2000 cm2/V·s for a wide range of 2DEG densities. Finally, it is promising that the sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure would enable low contact resistance fabrication, less impurity-related scattering, and trapping than the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure, as the high-impurity-contained AlN is removed.

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  • 23.
    Chen, Yen-Ting
    et al.
    Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Araki, Tsutomu
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan .
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taiwan University, Taiwan .
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    Academic Sinica, Taiwan .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nanishi, Yasushi
    Ritsumeikan University, Japan .
    Nucleation of single GaN nanorods with diameters smaller than 35 nm by molecular beam epitaxy2013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 20, p. 203108-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleation mechanism of catalyst-free GaN nanorod grown on Si(111) is investigated by the fabrication of uniform and narrow (andlt; 35 nm) nanorods without a pre-defined mask by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct evidences show that the nucleation of GaN nanorods stems from the sidewall of the underlying islands down to the Si(111) substrate, different from commonly reported ones on top of the island directly. Accordingly, the growth and density control of the nanorods is exploited by a "narrow-pass" approach that only narrow nanorod can be grown. The optimal size of surrounding non-nucleation area around single nanorod is estimated as 88 nm.

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  • 24.
    Cubarovs, Mihails
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jens, Jensen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial CVD growthof sp2-hybridized boron nitrideusing aluminum nitride as buffer layer2011In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 5, no 10-11, p. 397-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial growth of sp2-hybridized boron nitride (BN) using chemical vapour deposition, with ammonia and triethyl boron as precursors, is enabled on sapphire by introducing an aluminium nitride (AlN) buffer layer. This buffer layer is formed by initial nitridation of the substrate. Epitaxial growth is verified by X-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg–Brentano configuration, pole figure measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The in-plane stretching vibration of sp2-hybridized BN is observed at 1366 cm–1 from Raman spectroscopy. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis confirms almost perfect stoichiometric BN with low concentration of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen contaminations.

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  • 25.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ingason, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnus, F.
    2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Thore, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mockute, Aurelija
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Meshkian, Rahele
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sahlberg, M.
    3Department of Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjörvarsson, B.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Abrikosov, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Complex magnetism in nanolaminated Mn2GaC2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used first-principles calculations and Heisenberg Monte Carlo simulations to search for the magnetic ground state of Mn2GaC, a recently synthesized magnetic nanolaminate. We have, independent on method, identified a range of low energy collinear as well as non-collinear magnetic configurations, indicating a highly frustrated magnetic material with several nearly degenerate magnetic states. An experimentally obtained magnetization of only 0.29 per Mn atom in Mn2GaC may be explained by canted spins in an antiferromagnetic configuration of ferromagnetically ordered sub-layers with alternating spin orientation, denoted AFM[0001]. Furthermore, low temperature X-ray diffraction show a new basal plane peak appearing upon a magnetic transition, which is consistent with the here predicted change in inter-layer spacing for the AFM[0001] configuration.

  • 26.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Jie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Theoretical Prediction and Synthesis of a Family of Atomic Laminate Metal Borides with In-Plane Chemical Ordering2020In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 142, no 43, p. 18583-18591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All atomically laminated MAB phases (M = transition metal, A = A-group element, and B = boron) exhibit orthorhombic or tetragonal symmetry, with the only exception being hexagonal Ti2InB2. Inspired by the recent discovery of chemically ordered hexagonal carbides, i-MAX phases, we perform an extensive first-principles study to explore chemical ordering upon metal alloying of M2AlB2 (M from groups 3 to 9) in orthorhombic and hexagonal symmetry. Fifteen stable novel phases with in-plane chemical ordering are identified, coined i-MAB, along with 16 disordered stable alloys. The predictions are verified through the powder synthesis of Mo4/3Y2/3 AlB2 and Mo4/3Sc2/3AlB2 of space group R (3) over barm (no. 166), displaying the characteristic in-plane chemical order of Mo and Y/Sc and Kagome ordering of the Al atoms, as evident from X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The discovery of i-MAB phases expands the elemental space of these borides with M = Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, and Nb, realizing an increased property tuning potential of these phases as well as their suggested potential twodimensional derivatives.

