liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 6 of 6
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Henricson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Toll John, Rani
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Björk Wilhelms, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine.
    Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy: Getting the Capillary Refill Test Under Ones Thumb2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 130, article id e56737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capillary refill test was introduced in 1947 to help estimate circulatory status in critically ill patients. Guidelines commonly state that refill should occur within 2 s after releasing 5 s of firm pressure (e.g., by the physicians finger) in the normal healthy supine patient. A slower refill time indicates poor skin perfusion, which can be caused by conditions including sepsis, blood loss, hypoperfusion, and hypothermia. Since its introduction, the clinical usefulness of the test has been debated. Advocates point out its feasibility and simplicity and claim that it can indicate changes in vascular status earlier than changes in vital signs such as heart rate. Critics, on the other hand, stress that the lack of standardization in how the test is performed and the highly subjective nature of the naked eye assessment, as well as the tests susceptibility to ambient factors, markedly lowers the clinical value. The aim of the present work is to describe in detail the course of the refill event and to suggest potentially more objective and exact endpoint values for the capillary refill test using diffuse polarization spectroscopy.

  • 2.
    McNamara, Paul N
    et al.
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    O'Doherty, Jim
    Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, UK.
    O'Connell, Marie-Louise
    University of Limerick.
    Fitzgerald, Barry W
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Dermatology and Venerology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    Nilsson, Gert
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Toll, Rani
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Linköping.
    Leahy, Martin J
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm2010In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 66-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tissue Viability (TiVi) imaging is a promising new technology for the assessment of microcirculation in the upper human dermis. Although the technique is easily implemented and develops large amounts of observational data, its role in the clinical workplace awaits the development of standardised protocols required for routine clinical practice. The present study investigates the use of TiVi technology in a human, in vivo, localized, skin blood flow occlusion protocol. In this feasibility study, the response of the cutaneous microcirculation after provocation on the volar surface of the forearm was evaluated using a high temporal-low spatial resolution TiVi camera. 19 healthy subjects - 10 female and 9 male - were studied after a localized pressure was applied for 5 different time periods ranging from 5 to 25 seconds. Areas corresponding to 100 x 100 pixels (2.89 cm(2)) were monitored for 60 seconds prior to, during and after each occlusion period. Our results demonstrated the removal of blood from the local area and a hyperaemic response supporting the suitability of TiVi imaging for the generation of detailed provocation response data of relevance for the physiological function of the skin microcirculation in health and disease.

  • 3.
    Toll John, Rani
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine in Linköping.
    Henricson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine in Linköping.
    Junker, Johan
    Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jonson, Carl-Oscar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Disaster Medicine and Traumatology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology.
    Nilsson, Gert
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Björk Wilhelms, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine in Linköping.
    Anderson, Chris D
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    A cool response: the influence of ambient temperature on capillary refill time2018In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To describe the effect of low ambient temperature on skin temperature and capillary refill (CR) time in forehead, sternum and finger pulp.

    Methods

    An observational, nonrandomized experimental study on 15 healthy subjects (6 females) in a cold room (8°C). Outcome measures were skin temperature and quantified CR test after application of a standardized blanching pressure (9 N/cm2) using digital photographic polarization spectroscopy to generate CR times.

    Results

    The finger pulp showed marked temperature fall and prolonged CR times (>10 seconds). The CR registrations of the forehead and sternum were more comparable to curves observed in a control material at room temperature, and skin temperature falls were less marked. CR times were not prolonged in forehead measurements. At the sternum, some individuals showed CR times beyond guideline recommendations despite only a marginal reduction in skin temperature.

    Conclusions

    Low ambient temperature is a strong independent factor for CR time at peripheral sites. Reservation about sternum as a site of measurement is warranted since cold provocation produced prolonged CR times in some individuals. We found that the forehead is the most thermostable of the 3 sites and thus the preferred site to avoid ambient temperature artifact in measuring CR time.

