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  • 1.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knight, Sean Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tran, Dat
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Richter, Steffen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stokey, Megan
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Sorensen, Preston
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Kilic, Ufuk
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden; Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Electron effective mass in GaN revisited: New insights from terahertz and mid-infrared optical Hall effect2024In: APL Materials, E-ISSN 2166-532X, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 021114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron effective mass is a fundamental material parameter defining the free charge carrier transport properties, but it is very challenging to be experimentally determined at high temperatures relevant to device operation. In this work, we obtain the electron effective mass parameters in a Si-doped GaN bulk substrate and epitaxial layers from terahertz (THz) and mid-infrared (MIR) optical Hall effect (OHE) measurements in the temperature range of 38-340 K. The OHE data are analyzed using the well-accepted Drude model to account for the free charge carrier contributions. A strong temperature dependence of the electron effective mass parameter in both bulk and epitaxial GaN with values ranging from (0.18 +/- 0.02) m(0) to (0.34 +/- 0.01) m(0) at a low temperature (38 K) and room temperature, respectively, is obtained from the THz OHE analysis. The observed effective mass enhancement with temperature is evaluated and discussed in view of conduction band nonparabolicity, polaron effect, strain, and deviations from the classical Drude behavior. On the other hand, the electron effective mass parameter determined by MIR OHE is found to be temperature independent with a value of (0.200 +/- 0.002) m(0). A possible explanation for the different findings from THz OHE and MIR OHE is proposed. (c) 2024 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)

  • 2. Arnaudov, B.
    et al.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Iwaya, M.
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I.
    Radiative recombination mechanism in highly modulation doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells2006In: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 6, p. 1888-1891Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Arnaudov, B.
    et al.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Lu, H.
    Schaff, W.J.
    On the nature of the near bandedge luminescence of InN epitaxial layers2005In: AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X, E-ISSN 1551-7616, Vol. 772, p. 285-286Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Arnaudov, B
    et al.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Valcheva, E
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Lu, H
    Schaff, WJ
    Amano, H
    Akasaki, I
    Energy position of near-band-edge emission spectra of InN epitaxial layers with different doping levels2004In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 69, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the shape and energy position of near-band-edge photoluminescence spectra of InN epitaxial layers with different doping levels. We found that the experimental spectra of InN layers with moderate doping level can be nicely interpreted in the frames of the "free-to-bound" recombination model in degenerate semiconductors. For carrier concentrations above n>5x10(18) cm(-3) the emission spectra can also be modeled satisfactorily, but a contribution due to a pushing up of nonequilibrium holes over the thermal delocalization level in the valence band tails should be considered in the model. The emission spectra of samples with low doping level were instead explained as a recombination from the bottom of the conduction band to a shallow acceptor assuming the same value of the acceptor binding energy estimated from the spectra of highly doped samples. Analyzing the shape and energy position of the free-electron recombination spectra we determined the carrier concentrations responsible for the emissions and found that the fundamental band gap energy of InN is E-g=692+/-2 meV for an effective mass at the conduction-band minimum m(n0)=0.042m(0).

  • 5.
    Arnaudov, B.
    et al.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 J. Bourchier Blvd, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Valcheva, E.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 J. Bourchier Blvd, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Lu, H.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaka, NY 14583, United States.
    Schaff, W.J.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaka, NY 14583, United States.
    Amano, H.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Meijo University, I-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoia 468, Japan.
    Akasaki, I.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Meijo University, I-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoia 468, Japan.
    Free-to-bound radiative recombination in highly conducting InN epitaxial layers2004In: Superlattices and Microstructures, ISSN 0749-6036, E-ISSN 1096-3677, Vol. 36, no 4-6, p. 563-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a theoretical simulation of near-band-edge emission spectra of highly conducting n-InN assuming the model of 'free-to-bound' radiative recombination (FBRR) of degenerate electrons from the conduction band with nonequilibrium holes located in the valence band tails. We also study experimental photoluminescence (PL) spectra of highly conducting InN epitaxial layers grown by MBE and MOVPE with electron concentrations in the range (7.7 × 1017-6 × 1018) cm-3 and find that the energy positions and shape of the spectra depend on the impurity concentration. By modeling the experimental PL spectra of the InN layers we show that spectra can be nicely interpreted in the framework of the FBRR model with specific peculiarities for different doping levels. Analyzing simultaneously the shape and energy position of the InN emission spectra we determine the fundamental bandgap energy of InN to vary between Eg = 692 meV for effective mass mn0 = 0.042m0 and Eg =710 meV for mn0 = 0.1m0. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Arnaudov, B.
    et al.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Valassiades, O.
    Aristoteles Univ. of Thessaloniki, Solid State Physics Section, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Evtimova, S.
    Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Heuken, M.
    AIXTRON AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Magnetic-field-induced localization of electrons in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, no 13, p. 2590-2592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was performed on the magnetic-field-induced localization of electrons in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW). A stepwise behavior of both the Hall coefficient and magnetoresistivity was observed. The peculiarities were explained by a magnetic-field-induced localization of electrons in a two-dimensional (2D) potential relief of the InGaN MQW.