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  • 27.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Jie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahmed, Bilal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tao, Quanzheng
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Helmer, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Out-Of-Plane Ordered Laminate Borides and Their 2D Ti-Based Derivative from Chemical Exfoliation2021In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 38, article id 2008361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploratory theoretical predictions in uncharted structural and compositional space are integral to materials discoveries. Inspired by M5SiB2 (T2) phases, the finding of a family of laminated quaternary metal borides, M M-4 SiB2, with out-of-plane chemical order is reported here. 11 chemically ordered phases as well as 40 solid solutions, introducing four elements previously not observed in these borides are predicted. The predictions are experimentally verified for Ti4MoSiB2, establishing Ti as part of the T2 boride compositional space. Chemical exfoliation of Ti4MoSiB2 and select removal of Si and MoB2 sub-layers is validated by derivation of a 2D material, TiOxCly, of high yield and in the form of delaminated sheets. These sheets have an experimentally determined direct band gap of approximate to 4.1 eV, and display characteristics suitable for supercapacitor applications. The results take the concept of chemical exfoliation beyond currently available 2D materials, and expands the envelope of 3D and 2D candidates, and their applications.

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  • 28.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Barradas, N P
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lorenz, K
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Alves, E
    Institute Tecnol and Nucl, P-2686953 Sacavem, Portugal CFNUL, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal .
    Schubert, M
    University Nebraska, Department Elect Engn, Lincoln, NE 68588 USA .
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Munnik, F
    Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden, Germany .
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tu, L W
    Natl Sun Yat Sen University, Department Phys, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan Natl Sun Yat Sen University, Centre Nanosci and Nanotechnol, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan .
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University, Department Elect and Comp Engn, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA .
    Role of impurities and dislocations for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN2009In: PHYSICA B-CONDENSED MATTER, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 404, no 22, p. 4476-4481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study on the role of dislocations and impurities for the unintentional n-type conductivity in high-quality InN grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The dislocation densities and H profiles in films with free electron concentrations in the low 10(17) cm(-1) and mid 10(18) cm(-3) range are measured, and analyzed in a comparative manner. It is shown that dislocations alone could not account for the free electron behavior in the InN films. On the other hand, large concentrations of H sufficient to explain, but exceeding substantially, the observed free electron densities are found. Furthermore, enhanced concentrations of H are revealed at the film surfaces, resembling the free electron behavior with surface electron accumulation. The low-conductive film was found to contain C and it is suggested that C passivates the H donors or acts as an acceptor, producing compensated material in this case. Therefore, it is concluded that the unintentional impurities play an important role for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN. We suggest a scenario of H incorporation in InN that may reconcile the previously reported observations for the different role of impurities and dislocations for the unintentional n-type conductivity in InN.

  • 29.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hofmann, T.
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Schubert, M.
    University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA.
    Sernelius, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schaff, W. J.
    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
    Hsiao, C.-L.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chen, L.-C.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Nanishi, Y
    Ritsumeikan University, Shiga, Japan.
    Unravelling the free electron behavior in InN2008In: Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Materials and Devices, 2008, IEEE , 2008, p. 90-97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precise measurement of the optical Hall effect in InN using magneto-optical generalized ellipsometry at IR and THz wavelengths, allows us to decouple the surface accumulation and bulk electron densities in InN films by non-contact optical means and further to precisely measure the effective mass and mobilities for polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the optical axis. Studies of InN films with different thicknesses, free electron densities and surface orientations enable an intricate picture of InN free electron properties to emerge. Striking findings on the scaling factors of the bulk electron densities with film thickness further supported by transmission electron microscopy point to an additional thickness dependent doping mechanism unrelated to dislocations. Surface electron accumulation is observed to occur not only at polar but also at non-polar and semi-polar wurtzite InN, and zinc blende InN surfaces. The persistent surface electron density shows a complex behavior with bulk density and surface orientation. This behavior might be exploited for tuning the surface charge in InN.

  • 30.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hofmann, T
    University of Nebraska.
    Schubert, M
    University of Nebraska.
    Sernelius, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alves, E
    Sacavem, Portugal.
    Lu, H
    Cornell University.
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University.
    Free electron behavior in InN: On the role of dislocations and surface electron accumulation2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 94, no 2, p. 022109-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The free electron behavior in InN is studied on the basis of decoupled bulk and surface accumulation electron densities in InN films measured by contactless optical Hall effect. It is shown that the variation in the bulk electron density with film thickness does not follow the models of free electrons generated by dislocation-associated nitrogen vacancies. This finding, further supported by transmission electron microscopy results, indicates the existence of a different thickness-dependent doping mechanism. Furthermore, we observe a noticeable dependence of the surface electron density on the bulk density, which can be exploited for tuning the surface charge in future InN based devices.

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  • 31.
    Ding, Haoming
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China.
    Li, Youbing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China.
    Li, Mian
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Ke
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China.
    Liang, Kun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Guoxin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Du, Shiyu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China.
    Chai, Zhifang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China.
    Gogotsi, Yury
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Huang, Qing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Peoples R China; CNiTECH, Peoples R China; Adv Energy Sci & Technol Guangdong Lab, Peoples R China.
    Chemical scissor-mediated structural editing of layered transition metal carbides2023In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 379, no 6637, p. 1130-1135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intercalated layered materials offer distinctive properties and serve as precursors for important two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, intercalation of non-van der Waals structures, which can expand the family of 2D materials, is difficult. We report a structural editing protocol for layered carbides (MAX phases) and their 2D derivatives (MXenes). Gap-opening and species-intercalating stages were respectively mediated by chemical scissors and intercalants, which created a large family of MAX phases with unconventional elements and structures, as well as MXenes with versatile terminals. The removal of terminals in MXenes with metal scissors and then the stitching of 2D carbide nanosheets with atom intercalation leads to the reconstruction of MAX phases and a family of metal-intercalated 2D carbides, both of which may drive advances in fields ranging from energy to printed electronics.

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  • 32.
    Ding, Haoming
    et al.
    State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; bEngineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, Youbing
    Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Luo, Kan
    Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China.
    Chen, Ke
    Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, Mian
    Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Du, Shiyu
    Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China.
    Huang, Zhengren
    Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China.
    Chai, Zhifang
    Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China.
    Wang, Hongjie
    State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China.
    Huang, Ping
    aState Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China.
    Huang, Qing
    Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, People’s Republic of China.
    Synthesis of MAX phases Nb2CuC and Ti2(Al0.1Cu0.9)N by A-site replacement reaction in molten salts2019In: Materials Research Letters, E-ISSN 2166-3831, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 510-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New MAX phases Ti2(AlxCu1−x)N and Nb2CuC were synthesized by A-site replacement by reacting Ti2AlN and Nb2AlC, respectively, with CuCl2 or CuI molten salt. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy showed complete A-site replacement in Nb2AlC, which lead to the formation of Nb2CuC. However, the replacement of Al in Ti2AlN phase was only close to complete at Ti2(Al0.1Cu0.9)N. Density-functional theory calculations corroborated the structural stability of Nb2CuC and Ti2CuN phases. Moreover, the calculated cleavage energy in these Cu-containing MAX phases are weaker than in their Al-containing counterparts.

    The preparation of MAX phases Nb2CuC and Ti2(Al0.1Cu0.9)N were realized by A-site replacement in Ti2AlN and Nb2AlN, respectively.

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  • 33.
    Dobrovolskiy, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sukrittanon, Supanee
    Graduate Program of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.
    Kuang, Yanjin
    Department of Physics, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.
    Tu, CHarles W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of Polytypism on Optical Properties and Band Structure ofIndividual Ga(N)P Nanowires from Correlative Spatially Resolved Structural and Optical Studies2015In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 4052-4058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have gained significant interest as building blocks in novel nanoscale devices. The one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure architecture allows one to extend band structure engineering beyond quantum confinement effects by utilizing formation of different crystal phases that are thermodynamically unfavorable in bulk materials. It is therefore of crucial importance to understand the influence of variations in the NWs crystal structure on their fundamental physical properties. In this work we investigate effects of structural polytypism on the optical properties of gallium phosphide and GaP/GaNP core/shell NW structures by a correlative investigation on the structural and optical properties of individual NWs. The former is monitored by transmission electron microscopy, whereas the latter is studied via cathodoluminescence (CL) mapping. It is found that structural defects, such as rotational twins in zinc blende (ZB) GaNP, have detrimental effects on light emission intensity at low temperatures by promoting nonradiative recombination processes. On the other hand, formation of the wurtzite (WZ) phase does not notably affect the CL intensity neither in GaP nor in the GaNP alloy. This suggests that zone folding in WZ GaP does not enhance its radiative efficiency, consistent with theoretical predictions. We also show that the change in the lattice structure have negligible effects on the bandgap energies of the GaNP alloys, at least within the range of the investigated nitrogen compositions of <2%. Both WZ and ZB GaNP are found to have a significantly higher efficiency of radiative recombination as compared with that in parental GaP, promising for potential applications of GaNP NWs as efficient nanoscale light emitters within the desirable amber-red spectral range.

  • 34.
    Dorri, Megan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thörnberg, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellgren, Niklas
    Messiah Univ, PA 17055 USA.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petruhins, Andrejs
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Klimashin, Fedor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synthesis and characterization of CrB 2 thin films grown by DC magnetron sputtering2021In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 200, article id 113915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CrB x thin films with 1.90 &lt; x &lt; 2.08 have been deposited by direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) from a stoichiometric CrB 2 target at 5 and 20 mTorr (0.67 and 2.67 Pa) Ar pressure onto sapphire (0 0 01) substrates. All films, irrespective of deposition conditions, exhibit a (0 0 01) texture. Attesting to the achievement of close-to-stoichiometric composition, epitaxial film growth is observed at 900 ?C, while film growth at 500 ?C yields (0001) fiber texture. Film composition does not depend on substrate temperature but exhibits slightly reduced B content with increasing pressure for samples deposited at 900 ?C. Excess B in the overstoichiometric epitaxial CrB 2.08 films segregates to form B-rich inclusions. Understoichiometry in CrB 1.90 films is accommodated by Cr-rich stacking faults on { 1 1? 00 } prismatic planes. ? 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )

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  • 35.
    Dorri, Samira
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bakhit, Babak
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of stoichiometry and individual layer thickness ratio on the quality of epitaxial CrBx/TiBy superlattice thin films2023In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 228, article id 111842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of single crystal artificial superlattices (SLs) of transition-metal (TM) diborides, which is instru- mental to understand hardening mechanisms at nanoscale, is lacking. Here, CrBx/TiBy (0001) diboride SLs [x,y E 1.7-3.3] are grown epitaxially on Al2O3(0001) substrates by direct-current magnetron sputter epitaxy. Growth conditions for obtaining well-defined SLs with good interface quality are found at 4 mTorr Ar pressure and 600 degrees C. 1 -mu m-thick SL films deposited with modulation periods A between 1 and 10 nm, and A=6 nm SLs with TiBy-to-A layer thickness ratios F ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 are studied. SLs with A=6 nm and F in the range of 0.2-0.4, with a near stoichiometric B/TM ratio, exhibit the high- est structural quality. The effects of F and stoichiometries (B/TM ratio) on the distribution of B in the SL structures are discussed. By increasing the relative thickness of TiBy, the crystalline quality of SLs starts to deteriorate due to B segregation in over-stoichiometric TiBy, resulting in narrow epitaxial SL columnar growth with structurally-distorted B-rich boundaries. Moreover, increasing the relative thickness of under-stoichiometric CrBx enhances the SL quality and hinders formation of B-rich boundaries. The SLs are found to exhibit hardness values in the range of 29-34 GPa.(c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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  • 36.
    Dorri, Samira
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stendahl, Sjoerd
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Material Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Devishvili, Anton
    Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France.
    Vorobiev, Alexei
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Material Physics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France .
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O.Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enhanced quality of single crystal CrBx/TiBy diboride superlattices by controlling boron stoichiometry during sputter deposition2024In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, article id 159606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-crystal CrB2/TiB2 diboride superlattices with well-defined layers are promising candidates for neutron optics. However, excess B in sputter-deposited TiBy using a single TiB2 target deteriorates the structural quality of CrBx/TiBy (0001) superlattices. We study the influence of co-sputtering of TiB2 + Ti on the stoichiometry and crystalline quality of 300-nm-thick TiBy single layers and CrBx/TiBy (0001) superlattices on Al2O3(0001) substrates grown by DC magnetron sputter epitaxy at growth-temperatures TS ranging from 600 to 900 °C. By controlling the relative applied powers to the TiB2 and Ti magnetrons, y could be reduced from 3.3 to 0.9. TiB2.3 grown at 750 °C exhibited epitaxial domains about 10x larger than non-co-sputtered films. Close-to-stoichiometry CrB1.7/TiB2.3 superlattices with modulation periods Λ = 6 nm grown at 750 °C showed the highest single crystal quality and best layer definition. TiB2.3 layers display rough top interfaces indicating kinetically limited growth while CrB1.7 forms flat and abrupt top interfaces indicating epitaxial growth with high adatom mobility.

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  • 37. Duteil, F.
    et al.
    Du, Chun-Xia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Joelsson, K.B.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ni, Wei-Xin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface and Semiconductor Physics .
    Luminescence and microstructure of Er/O co-doped Si structures grown by MBE using Er and SiO evaporation2000In: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 3, no 5-6, p. 523-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Er and O co-doped Si structures have been prepared using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) with fluxes of Er and O obtained from Er and silicon monoxide (SiO) evaporation in high-temperature cells. The incorporation of Er and O has been studied for concentrations of up to 2×1020 and 1×1021 cm-3, respectively. Surface segregation of Er can take place, but with O co-doping the segregation is suppressed and Er-doped layers without any indication of surface segregation can be prepared. Si1-xGex and Si1-yCy layers doped with Er/O during growth at different substrate temperatures show more defects than corresponding Si layers. Strong emission at 1.54µm associated with the intra-4f transition of Er3+ ions is observed in electroluminescence (EL) at room temperature in reverse-biased p-i-n-junctions. To optimize the EL intensity we have varied the Er/O ratio and the temperature during growth of the Er/O-doped layer. Using an Er-concentration of around 1×1020 cm-3 we find that Er/O ratios of 1:2 or 1:4 give higher intensity than 1:1 while the stability with respect to breakdown is reduced for the highest used O concentrations. For increasing growth temperatures in the range 400-575 °C there is an increase in the EL intensity. A positive effect of post-annealing on the photoluminescence intensity has also been observed.

