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  • 1. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ekman, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Important Factors for Accurate Scale-Resolving Simulations of Automotive Aerodynamics2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road transports are responsible for almost 18 % of the greenhouse gas emission in Europe and are today the leading cause of air pollution in cities. Aerodynamic resistance has a significant effect on fuel consumption and hence the emission of vehicles. For electric vehicles, emissions are not affected by the aerodynamics as such but instead have a significant effect on the effective range of the vehicle.

    In 2017, a new measurement procedure was introduced, Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), for measuring emissions, fuel consumption, and range. This procedure includes a new test cycle with increased average driving speed compared to the former procedure, which thereby increases the importance of the aerodynamic resistance, as it drastically increases with speed. A second effect is that the exact car configuration sold to the customer needs to be certified in terms of fuel consumption and emissions. The result is that every possible combination of optional extras, which might affect the aerodynamic resistance, needs to be aerodynamically analyzed and possibly improved. From 2021, the European Commission will introduce stricter emission regulations for new passenger cars, with the fleet-wide average lowered to 95 grams CO2=km, which puts an even higher demand on achieving efficient aerodynamics.

    Virtual development of the aerodynamics of road vehicles is today used to a great extent, using Computational Fluid Dynamics, as it enables faster and cheaper development. However, achieving high accuracy for the prediction of the flow field and aerodynamic forces is challenging, especially given the complexity of both the vehicle geometry in itself and the surrounding flow field. Even for a simplified generic bluff body, accurately predicting the flow field and aerodynamic forces is a challenge. The main reason for this challenge of achieving results with high accuracy is the prediction of the complex behavior of turbulence. Scale-resolving simulation (SRS) methods, such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), where most of the turbulent structures are resolved has in many studies shown high accuracy but unfortunately to a very high computational cost. It is primarily the small turbulent structures within the near-wall region that requires a _ne resolution in both space (the mesh) and in time. This fine resolution is the reason for the very high computational cost and makes LES unfeasible for practical use in industrial aerodynamic development at present and in the near future. By modeling the turbulent structures within the near-wall region using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, and resolving the turbulence outside the region with a LES model, a coarser resolution is possible to use, resulting in significantly lower computational cost. Which used RANS model is of high importance, and especially how much turbulent viscosity the model generates, as too high values can result in suppression of the resolved turbulence.

    The transitioning between the RANS and LES regions have a significant effect on the results. Faster transition enables more resolved turbulence, favorable for higher accuracy, but needs to be balanced with sufficient shielding of the RANS region. If resolving the turbulence occurs within the near-wall region, and the mesh is not sufficiently fine, it can result in poor accuracy.

    By increasing the time-step size and disregarding best-practice guides, the computational cost can be significantly reduced. The accuracy is reasonably insensitive to the larger time step sizes until a certain degree, thereby enabling computationally cheaper SRS to achieve high accuracy of aerodynamic predictions needed to meet present and future emission regulations.

    List of papers
    1. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction - from Conceptual Design on a Simplified Generic Model to Full-Scale Road Tests
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerodynamic Drag Reduction - from Conceptual Design on a Simplified Generic Model to Full-Scale Road Tests
    2015 (English)In: SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE International , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road transportation by trucks is the major part of the goods transportations system in the European Union (EU), and there is a need for increased fuel efficiency. While truck manufacturers already spend significant resources in order to reduce the emissions from their vehicles, most truck manufacturers do not control the shape of the trailer and/or swap bodies. These devices are usually manufactured by different companies that cannot consider the overall aerodynamics around the complete vehicle.By use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and previous wind tunnel experiments, the flow around a simplified generic tractor-trailer model has been investigated. With better understanding of the flow features around the tractor with attached trailer or swap bodies, an improved design of the trailer and swap body can be achieved, which is the aim for the project. Special emphasis is put on achieving simple, easy to install or implement drag-reducing geometrical modifications to the trailer or swap bodies that can be mounted on existing trucks.Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were used for the conceptual development phase where trends in drag reduction due to the modified geometries were studied using a parameter study, while more advanced scale resolving simulations (SRS) were used in order to investigate the details of the flow fields.The investigation indicates that aerodynamic drag reduction is possible with quite simple geometrical modifications. Some of the results have also been verified through road tests of vehicles in commercial use, which has shown reduced fuel consumption of up to 5%.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAE International, 2015
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164920 (URN)10.4271/2015-01-1543 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Light Truck - from Conceptual Design to Full Scale Road Tests
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Light Truck - from Conceptual Design to Full Scale Road Tests
    2016 (English)In: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, SAE International , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable amounts of the everyday goods transports are done using light trucks. In the last ten years (2005-2015), the number of light trucks has increased by 33 % in Sweden. The majority of these light trucks are fitted with a swap body and encounter the same problem as many other truck configurations, namely that several different manufacturers contribute to the final shape of the vehicle. Due to this, the aerodynamics of the final vehicle is often not fully considered. Hence there appears to be room for improving the aerodynamic performance. In this study the flow around a swap body fitted to a light truck has been investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The focus has been on improving the shape of the swap body in order to reduce both the aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption, while still keeping it usable for daily operations. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations were used for concept evaluation while more advanced Detached Eddy Simulations were performed on the best concept in order to investigate details of the flow. Various concepts were evaluated from which it could be seen that a more streamlined top of the swap body together with a lowered top trailing edge had a significant positive effect on the aerodynamic drag. A full scale light truck was equipped with a swap body with with these modifications for road tests. During a test period, a mean fuel consumption reduction of 12 % was measured, thus indicating a significantly reduced aerodynamic drag.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAE International, 2016
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164923 (URN)10.4271/2016-01-1594 (DOI)
    Conference
    SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Aerodynamics of an Unloaded Timber Truck - A CFD Investigation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aerodynamics of an Unloaded Timber Truck - A CFD Investigation
    2016 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, ISSN 1946-391X, E-ISSN 1946-3928, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy consumption and emissions are ongoing challenges for the transport sector. The increased number of goods transports emphasize these challenges even more, as greenhouse gas emissions from these vehicles increased by 20 % between 1990 and 2013, in Sweden. One special case of goods transports is the transport of timber. Today in Sweden, around 2000 timber trucks transport around six billion ton kilometers every year. For every ton kilometer these vehicles use around 0.025 liter diesel, and there should exist large possibilities to reduce the fuel consumption and the emissions for these vehicles. Timber trucks spend most of their operation time travelling in speeds of around 80 km/h. At this speed aerodynamic drag contributes to around 30 % of the total vehicle resistance, which makes the aerodynamic drag a significant part of the energy consumption. One of the big challenges with timber trucks is that they travel unloaded half of the time. This put higher demands on possible drag reduction modifications, as they need to function and be practical for both when the timber truck is loaded and unloaded. In this study an unloaded timber truck has been investigated by use of computational fluid dynamics. The recently released Stress Blended Eddy Simulation model has been used for simulating the flow over a timber truck at a Reynolds number of 1.1 million, based on the square root of its frontal area. From the results it could be seen that 52.8 % of the drag is generated by the cab. By investigating a drag reduction device that covered the gap between the bulkhead and the first stake pair, a drag reduction up to 6.7 % was possible, which shows potential for simple modifications that not influence the daily usage.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAE INT, 2016
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163998 (URN)10.4271/2016-01-8022 (DOI)000389233800010 ()
    Available from: 2020-03-05 Created: 2020-03-05 Last updated: 2020-04-02
    4. Accuracy and Speed for Scale-Resolving Simulations of the DrivAer Reference Model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accuracy and Speed for Scale-Resolving Simulations of the DrivAer Reference Model
    2019 (English)In: WCX SAE World Congress Experience, SAE International , 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aerodynamic development of ground vehicles, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is crucial for improving the aerodynamic performance, stability and comfort of the vehicle. Simulation time and accuracy are two key factors of a well working CFD procedure. Using scale-resolving simulations, accurate predictions of the flow field and aerodynamic forces are possible, but often leads to long simulation time. For a given solver, one of the most significant aspects of the simulation time/cost is the temporal resolution. In this study, this aspect is investigated using the realistic vehicle model DrivAer with the notchback geometry as the test case. To ensure a direct and accurate comparison with wind tunnel measurements, performed at TU Berlin, a large section of the wind tunnel is included in the simulation domain. All simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of 3.12 million, based on the vehicle length. Three spatial resolutions were compared, where it could be seen that a hybrid element mesh consisting of 102 million cells only revealed small differences to the finest mesh investigated, well as showing excellent agreement with wind tunnel measurements. An investigation of the temporal resolution is performed, in order to see its effect on the simulation time/cost and accuracy of the results. The finest temporal resolution resulted in a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number less than unity, while the coarsest reached a CFL number of around 100. From these results, it is seen that it is possible to reduce the simulation time with more than 90 % (CFL 20) and still keep sufficient accuracy of the forces and important features of the flow field.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    SAE International, 2019
    National Category
    Vehicle Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164924 (URN)10.4271/2019-01-0639 (DOI)
    Conference
    WCX SAE World Congress Experience
    Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2020-04-02Bibliographically approved
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  • 2.
    Ekman, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gårdhagen, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Virdung, Torbjorn
    ANSYS, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of a Light Truck - from Conceptual Design to Full Scale Road Tests2016In: SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition, SAE International , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable amounts of the everyday goods transports are done using light trucks. In the last ten years (2005-2015), the number of light trucks has increased by 33 % in Sweden. The majority of these light trucks are fitted with a swap body and encounter the same problem as many other truck configurations, namely that several different manufacturers contribute to the final shape of the vehicle. Due to this, the aerodynamics of the final vehicle is often not fully considered. Hence there appears to be room for improving the aerodynamic performance. In this study the flow around a swap body fitted to a light truck has been investigated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. The focus has been on improving the shape of the swap body in order to reduce both the aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption, while still keeping it usable for daily operations. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations were used for concept evaluation while more advanced Detached Eddy Simulations were performed on the best concept in order to investigate details of the flow. Various concepts were evaluated from which it could be seen that a more streamlined top of the swap body together with a lowered top trailing edge had a significant positive effect on the aerodynamic drag. A full scale light truck was equipped with a swap body with with these modifications for road tests. During a test period, a mean fuel consumption reduction of 12 % was measured, thus indicating a significantly reduced aerodynamic drag.