  • 7.
    Arwin, Hans
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Schubert, Mattias
    Department of Electrical Engineering University of Nebraska.
    Figge, S
    Hommel, D
    Haskell, B A
    Fini, P T
    Nakamura, S
    Assessment of phonon mode characteristics via infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry on a-plane GaN2005In: ICSN-6,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bartos, I.
    et al.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Romanyuk, O.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Houdkova, J.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Carolina State University, NC 27606 USA.
    Paskova, T.
    N Carolina State University, NC 27606 USA.
    Jiricek, P.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Correction: Electron band bending of polar, semipolar and non-polar GaN surfaces (vol 119, 105303, 2016)2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, no 15, p. 159901-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 9.
    Bartos, I.
    et al.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Romanyuk, O.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Houdkova, J.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Carolina State University, NC 27695 USA.
    Paskova, T.
    N Carolina State University, NC 27695 USA.
    Jiricek, P.
    Academic Science Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
    Electron band bending of polar, semipolar and non-polar GaN surfaces2016In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, no 10, p. 105303-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnitudes of the surface band bending have been determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for polar, semipolar, and non-polar surfaces of wurtzite GaN crystals. All surfaces have been prepared from crystalline GaN samples grown by the hydride-vapour phase epitaxy and separated from sapphire substrates. The Ga 3d core level peak shifts have been used for band bending determination. Small band bending magnitudes and also relatively small difference between the band bendings of the surfaces with opposite polarity have been found. These results point to the presence of electron surface states of different amounts and types on surfaces of different polarity and confirm the important role of the electron surface states in compensation of the bound surface polarity charges in wurtzite GaN crystals. (C) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 10.
    Blumenschein, N.
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Slomski, M.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Paskov, Plamen P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. North Carolina State University, USA.
    Kaess, F.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Breckenridge, M.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Muth, J. F.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Paskova, T.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Thermal conductivity of bulk and thin film β-Ga2O3 measured by the 3ω technique2018In: Oxide-based Materials and Devices IX / [ed] David J. Rogers, David C. Look, Ferechteh H. Teharani, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018, Vol. 10533, p. 105332G-1-105332G-8Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Darakchieva, V.
    et al.
    IFM Linköpings universitet.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Schubert, Mattias
    Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenshaften Universität Leipzig.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Amano, H.
    Dept of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Meijo University, Japan.
    Akasaki, I.
    Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Meijo University, Japan.
    Strain evolution and phonons in AlN/GaN superlattices2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AlN/GaN superlattices (SLs) with different periods grown on GaN buffer layers were studied by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE), Raman scattering (RS) and high-resolution reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The lattice parameters and the degree of strain in the GaN buffer and the SL constituents were determined. Phonon modes originating from the buffer layer and the SL sublayers were identified and their frequency shifts were correlated with the strain state of the films.

  • 12.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Tungasmita, Sukkaneste
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Strain evolution in high temperature AlN buffer layers for HVPE-GaN growth2002In: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396X, Vol. 190, no 1, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature AlN buffer layers are deposited on a-plane sapphire by reactive magnetron sputtering. The effect of the buffer thickness on the AlN structural properties and surface morphology are studied in correlation with the subsequent hydride vapour phase epitaxy of GaN. A minimum degree of mosaicity and screw dislocation density is determined for a 50 nm thick AlN buffer. With increasing the AlN thickness, a strain relaxation occurs as a result of misfit dislocation generation and higher degree of mosaicity. A blue shift of the E-1(TO) frequency evaluated by means of infrared reflection spectroscopy is linearly correlated with an increase in biaxial compressive stress in the films through the IR stress factor k(E1)(b) = 2.57 +/- 0.26 cm(-1) GPa(-1).

  • 13.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics.
    Tungasmita, Sukkaneste
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Deformation potentials of the E-1(TO) mode in AlN2002In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 80, no 13, p. 2302-2304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation potentials of the E-1(TO) mode in AlN are experimentally determined by combining infrared reflection spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements and using a reported value of the Raman-stress factor for hydrostatically stressed bulk AlN. The deformation potentials are found to strongly depend on published stiffness constants of AlN. A comparison with earlier theoretically calculated values of the deformation potentials is made. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 14.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Valcheva, E.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Heuken, M.
    Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Lattice parameters of GaN layers grown on a-plane sapphire: Effect of in-plane strain anisotropy2003In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 82, no 5, p. 703-705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice parameters of GaN layers grown on a-plane sapphire were investigated. The hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were used for the determination of parameters. The strain anisotropy was found to have different values in the films and obtained values of parameters were grouped around two values.

  • 15.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Valcheva, E
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Schubert, M
    Lu, H
    Schaff, W.J.
    Deformation potentials of the E1 (TO) and E2 modes of InN2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, no 18, p. 3636-3638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The determination of deformation potentials of E1(TO) and E 2 modes of InN were discussed. The deformation potentials were evaluated for two sets of stiffness constants using x-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE), Raman scattering, and Grüneisen parameter values. The InN layer were grown on GaN buffer layers on (0001) sapphire by molecular beam epitaxy. It was found that the strain-free values of the InN E1(TO) mode was 477.9 cm-1 and 491.9 cm -1 for the E2 modes.