  • 38.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Isberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of nc-TiC/a-SiC nanocomposite thin films2005In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 2486-2495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have synthesized Ti–Si–C nanocomposite thin films by dc magnetron sputtering from a Ti3SiC2 compound target in an Ar discharge on Si(100), Al2O3(0001), and Al substrates at temperatures from room temperature to 300  °C. Electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the films consisted of nanocrystalline (nc-) TiC and amorphous (a-) SiC, with the possible presence of a small amount of noncarbidic C. The growth mode was columnar, yielding a nodular film-surface morphology. Mechanically, the films exhibited a remarkable ductile behavior. Their nanoindentation hardness and E-modulus values were 20 and 290  GPa, respectively. The electrical resistivity was 330  µ  cm for optimal Ar pressure (4  mTorr) and substrate temperature (300  °C). The resulting nc-TiC/a-SiC films performed well as electrical contact material. These films' electrical-contact resistance against Ag was remarkably low, 6  µ at a contact force of 800  N compared to 3.2  µ for Ag against Ag. The chemical stability of the nc-TiC/a-SiC films was excellent, as shown by a Battelle flowing mixed corrosive-gas test, with no N, Cl, or S contaminants entering the bulk of the films.

  • 39.
    Eklund, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Layered ternary M(n+1)AX(n) phases and their 2D derivative MXene: an overview from a thin-film perspective2017In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 50, no 11, article id 113001Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inherently and artificially layered materials are commonly investigated both for fundamental scientific purposes and for technological application. When a layered material is thinned or delaminated to its physical limits, a two-dimensional (2D) material is formed and exhibits novel properties compared to its bulk parent phase. The complex layered phases known as MAX phases (where M = early transition metal, A = A-group element, e.g. Al or Si, and X = C or N) are an exciting model system for materials design and the understanding of process-structure-property relationships. When the A layers are selectively etched from the MAX phases, a new type of 2D material is formed, named MXene to emphasize the relation to the MAX phases and the parallel with graphene. Since their discovery in 2011, MXenes have rapidly become established as a novel class of 2D materials with remarkable possibilities for composition variations and property tuning. This article gives a brief overview of MAX phases and MXene from a thin-film perspective, reviewing theory, characterization by electron microscopy, properties and how these are affected by the change in dimensionality, and outstanding challenges.

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  • 40.
    Ekström, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elsukova, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Grasland, Justine
    IUT BloisUniv Francois Rabelais Tours, France.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ramanath, Ganpati
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, NY 12180 USA.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Epitaxial Growth of CaMnO3-y Films on LaAlO3 (112 over bar 0) by Pulsed Direct Current Reactive Magnetron Sputtering2022In: Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters, ISSN 1862-6254, E-ISSN 1862-6270, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 2100504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CaMnO3 is a perovskite with attractive magnetic and thermoelectric properties. CaMnO3 films are usually grown by pulsed laser deposition or radio frequency magnetron sputtering from ceramic targets. Herein, epitaxial growth of CaMnO3-y (002) films on a (112 over bar 0)-oriented LaAlO3 substrate using pulsed direct current reactive magnetron sputtering is demonstrated, which is more suitable for industrial scale depositions. The CaMnO3-y shows growth with a small in-plane tilt of &lt;approximate to 0.2 degrees toward the (200) plane of CaMnO3-y and the (1 over bar 104) with respect to the LaAlO3 (112 over bar 0) substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the electronic core levels shows an oxygen deficiency described by CaMnO2.58 that yields a lower Seebeck coefficient and a higher electrical resistivity when compared to stoichiometric CaMnO3. The LaAlO3 (112 over bar 0) substrate promotes tensile-strained growth of single crystals. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy reveal antiphase boundaries composed of Ca on Mn sites along and , forming stacking faults.

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  • 41.
    Ekström, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hurand, Simon
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elsukova, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sharma, Geetu
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, NY 12180 USA.
    Voznyy, Oleksandr
    Univ Toronto Scarborough, Canada.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ramanath, Ganpati
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rensselaer Polytech Inst, NY 12180 USA.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Microstructure control and property switching in stress-free van der Waals epitaxial VO2 films on mica2023In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 229, article id 111864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realizing stress-free inorganic epitaxial films on weakly bonding substrates is of importance for applications that require film transfer onto surfaces that do not seed epitaxy. Film-substrate bonding is usually weakened by harnessing natural van der Waals layers (e.g., graphene) on substrate surfaces, but this is difficult to achieve in non-layered materials. Here, we demonstrate van der Waals epitaxy of stress-free films of a non-layered material VO2 on mica. The films exhibit out-of-plane 010 texture with three inplane orientations inherited from the crystallographic domains of the substrate. The lattice parameters are invariant with film thickness, indicating weak film-substrate bonding and complete interfacial stress relaxation. The out-of-plane domain size scales monotonically with film thickness, but the in-plane domain size exhibits a minimum, indicating that the nucleation of large in-plane domains supports subsequent island growth. Complementary ab initio investigations suggest that VO2 nucleation and van der Waals epitaxy involves subtle polarization effects around, and the active participation of, surface potassium atoms on the mica surface. The VO2 films show a narrow domain-size-sensitive electrical-conductiv ity-temperature hysteresis. These results offer promise for tuning the properties of stress-free van der Waals epitaxial films of non-layered materials such as VO2 through microstructure control (C) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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  • 42.
    Ekström, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bourgeois, F.
    Univ Technol Blois, France.
    Lundqvist, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Caballero-Calero, O.
    CEI UAM, Spain.
    Martin-Gonzalez, M. S.
    CEI UAM, Spain.
    Klarbring, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simak, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The effects of microstructure, Nb content and secondary Ruddlesden-Popper phase on thermoelectric properties in perovskite CaMn1-xNbxO3 (x=0-0.10) thin films2020In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, RSC ADVANCES, Vol. 10, no 13, p. 7918-7926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CaMn1-xNbxO3 (x = 0, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.10) thin films have been grown by a two-step sputtering/annealing method. First, rock-salt-structured (Ca,Mn1-x,Nb-x)O thin films were deposited on 11 & x304;00 sapphire using reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from elemental targets of Ca, Mn and Nb. The CaMn1-xNbxO3 films were then obtained by thermally induced phase transformation from rock-salt-structured (Ca,Mn1-xNbx)O to orthorhombic during post-deposition annealing at 700 degrees C for 3 h in oxygen flow. The X-ray diffraction patterns of pure CaMnO3 showed mixed orientation, while Nb-containing films were epitaxially grown in [101] out of-plane-direction. Scanning transmission electron microscopy showed a Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) secondary phase in the films, which results in reduction of the electrical and thermal conductivity of CaMn1-xNbxO3. The electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of the pure CaMnO3 film were measured to 2.7 omega cm and -270 mu V K-1 at room temperature, respectively. The electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient were reduced by alloying with Nb and was measured to 0.09 omega cm and -145 mu V K-1 for x = 0.05. Yielding a power factor of 21.5 mu W K-2 m(-1) near room temperature, nearly eight times higher than for pure CaMnO3 (2.8 mu W K-2 m(-1)). The power factors for alloyed samples are low compared to other studies on phase-pure material. This is due to high electrical resistivity originating from the secondary R-P phase. The thermal conductivity of the CaMn1-xNbxO3 films is low for all samples and is the lowest for x = 0.07 and 0.10, determined to 1.6 W m(-1) K-1. The low thermal conductivity is attributed to grain boundary scattering and the secondary R-P phase.

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  • 43.
    El Ghazaly, Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahmed, Heba
    RMIT Univ, Australia.
    Rezk, Amgad R.
    RMIT Univ, Australia.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yeo, Leslie Y.
    RMIT Univ, Australia.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ultrafast, One-Step, Salt-Solution-Based Acoustic Synthesis of Ti3C2 MXene2021In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 4287-4293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current quest for two-dimensional transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) has been to circumvent the slow, hazardous, and laborious multistep synthesis procedures associated with conventional chemical MAX phase exfoliation. Here, we demonstrate a one-step synthesis method with local Ti3AlC2 MAX to Ti3C2Tz MXene conversion on the order of milliseconds, facilitated by proton production through solution dissociation under megahertz frequency acoustic excitation. These protons combined with fluorine ions from LiF to selectively etch the MAX phase into MXene, whose delamination is aided by the acoustic forcing. These results have important implications for the future applicability of MXenes, which crucially depend on the development of more efficient synthesis procedures. For proof-of-concept, we show that flexible electrodes fabricated by this method exhibit comparable electrochemical performance to that previously reported.