  • 3.
    Ekman, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gårdhagen, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Virdung, Torbjorn
    ANSYS Sweden, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aerodynamics of an Unloaded Timber Truck - A CFD Investigation2016In: SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles, ISSN 1946-391X, E-ISSN 1946-3928, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 217-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy consumption and emissions are ongoing challenges for the transport sector. The increased number of goods transports emphasize these challenges even more, as greenhouse gas emissions from these vehicles increased by 20 % between 1990 and 2013, in Sweden. One special case of goods transports is the transport of timber. Today in Sweden, around 2000 timber trucks transport around six billion ton kilometers every year. For every ton kilometer these vehicles use around 0.025 liter diesel, and there should exist large possibilities to reduce the fuel consumption and the emissions for these vehicles. Timber trucks spend most of their operation time travelling in speeds of around 80 km/h. At this speed aerodynamic drag contributes to around 30 % of the total vehicle resistance, which makes the aerodynamic drag a significant part of the energy consumption. One of the big challenges with timber trucks is that they travel unloaded half of the time. This put higher demands on possible drag reduction modifications, as they need to function and be practical for both when the timber truck is loaded and unloaded. In this study an unloaded timber truck has been investigated by use of computational fluid dynamics. The recently released Stress Blended Eddy Simulation model has been used for simulating the flow over a timber truck at a Reynolds number of 1.1 million, based on the square root of its frontal area. From the results it could be seen that 52.8 % of the drag is generated by the cab. By investigating a drag reduction device that covered the gap between the bulkhead and the first stake pair, a drag reduction up to 6.7 % was possible, which shows potential for simple modifications that not influence the daily usage.