  • 16.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Valcheva, E.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Schubert, M.
    Fak. F. Physik and Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Bundesmann, C.
    Fak. F. Physik and Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Lu, H.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.
    Schaff, W.J.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United States.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Infrared ellipsometry and Raman studies of hexagonal InN films: Correlation between strain and vibrational properties2004In: Superlattices and Microstructures, ISSN 0749-6036, E-ISSN 1096-3677, Vol. 36, no 4-6, p. 573-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vibrational properties of InN films with different strain have been studied using Infrared ellipsometry and Raman scattering spectroscopy. We have established a correlation between the phonon mode parameters and the strain, which allows the determination of the deformation potentials and the strain-free frequencies of the InN E1(TO) and E2 modes. The LO phonons and their coupling to the free-carrier plasmon excitations are also discussed in relation to the carrier concentration in the films. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskova, T.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Schubert, M.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588, United States.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hommel, D.
    Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Heuken, M.
    Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Off, J.
    Institute of Physics 4, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Haskell, B.A.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.
    Fini, P.T.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.
    Speck, J.S.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.
    Nakamura, S.
    Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, United States.
    Effect of anisotropic strain on phonons in a-plane and c-plane GaN layers2007In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 300, no 1, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied phonons in two types of anisotropically strained GaN films: c-plane GaN films grown on a-plane sapphire and a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire. The anisotropic strain in the films is determined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) in different measuring geometries and the phonon parameters have been assessed by generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (GIRSE). The effect of strain anisotropy on GaN phonon frequencies is presented and the phonon deformation potentials aA1 (TO), bA1 (TO), cE1 (TO) and cE1 (LO) are determined. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Schubert, M
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Figge, S
    Hommel, D
    Haskell, BA
    Fini, PT
    Nakamura, S
    Assessment of phonon mode characteristics via infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry on a-plane GaN2006In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 243, no 7, p. 1594-1598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry was applied to study the vibrational properties of anisotropically strained a-plane GaN films with different thicknesses. We have established a correlation between the phonon mode parameters and the strain, which allows the determination of the deformation potentials and strain-free frequency of the GaN A,(TO) mode. These results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental findings and discussed.

  • 19.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ashkenov, N.
    Fak. fur Phy. and Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Schubert, M.
    Fak. fur Phy. and Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Residual strain in HVPE GaN free-standing and re-grown homoepitaxial layers2003In: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396X, Vol. 195, no 3, p. 516-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice parameters of as-grown hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN layers on sapphire, free-standing layers after the substrate lift-off, and homoepitaxial layers grown on the free-standing layers are measured. The in-plane and out-of-plane strains are calculated. It is found that the substrate removal leads to strain relaxation in the crack-free GaN free-standing layers to a certain extent. A small increase of the strain in the GaN homoepitaxial layers compared to the free-standing layers is observed. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and imaging, photoluminescence (PL) and Raman measurements are used as complementary tools in the residual strain analysis.

  • 20.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ashkenov, N.
    Schubert, M.
    Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates2005In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 013517-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE)-GaN quasisubstrates in relation to their structural properties. Layers grown on single-layer metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) templates and on epitaxial lateral overgrown MOVPE templates are characterized by Raman scattering, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space mapping. The strain relaxation in the films versus their thickness was found to proceed similarly in the GaN samples grown using the two types of templates but the strain saturates at different nonzero levels. The lattice parameters of relatively thin HVPE-GaN free-standing quasisubstrates indicate that no total strain relaxation is achieved after the sapphire removal. The lattice parameters of the thick quasisubstrates grown on different templates are not affected by the separation process and are found to have values very close to the reference strain-free lattice parameters of GaN powder. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  • 21.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Schubert, M.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hommel, D.
    Off, J.
    Scholz, F.
    Heuken, M.
    Haskell, B.A.
    Fini, P.T.
    Speck, S.J.
    Nakamura, S.
    Anisotropic strain and phonon deformation potentials in GaN2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 75, no 19, p. 195217-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report optical phonon frequency studies in anisotropically strained c -plane- and a -plane-oriented GaN films by generalized infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The anisotropic strain in the films is obtained from high-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements. Experimental evidence for splitting of the GaN E1 (TO), E1 (LO), and E2 phonons under anisotropic strain in the basal plane is presented, and their phonon deformation potentials c E1 (TO), c E1 (LO), and c E2 are determined. A distinct correlation between anisotropic strain and the A1 (TO) and E1 (LO) frequencies of a -plane GaN films reveals the a A1 (TO), b A1 (TO), a E1 (LO), and b E1 (LO) phonon deformation potentials. The a A1 (TO) and b A1 (TO) are found to be in very good agreement with previous results from Raman experiments. Our a A1 (TO) and a E1 (LO) phonon deformation potentials agree well with recently reported theoretical estimations, while b A1 (TO) and b E1 (LO) are found to be significantly larger than the theoretical values. A discussion of the observed differences is presented. © 2007 The American Physical Society.

  • 22.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Valcheva, E.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schubert, M.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I.
    Phonon mode behavior in strained wurtzite AlN/GaN superlattices2005In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 71, no 11, p. 115329-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied phonons in AlN/GaN superlattices with different periods but a constant well-to-barrier ratio using a combination of infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The strain evolution in the superlattice structures is assessed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and reciprocal space mapping. We have identified E1(TO), A 1(LO) and E2 localized, and E1(LO) and A 1(TO) delocalized superlattice modes. The dependencies of their frequencies on in-plane strain are analyzed and discussed, and the strain-free frequencies of the superlattice modes are estimated. A good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the case of GaN localized modes, while large deviations between theoretically estimated and experimentally determined frequency shifts are observed for the AlN localized modes. The delocalization effect on the A1(TO) and E1(LO) phonons, as well as the free-carrier effect on the E1(LO) phonon are also discussed. ©2005 The American Physical Society.

  • 23.
    Delgado Carrascon, Rosalia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Richter, Steffen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Nawaz, Muhammad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hitachi Energy, Sweden.
    Paskov, Plamen P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hot-Wall MOCVD for High-Quality Homoepitaxy of GaN: Understanding Nucleation and Design of Growth Strategies2022In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 7021-7030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thick GaN layers with a low concentration of defects are the key to enable next-generation vertical power electronic devices. Here, we explore hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for the development of GaN homoepitaxy. We propose a new approach to grow high quality homoepitaxial GaN in N2-rich carrier gas and at a higher supersaturation as compared to heteroepitaxy. We develop a low temperature GaN as an optimum nucleation scheme based on the evolution and thermal stability of the GaN surface under different gas compositions and temperatures. Analysis in the framework of nucleation theory of homoepitaxial layers simultaneously grown on GaN templates on SiC and on hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates is presented. We show that residual strain and screw dislocation densities affect GaN nucleation and subsequent growth leading to distinctively different morphologies of GaN homoepitaxial layers grown on GaN templates and native substrates, respectively. The established comprehensive picture provides a guidance for designing strategies for growth conditions optimization in GaN homoepitaxy. GaN with atomically flat and smooth epilayer surfaces with a root-mean-square roughness value as low as 0.049 nm and low background carbon concentration of 5.3 x 1015 cm-3 has been achieved. It is also shown that there is no generation of additional dislocations during homoepitaxial growth. Thus, our results demonstrate the potential of the hot-wall MOCVD technique to deliver high-quality GaN material for vertical power devices.

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  • 24.
    Delgado Carrascon, Rosalia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tran, Dat Quoc
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sukkaew, Pitsiri
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mock, Alyssa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Naval Res Lab, DC 20375 USA.
    Ciechonski, Rafal
    Hexagem AB, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Jonas
    Hexagem AB, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Zhu, Yadan
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hultin, Olof
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Samuelson, Lars
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optimization of GaN Nanowires Reformation Process by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition for Device-Quality GaN Templates2020In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 257, no 4, article id 1900581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, the potential of reformed GaN nanowires (NWs) fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for device-quality low-defect density templates and low-cost alternative to bulk GaN substrates is demonstrated. The effects of epilayer thickness and NW reformation conditions on the crystalline quality and thermal conductivity of the subsequent GaN epilayers are investigated. Smooth surfaces with atomically step-like morphologies with no spirals are achieved for GaN epilayers on the reformed NW templates, indicating step-flow growth mode. It is further found that annealing of the NWs at a temperature of 1030 degrees C in the presence of NH3 and H-2, followed by a coalescence done at the same temperature under planar growth conditions, leads to the most efficient screw dislocation density reduction by nearly an order of magnitude. At these optimized conditions, the growth takes place in a layer-by-layer fashion, producing a smooth surface with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.12 nm. The highest thermal conductivity of k = 206 W m(-1) K-1, approaching the respective value of bulk GaN, is obtained for the optimized 2 mu m-thick GaN layer. The thermal conductivity results are further discussed in terms of the phonon-dislocation and the phonon-boundary scattering.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Martin O.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khromov, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, X.
    Peking Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yoshikawa, A.
    Chiba Univ, Japan.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Recombination processes in Mg doped wurtzite InN films with p- and n-type conductivity2019In: AIP Advances, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 015114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obtaining high quality, wurtzite InN films with p-type conductivity is a challenge, and there is limited information about the photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of such films. In this study, we present a comprehensive PL study and discuss in detail the recombination processes in Mg-doped InN films with varying Mg concentrations. We find that at low Mg-doping of 1x10(18) cm(-3), which yields p-type conductivity, the PL in InN is spatially inhomogeneous. The latter is suggested to be associated with the presence of n-type pockets, displaying photoluminescence at 0.73 eV involving electrons at the Fermi edge above the conduction band edge. Increasing the Mg concentration to 2.9x10(19) cm(-3) in p-type InN yields strong and spatially uniform photoluminescence at 0.62 eV and 0.68 eV visible all the way to room temperature, indicating homogeneous p-type conductivity. An acceptor binding energy of 64 meV is determined for the Mg acceptor. Further increase of the Mg concentration to 1.8x10(20) cm(-3) leads to switching conductivity back to n-type. The PL spectra in this highly doped sample reveal only the emission related to the Mg acceptor (at 0.61 eV). In the low-energy tail of the emission, the multiple peaks observed at 0.54 - 0.58 eV are suggested to originate from recombination of carriers localized at stacking faults. (C) 2019 Author(s).

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  • 26. Esmaeili, M.
    et al.
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Iwaya, M.
    Kamiyama, S.
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I
    Photoluminescence study of MOCVD-grown GaN/AlGaN MQW nanostructures: Influence of Al composition and Si doping2007In: Nanotechnology, ISSN 0957-4484, E-ISSN 1361-6528, Vol. 18, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed study of low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) in GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanostructures has been reported. We have investigated the effect of Si doping and Al content on PL spectra and PL decay time of these structures. The temperature dependence of radiative as well as non-radiative lifetimes have been evaluated between 2K and room temperature for different Si doping. We found that radiative recombination at higher temperatures even up to RT is stronger in the doped sample, compared to the undoped one. Hole localization in GaN/AlGaN MQWs with different compositions of Al is demonstrated via PL transient decay times and LO phonon coupling. It is found that there is an increasing of the decay time at the PL peak emission with increasing Al composition. For the undoped sample, a non-exponential PL decay behaviour at 2K is attributed to localized exciton recombination. A slight upshift in QWs PL peak with increasing Al composition is observed, which is counteracted by the expected rise of the internal QW electric field with increasing Al. The localization energies have been evaluated by studying the variation of the QW emission versus temperature and we found out that the localization energy increases with increasing Al composition. © IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 27. Esmaeili, M.
    et al.
    Sabooni, M.
    Islam Azad Univ, Dept Phys, Shahrood Branch, Shahrood, Iran.
    Haratizadeh, H.
    Shahrood Univ Technol, Dept Phys, Shahrood, Iran.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Meijo Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Tempaku Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468, Japan.
    Iwaya, M.
    Meijo Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Tempaku Ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468, Japan.
    Optical properties of GaN/AlGaN QW nanostructures with different well and barrier widths2007In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 19, no 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical properties of wurtzite AlGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates have been investigated by means of photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) at low temperature. The PL spectra exhibit a blue-shifted emission of GaN/AlGaN QW nanostructures by decreasing the barrier width, in contrast to the arsenide system (Pabla A S et al 1993 Appl. Phys. Lett. 63 752). This behavior is attributed to a redistribution across the samples of the huge built-in electric field (several hundreds of kV cm(-1)) induced by the polarization difference between wells and barriers. The trend of the barrier width dependence of the internal polarization field is reproduced by using simple electrostatic arguments. In addition, the effect of well width variation on the optical transition and decay time of GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) have been investigated, and it has been shown that the screening of the piezoelectric field and the electron-hole separation are strongly dependent on the well thickness and have a profound effect on the optical properties of the GaN/AlGaN MQWs. The time-resolved PL spectra of 3 nm well MQWs reveal that the spectral peak position shifts toward lower energies as the decay time increases and becomes red-shifted at longer decay times.