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  • 44.
    El Ghazaly, Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zheng, Wei
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tseng, Eric Nestor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O Å
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahmed, Bilal
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Enhanced supercapacitive performance of Mo1.33C MXene based asymmetric supercapacitors in lithium chloride electrolyte2021In: Energy Storage Materials, ISSN 2405-8289, E-ISSN 2405-8297, Vol. 41, p. 203-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional (2D) Mo1.33C MXene renders great potential for energy storage applications and is mainly studied in the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) electrolyte. However, H2SO4 limits the electrode potential to 0.9 V for symmetric devices and 1.3 V for asymmetric devices. Herein, we explore the electrochemical behavior of Mo1.33C MXene in LiCl electrolyte. In comparison to H2SO4, LiCl electrolyte is a neutral salt with high solubility at room temperature and low hazardousness. The analysis shows a volumetric capacitance of 815 Fcm(-3) at a scan rate of 2 mVs(-1) with a large operating potential window of -1.2 to +0.3V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This is further exploited to construct MXene-based asymmetric supercapacitors Mo1.33C//MnxOn, and the electrochemical performance is evaluated in 5M LiCl electrolyte. Owing to the wide voltage widow of the Mo1.33C//MnxOn devices (2V) and high packing density of the electrodes, we have achieved a volumetric energy density of 58 mWh/cm(3), a maximum power density of 31 Wcm(-3) and retained 92% of the initial capacitance after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles at 10 A g(-1). One of the main value propositions of this work, aside from the high energy density, is the outstanding columbic efficiency (100%), which ensures excellent cyclic stability and is highly desirable for practical applications.

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  • 45.
    ElMeligy, Tarek Aly
    et al.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Kota, Sankalp
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Natu, Varun
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barsoum, Michel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Synthesis, characterization, properties, first principles calculations, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of bulk Mn5SiB2 and Fe5SiB2 ternary borides2021In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 888, article id 161377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we synthesize fully dense, bulk, predominantly single-phase, polycrystalline samples of the layered ternary transition metal borides Mn5SiB2 and Fe5SiB2 by reactively hot-pressing Mn, Fe, FeB, Si, and B powders. The atomic structures were imaged using high-resolution scanning transmission electron mi-croscopy and revealed high-crystal quality. Elongated striped defects, confined below the nanometer in width, were observed. Selected area electron diffraction further accentuates the high-crystal quality by discrete spots of pattern, that is expected from a tetragonal crystal structure along the [001] zone axis. With Vickers hardness values of 12.1 +/- 0.4 GPa, and 12.7 +/- 0.1 GPa, for Mn5SiB2 and Fe5SiB2 respectively, these borides are relatively soft. The room temperature electrical resistivities were 1.5 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.1 mu Omega m, for Mn5SiB2 and Fe5SiB2, respectively. The binding energies of the Mn, Fe and Si measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy bolster the idea that the bonds are quite metallic in character. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that the ground states of both compounds are ferromagnetic as observed experimentally. We also use DFT to predict the elastic and electronic properties. In both compounds, the density of states at the Fermi level are dominated by the d-orbitals of the transition metals. Neither material was readily machinable with conventional tooling, but is so with sharp cobalt steel bits or electro-discharge machining (EDM). (C) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sasvári, Szilvia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palmquist, Jens-Petter
    Department of Material Chemistry, Uppsala University, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Material Chemistry, Uppsala University, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.
    CEIT (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas e Gipuzkoa), Spain .
    Czigány, Zsolt
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungary .
    Growth of Ti3SiC2 thin films by elemental target magnetron sputtering2004In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, no 9, p. 4817-4826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial Ti3SiC2(0001) thin films have been deposited by dc magnetron sputtering from three elemental targets of Ti, C, and Si onto MgO(111) and Al2O3(0001) substrates at temperatures of 800–900 °C. This process allows composition control to synthesize Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases (M: early transition metal; A: A-group element; X: C and∕or N; n=1–3) including Ti4SiC3. Depositions on MgO(100) substrates yielding the Ti–Si–C MAX phases with (105), as the preferred orientation. Samples grown at different substrate temperatures, studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction investigations, revealed the constraints of Ti3SiC2 nucleation due to kinetic limitations at substrate temperatures below 700 °C. Instead, there is a competitive TiCx growth with Si segregation to form twin boundaries or Si substitutional incorporation in TiCx. Physical properties of the as-deposited single-crystal Ti3SiC2 films were determined. A low resistivity of 25 μΩ cm was measured. The Young’s modulus, ascertained by nanoindentation, yielded a value of 343–370 GPa. For the mechanical deformation response of the material, probing with cube corner and Berkovich indenters showed an initial high hardness of almost 30 GPa. With increased maximum indentation loads, the hardness was observed to decrease toward bulk values as the characteristic kink formation sets in with dislocation ordering and delamination at basal planes.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Truong, Anh H. T.
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Brommesson, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Du Rietz, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kokil, Ganesh R.
    Univ Queensland, Australia.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Plasma and Coating Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dang, Tram T.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Surface Physics and Nano Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles with Entrapped Gadolinium for High T-1 Relaxivity and ROS-Scavenging Purposes2022In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 7, no 24, p. 21337-21345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gadolinium chelates are employed worldwide today as clinical contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Until now, the commonly used linear contrast agents based on the rare-earth element gadolinium have been considered safe and well-tolerated. Recently, concerns regarding this type of contrast agent have been reported, which is why there is an urgent need to develop the next generation of stable contrast agents with enhanced spin-lattice relaxation, as measured by improved T-1 relaxivity at lower doses. Here, we show that by the integration of gadolinium ions in cerium oxide nanoparticles, a stable crystalline 5 nm sized nanoparticulate system with a homogeneous gadolinium ion distribution is obtained. These cerium oxide nanoparticles with entrapped gadolinium deliver strong T-1 relaxivity per gadolinium ion (T-1 relaxivity, r(1) = 12.0 mM(-1) s(-1)) with the potential to act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The presence of Ce3+ sites and oxygen vacancies at the surface plays a critical role in providing the antioxidant properties. The characterization of radial distribution of Ce3+ and Ce4+ oxidation states indicated a higher concentration of Ce3+ at the nanoparticle surfaces. Additionally, we investigated the ROS-scavenging capabilities of pure gadolinium-containing cerium oxide nanoparticles by bioluminescent imaging in vivo, where inhibitory effects on ROS activity are shown.