  • 4.
    Toll John, Rani
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine.
    Henricson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Nilsson, Gert E.
    WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wilhelms, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Reflectance spectroscopy: to shed new light on the capillary refill test2018In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e201700043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To use Bioengineering methodology is used to achieve, at five anatomical sites, a detailed, quantitative assessment of the return of blood content to the blanched area, during the Capillary Refill (CR) test. An observational, non-randomized, experimental study on 23 healthy subjects (14 females) was performed in our climate controlled skin physiology laboratory. Our main outcome measures were based on the chronological assessment and quantification of red blood cell concentration (RBC) after the release of blanching pressure in the CR test, using Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi), a digital photographic technique based on polarisation spectroscopy. TiVi enabled collection of detailed data on skin RBC concentration during the CR test. The results were shown as curves with skin blood concentration (TiVi-value) on the y-axis and the time on the x-axis. Quantitative CR responses showed site and temperature variability. We also suggest possible objective endpoint values from the capillary refill curve. Detailed data on skin RBC concentration during the CR test is easily obtained and allows objective determination of end points not possible to achieve by naked eye assessment. These findings have the potential to place the utility of the CR test in a clinical setting in a new light. Picture: Regular photograph and TiVi Image showing CR test and corresponding graph for the CR response. [GRAPHICS] .

  • 5. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Toll, Rani
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine in Linköping.
    To See or Not to See: A Study on Capillary Refill2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessment of the critically ill is traditionally based on vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, temperature and level of consciousness). Altered vital signs are, however, late indicators of deranged hemodynamics pointing to a need for additional, more sensitive markers of circulatory compromise. In the beginning of the 20th century, the capillary refill (CR) time evolved as a possible, non-invasive adjunct to early prediction of the outcome in the critically ill. The manoeuvre entails application of blanching pressure on the skin of the finger pulp or sternum for 5 seconds. After release of the pressure, the observer estimates time in seconds for the skin to return to original colour. This time is hypothesized to reflect the dynamics of the microcirculation and its possible connection with hemodynamics. In the 1980s the “normal capillary refill time” was set to < 2 seconds and later extended to 3 seconds, without a clear scientific foundation. Naked-eye estimations of CR time met increasing scepticism in the 1990s due to subjectivity and poor prognostic value for shock or death. Several basic traits, such as age and sex, as well as ambient temperature, were also shown to independently influence the CR time. Various methods have evolved with the capability to measure CR time quantitatively, one of which is Polarisation Spectroscopy Imaging (PSI). PSI measures the Red Blood Cell (RBC) concentration in tissue (e.g. the skin) and can be used to measure CR time.

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to establish basic characteristics for quantified CR (qCR), identify possible influencing factors in healthy subjects and to investigate how this relates to current practice. We also sought to identify technical demands for transfer of the technique into clinical studies. In paper I we analysed the (qCR) time characteristics at 5 different skin sites (forehead, sternum, volar forearm, finger pulp and dorsum finger). The objective of paper II was to investigate the inter- and intra-observer variability of naked eye CR assessments of different professions, nurses, doctors and secretaries (representing laymen). In paper III we observed the effect of low ambient temperature on the qCR time in different skin sites. In paper IV, we transferred the equipment from a laboratory to a clinical setting in the Emergency Department (ED) for application on potentially critically ill patients. In this study we evaluated the most important factors determining a reliable data collection and influencing the amount of data possible to analyse.

    Methods: qCR time was measured in a total of 38 volunteers and 10 patients in different skin sites (2-5 skin sites) at different ambient temperatures. PSI (TiVi 600 and 700, WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden) was used to determine the rapid temporal changes in RBC concentration in skin during the CR manoeuvre. Films using a range of the first measurements from paper I were shown for assessment to 48 observers working in the ED.

    Results: In paper I we could delineate qCR curves and suggest 2 possible equivalents to the naked-eye observed CR time which we named Time to Return to Baseline 1 (tRtB1) and Time to Peak (tpk). We demonstrated differences in qCR-curves depending on skin site and possibly due to skin temperature. In paper II we showed a poor inter- and intra-observer reproducibility in visually estimating the CR time regardless of profession (clinicians or laymen). Paper III demonstrated a rapid effect of ambient temperature on qCR time in peripheral skin sites such as finger pulp. The forehead, regarded as a more central skin site was the most temperature stable site and showed least variability in qCR time as determined using tRtB1. Paper IV, a study on patients in an ED setting, yielded assayable data in 80% of the measurements. We identified critical performance parameters to address in the further development of a more robust, easy-to-use device for future validation of the possible relevance of qCR in patient triage and monitoring.