  • 4.
    Ekman, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gårdhagen, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Virdung, Torbjörn
    ANSYS, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Aerodynamic Drag Reduction - from Conceptual Design on a Simplified Generic Model to Full-Scale Road Tests2015In: SAE 2015 World Congress & Exhibition, SAE International , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road transportation by trucks is the major part of the goods transportations system in the European Union (EU), and there is a need for increased fuel efficiency. While truck manufacturers already spend significant resources in order to reduce the emissions from their vehicles, most truck manufacturers do not control the shape of the trailer and/or swap bodies. These devices are usually manufactured by different companies that cannot consider the overall aerodynamics around the complete vehicle.By use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and previous wind tunnel experiments, the flow around a simplified generic tractor-trailer model has been investigated. With better understanding of the flow features around the tractor with attached trailer or swap bodies, an improved design of the trailer and swap body can be achieved, which is the aim for the project. Special emphasis is put on achieving simple, easy to install or implement drag-reducing geometrical modifications to the trailer or swap bodies that can be mounted on existing trucks.Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were used for the conceptual development phase where trends in drag reduction due to the modified geometries were studied using a parameter study, while more advanced scale resolving simulations (SRS) were used in order to investigate the details of the flow fields.The investigation indicates that aerodynamic drag reduction is possible with quite simple geometrical modifications. Some of the results have also been verified through road tests of vehicles in commercial use, which has shown reduced fuel consumption of up to 5%.

  • 5.
    Ekman, Petter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Virdung, Torbjörn
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sverige.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Accuracy and Speed for Scale-Resolving Simulations of the DrivAer Reference Model2019In: WCX SAE World Congress Experience, SAE International , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aerodynamic development of ground vehicles, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is crucial for improving the aerodynamic performance, stability and comfort of the vehicle. Simulation time and accuracy are two key factors of a well working CFD procedure. Using scale-resolving simulations, accurate predictions of the flow field and aerodynamic forces are possible, but often leads to long simulation time. For a given solver, one of the most significant aspects of the simulation time/cost is the temporal resolution. In this study, this aspect is investigated using the realistic vehicle model DrivAer with the notchback geometry as the test case. To ensure a direct and accurate comparison with wind tunnel measurements, performed at TU Berlin, a large section of the wind tunnel is included in the simulation domain. All simulations are performed at a Reynolds number of 3.12 million, based on the vehicle length. Three spatial resolutions were compared, where it could be seen that a hybrid element mesh consisting of 102 million cells only revealed small differences to the finest mesh investigated, well as showing excellent agreement with wind tunnel measurements. An investigation of the temporal resolution is performed, in order to see its effect on the simulation time/cost and accuracy of the results. The finest temporal resolution resulted in a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number less than unity, while the coarsest reached a CFL number of around 100. From these results, it is seen that it is possible to reduce the simulation time with more than 90 % (CFL 20) and still keep sufficient accuracy of the forces and important features of the flow field.

  • 6.
    Johannes, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekman, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huge-Brodin, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Matts
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sustainable Timber Transport: Economic Aspects of Aerodynamic Reconfiguration2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to reduce fuel consumption, and thereby reduce CO2-emissions in all parts of the transport sector. It is also well known that aerodynamic resistance affects the fuel consumption in a major way. By improving the aerodynamics of the vehicles, the fuel consumption will also decrease. A special type of transportation is that of timber, which is performed by specialized trucks with few alternative uses. This paper follows up on earlier papers concerning Swedish timber trucks where aerodynamic improvements for timber trucks were tested. By mapping the entire fleet of timber trucks in Sweden and investigating reduced fuel consumption of 2–10%, financial calculations were performed on how these improvements would affect the transport costs. Certain parameters are investigated, such as investment cost, extra changeover time and weight of installments. By combining these results with the mapping of the fleet, it can be seen under which circumstances these improvements would be sustainable. The results show that it is possible through aerodynamics to lower the transportation costs and make an investment plausible, with changeover time being the most important parameter. They also show that certain criteria for a reduced transportation cost already exist within the vehicle fleet today.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Renner, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Storck, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekman, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Real-world Engineering Projects in a Master Level Course2016In: Proceedings of the International CDIO Conference, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world engineering projects are problems supplied by industry or institutions that is not primarily intended only as an educational exercise but are rooted in a relevant engineering issue. These projects are incorporated as an important part of a six ECTS-credits master course in computational heat-transfer. Normally 70-80 students attend the course and are typically allowed to choose among four to five different projects. Overall impression is that the inclusion of these engineering problems results in higher level of questions, skills and motivation of the students.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
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