  • 28. Gil, B.
    et al.
    Bigenwald, P.
    Leroux, M.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal structure of the neutral donor-bound exciton complex in cubic zinc-blende and wurtzite semiconductors2007In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 75, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculate the fine structure splitting of the near band edge donor-bound excitons in major cubic semiconductors using an approach inspired by an earlier one that consists in replacing the Morse potential by a Kratzer one, in order to account for the repulsion between the donor and the hole. A regular trend is observed when plotting the computed results in terms of donor binding energies for all these semiconductors. Second, we extend the method to wurtzite semiconductors, namely CdS, GaN, and ZnO. The previously reported trend is found again, but enriched with the strong anisotropy of the dispersion relations in the valence band of these semiconductors. We end up in addressing a quantitative interpretation of the fine structure splitting of the donor bound exciton complex which includes the jj coupling between the valence band Bloch and the envelope nonrigid rotator hole states. © 2007 The American Physical Society.

  • 29.
    Gil, Bernard
    et al.
    University Montpellier 2.
    Bigenwald, Pierre
    CNRS.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal structure of acceptor-bound excitons in wide-band-gap wurtzite semiconductors2010In: PHYSICAL REVIEW B, ISSN 1098-0121, Vol. 81, no 8, p. 085211-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the internal structure of acceptor-bound excitons in wurtzite semiconductors. Our approach consists in first constructing, in the context of angular momentum algebra, the wave functions of the two-hole system that fulfill Paulis exclusions principle. Second, we construct the acceptor-bound exciton states by adding the electron states in a similar manner that two-hole states are constructed. We discuss the optical selection rules for the acceptor-bound exciton recombination. Finally, we compare our theory with experimental data for CdS and GaN. In the specific case of CdS for which much experimental information is available, we demonstrate that, compared with cubic semiconductors, the sign of the short-range hole-exchange interaction is reversed and more than one order of magnitude larger. The whole set of data is interpreted in the context of a large value of the short-range hole-exchange interaction Xi(0)=3.4 +/- 0.2 meV. This value dictates the splitting between the ground-state line I-1 and the other transitions. The values we find for the electron-hole spin-exchange interaction and of the crystal-field splitting of the two-hole state are, respectively, -0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 meV. In the case of GaN, the experimental data for the acceptor-bound excitons in the case of Mg and Zn acceptors, show more than one bound-exciton line. We discuss a possible assignment of these states.

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  • 30.
    Gogova, Daniela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ghezellou, Misagh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tran, Dat Q.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Richter, Steffen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Axel R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kordina, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hilfiker, Matthew
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588, USA.
    Paskov, Plamen P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Epitaxial growth of β-Ga2O3 by hot-wall MOCVD2022In: AIP Advances, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 055022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) concept, previously shown to enable superior material quality and high performance devices based on wide bandgap semiconductors, such as Ga(Al)N and SiC, has been applied to the epitaxial growth of beta-Ga2O3. Epitaxial beta-Ga2O3 layers at high growth rates (above 1 mu m/h), at low reagent flows, and at reduced growth temperatures (740 degrees C) are demonstrated. A high crystalline quality epitaxial material on a c-plane sapphire substrate is attained as corroborated by a combination of x-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The hot-wall MOCVD process is transferred to homoepitaxy, and single-crystalline homoepitaxial beta-Ga2O3 layers are demonstrated with a 201 rocking curve width of 118 arc sec, which is comparable to those of the edge-defined film-fed grown (201) beta-Ga2O3 substrates, indicative of similar dislocation densities for epilayers and substrates. Hence, hot-wall MOCVD is proposed as a prospective growth method to be further explored for the fabrication of beta-Ga2O3.

  • 31.
    Gogova-Petrova, Daniela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tran, Dat
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jokubavicius, Valdas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vines, L.
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Schubert, M.
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Univ Nebraska, NE 68588 USA.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    High crystalline quality homoepitaxial Si-doped β-Ga2O3(010) layers with reduced structural anisotropy grown by hot-wall MOCVD2024In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 42, no 2, article id 022708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new growth approach, based on the hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition concept, is developed for high-quality homoepitaxial growth of Si-doped single-crystalline beta-Ga2O3 layers on (010)-oriented native substrates. Substrate annealing in argon atmosphere for 1 min at temperatures below 600 degrees C is proposed for the formation of epi-ready surfaces as a cost-effective alternative to the traditionally employed annealing process in oxygen-containing atmosphere with a time duration of 1 h at about 1000 degrees C. It is shown that the on-axis rocking curve widths exhibit anisotropic dependence on the azimuth angle with minima for in-plane direction parallel to the [001] and maximum for the [100] for both substrate and layer. The homoepitaxial layers are demonstrated to have excellent structural properties with a beta-Ga2O3(020) rocking curve full-widths at half-maximum as low as 11 arc sec, which is lower than the corresponding one for the substrates (19 arc sec), even for highly Si-doped (low 1019 cm -3 range) layers. Furthermore, the structural anisotropy in the layer is substantially reduced with respect to the substrate. Very smooth surface morphology of the epilayers with a root mean square roughness value of 0.6 nm over a 5 x 5 mu m(2) area is achieved along with a high electron mobility of 69 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at a free carrier concentration n = 1.9 x 10(19) cm -3. These values compare well with state-of-the-art parameters reported in the literature for beta-Ga2O3(010) homoepitaxial layers with respective Si doping levels. Thermal conductivity of 17.4 Wm(-1)K(-1) is determined along the [010] direction for the homoepitaxial layers at 300 K, which approaches the respective value of bulk crystal (20.6 Wm(-1)K(-1)). This result is explained by a weak boundary effect and a low dislocation density in the homoepitaxial layers.

  • 32.
    Gällström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuaire, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Electronic Structure of the UD-4 defect in 4H, 6H and 15R SiC2009In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 600-603, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 397-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photoluminescence (PL) of the UD-4 defect is observed in semi-insulating bulk 4H, 6H and 15R SiC. In 4H and 6H SiC the UD-4 defect consists of two families of no-phonon (NP) lines, Ua and Ub, and in 15R SiC it consists of three families, Ua, Ub and U15R. The Ua family in 4H, 6H and 15R all show similar temperature behavior with higher energy NP lines becomming observable at higher temperatures. In the case of the Ub and U15R families, a luminescence line with lower energy than the prominent luminescence line appears at higher temperatures. The polarization and Zeeman measurements suggest that the defect has C3v symmetry.

  • 33.
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Sernelius, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Iwaya, M
    Kamiyama, S
    Amano, H
    Akasaki, I
    Photoluminescence study of Si-doped GaN/Al0.07Ga0.93N multiple quantum wells with different dopant position2004In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 84, no 25, p. 5071-5073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Si-doped GaN/Al0.07Ga0.93N multiple quantum wells (MQW) were investigated, using photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved (PL) measurements. The influence of Si doping on the emission energy and recombination dynamics of the MWQs were also investigated, with different dopant position in the wells. It was observed that the redshifted emission of the MQWs was attributed to the self-energy shift of the electron states due to the correlated motion of the electrons exposed to the fluctuating potential of the donor ions. It was also observed that the PL decay time of the sample was ∼760 ps, at low temperature.

  • 34.
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I.
    Optical Studies of Wide Band Gap III-Nitride Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Superlattices2006In: European Materials Research Society E-MRS fall meeting 2006,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 35.
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Valcheva, E
    Iwaya, M
    Kamiyama, S
    Amano, H
    Akasaki, I
    Optical observation of discrete well width fluctuations in wide band gap III-nitride quantum wells2007In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 244, no 5, p. 1727-1734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed observation of discrete well width fluctuations via localized excitons in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of MOCVD-grown undoped GaN/Al0.07Ga0.93 N multiple quantum wells (MQWs) has been reported. Doublet excitonic features with a distance varying between 10 and 25 meV for different well widths (1.5 to 4.5 nm) are observed in the PL spectra. They are explained in terms of discrete well width variations by one c-lattice parameter, i.e. two GaN monolayers. By mapping the PL measurements across the samples with different excitation spot size, it is shown that the extension of areas with a constant well width is less than 1 μm2. TEM pictures give evidence of interface roughness, although the contrast is weak at this low Al composition. In addition we observe a long-range variation of the PL peak position across the sample, interpreted as a fluctuation in Al composition in the barriers. The residual broadening of an excitonic peak (apart from the splitting related to well width fluctuations) is about 10 meV, somewhat larger for larger well widths, and is mainly ascribed to hole localisation potentials in the QWs. Additional broadening occurs in the MQWs due to inequivalent properties of each QW within the excitation spot. © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  • 36.
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Iwaya, M.
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I.
    Effect of n-type modulation doping on the photoluminescence of GaN/Al0.07Ga0.93N multiple quantum wells2002In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 80, no 8, p. 1373-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 37.
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Iwaya, M.
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I.
    Photoluminescence study of Si doped GaN/AlGaN multi quantum wells2003In: ICPS 2002,2002, 2003, p. D-109-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Iwaya, M.
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I.
    Photoluminescence study of Si doped GaN/GaN/Al0.07Ga0.93N multi quantum wells2002In: NANO-7/ECOSS-21,2002, 2002, p. 13-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Iwaya, M.
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I.
    The influence of Si-donor doping on the exciton localization in modulation- doped GaN/AlGaN multi quantum wells2002In: 14th Indium Phosphide and Related Materials Conference IPRM 2002,2002, 2002, p. 495-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40. Haratizadeh, H.
    et al.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468, Japan.
    Iwaya, M.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468, Japan.
    Amano, H.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468, Japan.
    Akasaki, I.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468, Japan.
    Time resolved photoluminescence study of Si modulation doped GaN/Al 0.07Ga0.93N multiple quantum wells2004In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 241, no 5, p. 1124-1133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the Si doping level on the recombination dynamics and carrier (exciton) localization in modulation doped GaN/Al0.07Ga 0.93N multiple-quantum-well (MQW) structures were studied by means of photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements. All samples with different doping levels show a QW emission which is blue shifted with respect to the 3.48 eV PL peak from the GaN buffer layer. The decay time at the peak position remains nearly constant in the range of 320-420 ps at 2 K for all doping levels. For the undoped and low-doped samples (3 × 1018 cm-3), which have less free electrons in the QWs, a non-exponential PL decay behaviour at 2 K is attributed to localized exciton recombination. The more highly doped samples (5 × 1018 cm-3 to 10 20 cm-3) show almost exponential decay curves at 2 K, suggesting the recombination of free electrons and localized holes. This localization effect appears even at high electron concentrations to cancel the expected lowering of the radiative lifetime with doping at 2 K, such a lowering is clearly observed at elevated temperatures for the highly doped samples, however. The internal polarization-induced fields of the medium and highly-doped samples are partly screened by the electrons originating from the doping in the barriers. Only the PL peak of the undoped and low-doped samples shows a redshift with time delay, related to the photogenerated carriers. © 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  • 41.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Heuken, M.
    Schineller, B.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Growth of bulk GaN in a vertical hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor2006In: Superlattices and Microstructures, ISSN 0749-6036, E-ISSN 1096-3677, Vol. 40, no 4-6 SPEC. ISS., p. 205-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the hydride vapour phase epitaxy technique, we have grown 2-inch diameter bulk GaN material with a thickness up to 2 mm. The growth was performed in a vertical hot-walled reactor at atmospheric pressure. In this geometry, the process gases are distributed from the bottom upwards through the reactor. We present recent results on growth and characterization of the bulk GaN material. The structural and optical properties of the layers have been studied using decorative etching, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, and low temperature photoluminescence. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Heuken, M.
    Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Schineller, B.
    Aixtron AG, D-52072 Aachen, Germany.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Hydride vapour phase epitaxy growth and characterization of thick GaN using a vertical HVPE reactor2007In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 300, no 1, p. 32-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of 2-inch diameter bulk GaN layers with a thickness up to 2 mm is demonstrated in a vertical hydride vapour phase growth reactor. Morphology, dislocations, optical and electrical properties of the material have been investigated using atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, decorative etching in hot H3PO4, Hall measurements and low-temperature photoluminescence. Atomic force microscopy reveals a two-dimensional step flow growth mode with step bunching for layers with a thickness of 250 µm. As the growth proceeds, the morphology is changed to a hill and valley structure. The EPD was determined to 5×105 cm-2 for a 2 mm thick layer. The Hall mobility and the carrier concentration were determined. For a 1.7 mm thick layer at 300 K the mobility and the carrier concentration is 520 cm2/V s and about 4×1017 cm-3, respectively. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra measured on a 350 µm thick freestanding layer show the DBE line at 3.4707 eV with a full-width half-maximum of 1 meV, confirming a stress free GaN layer. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 43. Honda, Y.
    et al.
    Hikosaka, T.
    Yamaguchi, M.
    Sawaki, N.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    DAP emission band in a carbon doped (1-101)GaN grown ob (001) Si substrate2009In: Phys. Stat. Sol. (c) Vol. 6, 2009, Vol. 6, p. S772-S775Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical spectra of a C-doped (1-101) GaN are investigated via time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Samples with different C-doping levels were prepared by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy using C2H2 as the doping precursor. A carbon related emission peak is identified at 375 nm which shows typical behaviours for a donor-acceptor-pair emission band. The acceptor level is estimated to be 190 meV which is at 43 meV shallower than that in an Mg doped GaN. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  • 44.
    Hsu, Chih-Wei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ganguly, Abhijit
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, Chin-Pei
    National Taiwan University.
    Kuo, Chun-Chiang
    Acad Sinica.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Li-Chyong
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, Kuei-Hsien
    Acad Sinica.
    Optical properties of functionalized GaN nanowires2011In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 109, no 5, p. 053523-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the optical properties of GaN nanowires (NWs) with respect to a sequence of surface functionalization processes is reported; from pristine hydroxylated to finally, 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) functionalized GaN NWs. Photoluminescence, Raman, stationary, and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were applied to investigate the GaN NWs with different surface conditions. A documented surface passivation effect of the GaN NWs induced by the MPTMS functionalization is determined based on our characterization results. A hypothesis associated with the surface band bending and the defect levels near the band edges is proposed to explain the observed experimental results.

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  • 45. Hsu, C-W.
    et al.
    Ganguly, A.
    Chen, C-P.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Chen, K-H.
    Chen, L-C.
    Luminescent Behaviors of GaN Nanowires with Different Surface Conditions: Toward Optical DNA Sensing2007In: International Conference on One-Dimensional Nanostructures ICON,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 46.
    Knight, Sean Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Richter, Steffen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Guo, Shiqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Axel R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rindert, Viktor
    Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Persson, Per O. Å.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paskov, Plamen P.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, 68588, NE, United States.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Solid State Physics and NanoLund, Lund University, Lund, 22100, Sweden.
    Room temperature two-dimensional electron gas scattering time, effective mass, and mobility parameters in AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures (0.07 ≤ x ≤ 0.42)2023In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 134, no 18, article id 185701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al xGa 1−xN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures are key components in electronic devices operating at gigahertz or higher frequencies. In order to optimize such HEMT structures, understanding their electronic response at high frequencies and room temperature is required. Here, we present a study of the room temperature free charge carrier properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in HEMT structures with varying Al content in the Al xGa 1−xN barrier layers between x=0.07 and x=0.42⁠. We discuss and compare 2DEG sheet density, mobility, effective mass, sheet resistance, and scattering times, which are determined by theoretical calculations, contactless Hall effect, capacitance-voltage, Eddy current, and cavity-enhanced terahertz optical Hall effect (THz-OHE) measurements using a low-field permanent magnet (0.6 T). From our THz-OHE results, we observe that the measured mobility reduction from x=0.13 to x=0.42 is driven by the decrease in 2DEG scattering time, and not the change in effective mass. For x<0.42⁠, the 2DEG effective mass is found to be larger than for electrons in bulk GaN, which in turn, contributes to a decrease in the principally achievable mobility. From our theoretical calculations, we find that values close to 0.3 m0 can be explained by the combined effects of conduction band nonparabolicity, polarons, and hybridization of the electron wavefunction through penetration into the barrier layer.

  • 47.
    Kuhne, Philipp
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armakavicius, Nerijus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Papamichail, Alexis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tran, Dat
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stanishev, Vallery
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schubert, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE 68588 USA.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Enhancement of 2DEG effective mass in AlN/Al0.78Ga0.22N high electron mobility transistor structure determined by THz optical Hall effect2022In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 120, no 25, article id 253102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the free charge carrier properties of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an AlN/AlxGa1-xN high electron mobility transistor structure with a high aluminum content (x = 0.78). The 2DEG sheet density N s = ( 7.3 +/- 0.7 ) x 10 12 cm(-2), sheet mobility mu s = ( 270 +/- 40 ) cm(2)/(Vs), sheet resistance R- s = ( 3200 +/- 500 ) omega/ ?, and effective mass m( eff) = ( 0.63 +/- 0.04 ) m( 0) at low temperatures ( T = 5 K ) are determined by terahertz (THz) optical Hall effect measurements. The experimental 2DEG mobility in the channel is found within the expected range, and the sheet carrier density is in good agreement with self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger calculations. However, a significant increase in the effective mass of 2DEG electrons at low temperatures is found in comparison with the respective value in bulk Al0.78Ga22N ( m( eff) = 0.334 m( 0)). Possible mechanisms for the enhanced 2DEG effective mass parameter are discussed and quantified using self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger calculations .Published under an exclusive license by AIP Publishing.

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  • 48.
    Monemar, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Functional Electronic Materials.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    The 3.466 eV Bound Exciton in GaN2001In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 228, no 2, p. 489-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We discuss the available optical data for the 3.466 eV bound exciton in GaN, which has been a controversial issue in the recent literature. We conclude that the experimental results are only consistent with the identification as an exciton bound at a neutral acceptor with a spin-like bound hole. The chemical identity is still not clear.

  • 49.
    Monemar, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Harati Zadeh, Hamid
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Holtz, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Kamiyama, S.
    Iwaya, M.
    Amano, H.
    Akasaki, I.
    Influence of polarization fields and depletion fields on photoluminescence of AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures2003In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 237, no 1, p. 353-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a detailed study of low temperature photoluminescence (PL) in Al0.07Ga0.93N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The structures were grown on sapphire with the conventional low temperature AlN nucleation layer and thick GaN buffer layer. Several sets of 5 QW MQW samples were studied, one set with Si doping in the barriers up to or above the metallic limit. Nominally undoped MQW samples were also studied. The spectral behaviour of the doped samples was strongly affected by the near surface depletion field, causing overlap of different spectra from non-equivalent QWs. The QWs closest to the surface are presumably inactive in some samples, due to a very high depletion field. For the case of undoped samples, on the other hand, the near surface QWs are active and most prominent in the PL spectra. The structure from discrete well width variations is here resolved in the PL spectra. The results demonstrate that for structures with no additional capping layer both the depletion field and the polarisation fields need to be considered in the interpretation of experimental data. The theoretically estimated fields in this work are consistent with the experimental spectra. The presence of localisation even in the case of metallic samples, as observed by a constant PL decay time independent of doping, is discussed in terms of penetration of the hole wave functions into the AlGaN barriers. This localisation is also manifested in a sizeable LO phonon coupling strength in all samples studied.

  • 50.
    Monemar, Bo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Khromov, Sergey
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amano, Hiroshi
    Nagoya University, Japan.
    Avrutin, Vitaliy
    Virginia Commonwealth University, VA USA.
    Li, Xing
    Virginia Commonwealth University, VA USA.
    Morkoc, Hadis
    Virginia Commonwealth University, VA USA.
    Luminescence of Acceptors in Mg-Doped GaN2013In: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-4922, E-ISSN 1347-4065, Vol. 52, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent photoluminescence (PL) data for Mg-doped GaN at 2 K are discussed, with reference to published theoretical calculations of the electronic level structure. It is concluded that the typical PL peaks at 3.466 eV (acceptor bound exciton ABE1) and the broader 3.27 eV donor-acceptor pair (DAP) PL are the expected standard PL signatures of the substitutional Mg acceptor. Additional broader peaks at 3.455 eV (ABE2) and 3.1 eV are suggested to be related to the same acceptors perturbed by nearby basal plane stacking faults. The low temperature metastability of PL spectra is assigned to a nonradiative metastable deep level.

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