    Conclusions: CR time can be quantified using PSI. Quantified CR time demonstrated a large variability between different skin sites, specifically, skin temperature was shown to be an important factor influencing qCR time, particularly at the fingertip. Naked-eye estimates of CR time were highly variable, both within and between observers. Agreement between quantified CR time and naked-eye estimates was poor. The prototypic PSI technique was feasible in a clinical setting and, with further improvements, clinical evaluation of qCR in relation to relevant patient outcomes will be possible.

    List of papers
    1. Reflectance spectroscopy: to shed new light on the capillary refill test
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflectance spectroscopy: to shed new light on the capillary refill test
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e201700043Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To use Bioengineering methodology is used to achieve, at five anatomical sites, a detailed, quantitative assessment of the return of blood content to the blanched area, during the Capillary Refill (CR) test. An observational, non-randomized, experimental study on 23 healthy subjects (14 females) was performed in our climate controlled skin physiology laboratory. Our main outcome measures were based on the chronological assessment and quantification of red blood cell concentration (RBC) after the release of blanching pressure in the CR test, using Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi), a digital photographic technique based on polarisation spectroscopy. TiVi enabled collection of detailed data on skin RBC concentration during the CR test. The results were shown as curves with skin blood concentration (TiVi-value) on the y-axis and the time on the x-axis. Quantitative CR responses showed site and temperature variability. We also suggest possible objective endpoint values from the capillary refill curve. Detailed data on skin RBC concentration during the CR test is easily obtained and allows objective determination of end points not possible to achieve by naked eye assessment. These findings have the potential to place the utility of the CR test in a clinical setting in a new light. Picture: Regular photograph and TiVi Image showing CR test and corresponding graph for the CR response. [GRAPHICS] .

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
    Keywords
    Capillary refill; microvasculature; circulation; skin imaging; gender variability; blood concentration
    National Category
    Dermatology and Venereal Diseases
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145478 (URN)10.1002/jbio.201700043 (DOI)000425294600022 ()28544641 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85019540776 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2020-04-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Man versus machine: comparison of naked-eye estimation and quantified capillary refill
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Man versus machine: comparison of naked-eye estimation and quantified capillary refill
    2019 (English)In: Emergency Medicine Journal, ISSN 1472-0205, E-ISSN 1472-0213, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 465-471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Capillary refill (CR) time is traditionally assessed by naked-eye inspection of the return to original colour of a tissue after blanching pressure. Few studies have addressed intra-observer reliability or used objective quantification techniques to assess time to original colour. This study compares naked-eye assessment with quantified CR (qCR) time using polarisation spectroscopy and examines intra-observer and interobserver agreements in using the naked eye. Method A film of 18 CR tests (shown in a random fixed order) performed in healthy adults was assessed by a convenience sample of 14 doctors, 15 nurses and 19 secretaries (Department of Emergency Medicine, Linkoping University, September to November 2017), who were asked to estimate the time to return to colour and characterise it as fast, normal or slow. The qCR times and corresponding naked-eye time assessments were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Three videos were shown twice without observers knowledge to measure intra-observer repeatability. Intra-observer categorical assessments were compared using Cohens Kappa analysis. Interobserver repeatability was measured and depicted with multiple-observer Bland-Altman plotting. Differences in naked-eye estimation between professions were analysed using ANOVA. Results Naked-eye assessed CR time and qCR time differ substantially, and agreement for the categorical assessments (naked-eye assessment vs qCR classification) was poor (Cohens kappa 0.27). Bland-Altman intra-observer repeatability ranged from 6% to 60%. Interobserver agreement was low as shown by the Bland-Altman plotting with a 95% limit of agreement with the mean of +/- 1.98 s for doctors, +/- 1.6 s for nurses and +/- 1.75 s for secretaries. The difference in CR time estimation (in seconds) between professions was not significant. Conclusions Our study suggests that naked-eye-assessed CR time shows poor reproducibility, even by the same observers, and differs from an objective measure of CR time.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019
    National Category
    Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159714 (URN)10.1136/emermed-2018-207948 (DOI)000478913300006 ()31308133 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Region Ostergotland [LIO-532001, LIO-700271]

    Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2020-04-01
    3. A cool response: the influence of ambient temperature on capillary refill time
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cool response: the influence of ambient temperature on capillary refill time
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648, Vol. 11, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To describe the effect of low ambient temperature on skin temperature and capillary refill (CR) time in forehead, sternum and finger pulp.

    Methods

    An observational, nonrandomized experimental study on 15 healthy subjects (6 females) in a cold room (8°C). Outcome measures were skin temperature and quantified CR test after application of a standardized blanching pressure (9 N/cm2) using digital photographic polarization spectroscopy to generate CR times.

    Results

    The finger pulp showed marked temperature fall and prolonged CR times (>10 seconds). The CR registrations of the forehead and sternum were more comparable to curves observed in a control material at room temperature, and skin temperature falls were less marked. CR times were not prolonged in forehead measurements. At the sternum, some individuals showed CR times beyond guideline recommendations despite only a marginal reduction in skin temperature.

    Conclusions

    Low ambient temperature is a strong independent factor for CR time at peripheral sites. Reservation about sternum as a site of measurement is warranted since cold provocation produced prolonged CR times in some individuals. We found that the forehead is the most thermostable of the 3 sites and thus the preferred site to avoid ambient temperature artifact in measuring CR time.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
    National Category
    Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
    Research subject
    Disaster Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145527 (URN)10.1002/jbio.201700371 (DOI)000434641700017 ()29384267 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: Socialstyrelsen; Region Ostergotland

    Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2020-04-01Bibliographically approved
  • 6.
    Toll, Rani
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine.
    Henricson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine.
    Anderson, Chris
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Dermatology and Venerology.
    Wilhelms, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine.
    Man versus machine: comparison of naked-eye estimation and quantified capillary refill2019In: Emergency Medicine Journal, ISSN 1472-0205, E-ISSN 1472-0213, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 465-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Capillary refill (CR) time is traditionally assessed by naked-eye inspection of the return to original colour of a tissue after blanching pressure. Few studies have addressed intra-observer reliability or used objective quantification techniques to assess time to original colour. This study compares naked-eye assessment with quantified CR (qCR) time using polarisation spectroscopy and examines intra-observer and interobserver agreements in using the naked eye. Method A film of 18 CR tests (shown in a random fixed order) performed in healthy adults was assessed by a convenience sample of 14 doctors, 15 nurses and 19 secretaries (Department of Emergency Medicine, Linkoping University, September to November 2017), who were asked to estimate the time to return to colour and characterise it as fast, normal or slow. The qCR times and corresponding naked-eye time assessments were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Three videos were shown twice without observers knowledge to measure intra-observer repeatability. Intra-observer categorical assessments were compared using Cohens Kappa analysis. Interobserver repeatability was measured and depicted with multiple-observer Bland-Altman plotting. Differences in naked-eye estimation between professions were analysed using ANOVA. Results Naked-eye assessed CR time and qCR time differ substantially, and agreement for the categorical assessments (naked-eye assessment vs qCR classification) was poor (Cohens kappa 0.27). Bland-Altman intra-observer repeatability ranged from 6% to 60%. Interobserver agreement was low as shown by the Bland-Altman plotting with a 95% limit of agreement with the mean of +/- 1.98 s for doctors, +/- 1.6 s for nurses and +/- 1.75 s for secretaries. The difference in CR time estimation (in seconds) between professions was not significant. Conclusions Our study suggests that naked-eye-assessed CR time shows poor reproducibility, even by the same observers, and differs from an objective measure of CR time.

1 - 6 of 6
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf