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  • 1.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Araya-Ajoy, Yimen G.
    Norwegian Univ Sci and Technol, Norway.
    Mouchet, Alexia
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Moiron, Maria
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Stuber, Erica F.
    Univ Nebraska Lincoln, NE USA.
    Kempenaers, Bart
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Dingemanse, Niels J.
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany; Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Germany.
    Does perceived predation risk affect patterns of extra-pair paternity? A field experiment in a passerine bird2018Inngår i: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 1001-1010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-consumptive predator effects have been shown to influence a wide range of behavioural, life history and morphological traits. Extra-pair reproduction is widespread among socially monogamous birds and may incur predation costs. Consequently, altered rates of extra-pair reproduction are expected in circumstances characterized by increased adult perceived predation risk. In addition, extra-pair reproduction is expected to be most affected for birds with phenotypes that generally increase predation risk (such as more active individuals). In two consecutive years, perceived predation risk was manipulated for great tits Parus major breeding in 12 nest-box plots by broadcasting sounds of their main predator (European sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus; six plots). As a control treatment, sounds of a sympatric, avian non-predator species were broadcast (Eurasian blackbird Turdus merula; six plots). Levels of extra-pair paternity did not differ between plots with different predation risk treatments. Males that moved more in a novel environment (more active or faster exploring) tended to have offspring with fewer partners, but this effect did not vary with predation risk treatment. From an adaptive viewpoint, predation costs associated with extra-pair reproduction may be small and may not outweigh the benefits of extra-pair behaviour. Research on a broader range of taxa with different mating strategies is now needed to confirm the generality of our findings.

  • 2.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Germany.
    Dingemanse, Niels J.
    Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Germany.
    Adaptive individual variation in phenological responses to perceived predation levels2019Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1601Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive evolution of timing of breeding (a component of phenology) in response to environmental change requires individual variation in phenotypic plasticity for selection to act upon. A major question is what processes generate this variation. Here we apply multi-year manipulations of perceived predation levels (PPL) in an avian predator-prey system, identifying phenotypic plasticity in phenology as a key component of alternative behavioral strategies with equal fitness payoffs. We show that under low-PPL, faster (versus slower) exploring birds breed late (versus early); the pattern is reversed under high-PPL, with breeding synchrony decreasing in conjunction. Timing of breeding affects reproductive success, yet behavioral types have equal fitness. The existence of alternative behavioral strategies thus explains variation in phenology and plasticity in reproductive behavior, which has implications for evolution in response to anthropogenic change.

  • 3.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Division L5, Department of Mechanical, Aerospace & Civil Engineering, Dalton Nuclear Institute, FSE Research Institutes,The University of Manchester, UK.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. School of Biological Sciences, Centre for Ecology,Evolution and Behaviour, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham UK.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 222, nr 20, artikkel-id jeb211888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been correlated with physiological functions as well as fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we experimentally investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three-spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

  • 4.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kreshchenko, Anastasia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fernandez Sala, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petkova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of monoamine manipulations on the personality and gene expression of three-spined sticklebacks2019Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    Among-individual behavioral differences (i.e. animal personality) are commonly observed across taxa, although the underlying, causal mechanisms of such differences are poorly understood. Animal personality has been implicated in correlations with physiological functions as well as affecting fitness-related traits. Variation in many aspects of monoamine systems, such as metabolite levels and gene polymorphisms, has been linked to behavioral variation. Therefore, here we investigated the potential role of monoamines in explaining individual variation in personality, using two common pharmaceuticals that respectively alter the levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain: fluoxetine and ropinirole. We exposed three- spined sticklebacks, a species that shows animal personality, to either chemical alone or to a combination of the two chemicals, for 18 days. During the experiment, fish were assayed at four time points for the following personality traits: exploration, boldness, aggression and sociability. To quantify brain gene expression on short- and longer-term scales, fish were sampled at two time points. Our results show that monoamine manipulations influence fish behavior. Specifically, fish exposed to either fluoxetine or ropinirole were significantly bolder, and fish exposed to the two chemicals together tended to be bolder than control fish. Our monoamine manipulations did not alter the gene expression of monoamine or stress-associated neurotransmitter genes, but control, untreated fish showed covariation between gene expression and behavior. Specifically, exploration and boldness were predicted by genes in the dopaminergic, serotonergic and stress pathways, and sociability was predicted by genes in the dopaminergic and stress pathways. These results add further support to the links between monoaminergic systems and personality, and show that exposure to monoamines can causally alter animal personality.

  • 5.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uhrig, Emily J.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Favati, Anna
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlblom, Josefin
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, Svante
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The influence of rearing on behavior, brain monoamines and gene expression in three-spined sticklebacks2018Dataset
    Abstract [en]
    1. The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences.
    2. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression.
    3. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and increased serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior.
    4. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.
  • 6.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin N.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zidar, Josefina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Favati, A.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Almberg, J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dahlbom, J.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Winberg, S.
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala Biomedical Centre BMC, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Løvlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Influence of Rearing on Behavior, Brain Monoamines, and Gene Expression in Three-Spined Sticklebacks2018Inngår i: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, nr 4, s. 201-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The causes of individual variation in behavior are often not well understood, and potential underlying mechanisms include both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as early environmental, physiological, and genetic differences. In an exploratory laboratory study, we raised three-spined sticklebacks <i>(Gasterosteus aculeatus)</i> under 4 different environmental conditions (simulated predator environment, complex environment, variable social environment, and control). We investigated how these manipulations related to behavior, brain physiology, and gene expression later in life, with focus on brain dopamine and serotonin levels, turnover rates, and gene expression. The different rearing environments influenced behavior and gene expression, but did not alter monoamine levels or metabolites. Specifically, compared to control fish, fish exposed to a simulated predator environment tended to be less aggressive, more exploratory, and more neophobic; and fish raised in both complex and variable social environments tended to be less neophobic. Exposure to a simulated predator environment tended to lower expression of dopamine receptor DRD4A, a complex environment increased expression of dopamine receptor DRD1B, while a variable social environment tended to increase serotonin receptor 5-HTR2B and serotonin transporter SLC6A4A expression. Despite both behavior and gene expression varying with early environment, there was no evidence that gene expression mediated the relationship between early environment and behavior. Our results confirm that environmental conditions early in life can affect phenotypic variation. However, the mechanistic pathway of the monoaminergic systems translating early environmental variation into observed behavioral responses was not detected.

  • 7.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Uhrig, Emily
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Southern Oregon Univ, OR 97520 USA.
    Garnham, Laura
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundgren, Kristoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Child, Sarah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Manchester, England.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Experimental manipulation of monoamine levels alters personality in crickets2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 16211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal personality has been described in a range of species with ecological and evolutionary consequences. Factors shaping and maintaining variation in personality are not fully understood, but monoaminergic systems are consistently linked to personality variation. We experimentally explored how personality was influenced by alterations in two key monoamine systems: dopamine and serotonin. This was done using ropinirole and fluoxetine, two common human pharmaceuticals. Using the Mediterranean field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus), we focused on the personality traits activity, exploration, and aggression, with confirmed repeatability in our study. Dopamine manipulations explained little variation in the personality traits investigated, while serotonin manipulation reduced both activity and aggression. Due to limited previous research, we created a dose-response curve for ropinirole, ranging from concentrations measured in surface waters to human therapeutic doses. No ropinirole dose level strongly influenced cricket personality, suggesting our results did not come from a dose mismatch. Our results indicate that the serotonergic system explains more variation in personality than manipulations of the dopaminergic system. Additionally, they suggest that monoamine systems differ across taxa, and confirm the importance of the mode of action of pharmaceuticals in determining their effects on behaviour.

  • 8.
    Fogelholm, Jesper
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Inkabi, Samuel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Höglund, Andrey
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Johnsson, Martin
    Univ Edinburgh, Scotland; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Henriksen, Rie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wright, Dominic
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Genetical Genomics of Tonic Immobility in the Chicken2019Inngår i: Genes, ISSN 2073-4425, E-ISSN 2073-4425, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikkel-id 341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the molecular mechanisms of animal behaviour is an enduring goal for researchers. Gaining insight into these mechanisms enables us to gain a greater understanding of behaviour and their genetic control. In this paper, we perform Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping of tonic immobility behaviour in an advanced intercross line between wild and domestic chickens. Genes located within the QTL interval were further investigated using global expression QTL (eQTL) mapping from hypothalamus tissue, as well as causality analysis. This identified five candidate genes, with the genes PRDX4 and ACOT9 emerging as the best supported candidates. In addition, we also investigated the connection between tonic immobility, meat pH and struggling behaviour, as the two candidate genes PRDX4 and ACOT9 have previously been implicated in controlling muscle pH at slaughter. We did not find any phenotypic correlations between tonic immobility, struggling behaviour and muscle pH in a smaller additional cohort, despite these behaviours being repeatable within-test.

  • 9.
    Petkova, Irina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Royal Holloway Univ London, England.
    Abbey-Lee, Robin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lovlie, Hanne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Parasite infection and host personality: Glugea-infected three-spined sticklebacks are more social2018Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 72, nr 11, artikkel-id UNSP 173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence of animal personality is now well-documented, although the causes and consequences of this phenomenon are still largely unclear. Parasite infection can have pervasive effects on hosts, including altering host behaviour, and may thus contribute to differences in host personality. We investigated the relationship between the three-spined stickleback and its common parasite Glugea anomala, with focus on differences in host personality. Naturally infected and uninfected individuals were assayed for the five personality traits activity, exploration, boldness, sociability, and aggression. If infected fish behaved differently from uninfected, to benefit this parasite with horizontal transmission, we predicted behaviour increasing interactions with other sticklebacks to increase. Infection status explained differences in host personality. Specifically, Glugea-infected individuals were more social than uninfected fish. This confirms a link between parasite infection and host behaviour, and a relationship which may improve the horizontal transmission of Glugea. However, future studies need to establish the consequences of this for the parasite, and the causality of the parasite-host personality relationship. Significance statement Parasite infection that alters host behaviour could be a possible avenue of research into the causes of animal personality. We studied the link between infection and personality using the three-spined stickleback and its parasite Glugea anomala. We predicted that infected individuals would be more prone to interact with other sticklebacks, since this would improve transmission of this parasite. The personality of uninfected and naturally infected fish was measured and we observed that Glugea-infected sticklebacks were more social. Our results confirm a link between parasitism and variation in host personality.

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