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  • 48.
    Etman, Ahmed
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dorri, Megan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Computationally Driven Discovery of Quaternary Tantalum-Based MAB-Phases: Ta4M & DPRIME;SiB2 (M & DPRIME; = V, Cr, or Mo): Synthesis, Characterization, and Elastic Properties2023In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 4442-4447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Out-of-plane chemically ordered transitionmetal boride(o-MAB) phases, Ta4M & DPRIME;SiB2 (M & DPRIME; = V, Cr), and a structurally equivalent disordered solidsolution MAB phase, Ta4MoSiB2, are synthesized.DFT calculations are used to examine the dynamic stability, elasticproperties, and electronic density states of the MAB phases. We report on the synthesis of computationally predictedout-of-planechemically ordered transition metal borides labeled o-MAB phases, Ta4M & DPRIME;SiB2 (M & DPRIME; =V, Cr), and a structurally equivalent disordered solid solution MABphase Ta4MoSiB2. The boride phases were preparedusing solid-state reaction sintering of the constituting elements.High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy along withRietveld refinement of the powder-X-ray diffraction patterns revealedthat the synthesized o-MAB phases Ta4CrSiB2 (98 wt % purity) and Ta4VSiB2 (81 wt% purity) possess chemical ordering with Ta preferentially residingin the 16l position and Cr and V in the 4c position, whereas Ta4MoSiB2 (46wt % purity) was concluded to form a disordered solid solution. Densityfunctional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate thedynamic stability, elastic properties, and electronic density statesfor the MAB phases, confirming the stability and suggesting the boridesbased on Cr and Mo to be stiffer than those based on V and Nb.

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  • 49.
    Fallqvist, Amie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fager, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Self-organization during Growth of ZrN/SiNx Multilayers by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth2013In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 114, no 224302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrN/SiNx nanoscale multilayers were deposited on ZrN seed layers grown on top of MgO(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering with a constant ZrN thickness of 40 Å and with an intended SiNx thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 15 Å at a substrate temperature of 800 °C and 6 Å at 500 °C. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigations show that the SiNx is amorphous and that the ZrN layers are crystalline. Growth of epitaxial cubic SiNx – known to take place on TiN(001) – on ZrN(001) is excluded to the monolayer resolution of this study. During the course of SiNx deposition, the material segregates to form surface precipitates in discontinuous layers for SiNx thicknesses ≤ 6 Å that coalesce into continuous layers for 8 and 15 Å thickness at 800 °C, and for 6 Å at 500 °C. The SiNx precipitates are aligned vertically. The ZrN layers in turn grow by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on the discontinuous SiNx in samples deposited at 800 °C with up to 6 Å thick SiNx layers. Effectively a self-organized nanostructure can be grown consisting of strings of 1-3 nm large SiNx precipitates along apparent column boundaries in the epitaxial ZrN.

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  • 50.
    Fallqvist, Amie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olovsson, Weine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Max Planck Inst Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Belov, M. P.
    Natl Univ Sci and Technol MISIS, Russia.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Resolving the debated atomic structure of the metastable cubic SiNx tissue phase in nanocomposites with TiN2018In: Physical Review Materials, E-ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 2, no 9, article id 093608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TiN/SiNx nanocomposite and nanolaminate systems are the archetype for super if not ultrahard materials. Yet, the nature of the SiNx tissue phase is debated. Here, we show by atomically resolved electron microscopy methods that SiNx is epitaxially stabilized in a NaCl structure on the adjacent TiN(001) surfaces. Additionally, electron energy loss spectroscopy, supported by first-principles density functional theory calculations infer that SiNx hosts Si vacancies.

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