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  • 1.
    Ahlsén, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Språk, hjärnan och kognition2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood & Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 437-552Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande.

  • 2.
    Amundin, Mats
    et al.
    Kolmården Wildlife Park.
    Hållsten, Henrik
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Molinder, Lars
    Carnegie Investment Bank, Swedden.
    A proposal to use distributional models to analyse dolphin vocalisation2017In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots, VIHAR 2017 / [ed] Angela Dassow, Ricard Marxer & Roger K. Moore, 2017, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a brief introduction to the starting points of an experimental project to study dolphin communicative behaviour using distributional semantics, with methods implemented for the large scale study of human language.

  • 3.
    Ananthakrishnan, Gopal
    et al.
    Centre for Speech Technology, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsinstitut Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Mabiza, Evans
    Antelope Park, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
    An acoustic analysis of lion roars. II: Vocal tract characteristics2011In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2011, Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011, 2011, p. 5-8Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes the first attempt to perform an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion of a lion (Panthera leo) roar. The main problems that one encounters in attempting this, is the fact that little is known about the dimensions of the vocal tract, other than a general range of vocal tract lengths. Precious little is also known about the articulation strategies that are adopted by the lion while roaring. The approach used here is to iterate between possible values of vocal tract lengths and vocal tract configurations. Since there seems to be a distinct articulatory changes during the process of a roar, we find a smooth path that minimizes the error function between a recorded roar and the simulated roar using a variable length articulatory model.

  • 4.
    Becket, Ralph
    et al.
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Bouillon, Pierrette
    ISSCO, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Bratt, Harry
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Bretan, Ivan
    SRI International, USA.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Digalakis, Vassilis
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Franco, Horacio
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Kaja, Jaan
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Keegan, Martin
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Lewin, Ian
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Milward, David
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Neumeyer, Leonardo
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Price, Patti
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Sauermeister, Per
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Weng, Fuliang
    SRI International, Menlo Park, USA.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Spoken Language Translator: Phase Two Report1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken Language Translator (SLT) is a project whose long-term goal is the construction of practically useful systems capable of translating human speech from one language into another. The current SLT prototype, described in detail in this report, is capable of speech-to-speech translation between English and Swedish in either direction within the domain of airline flight inquiries, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words. Translation from English and Swedish into French is also possible, with slightly poorer performance.

    A good English-language speech recognizer existed before the start of the project, and has since been improved in several ways. During the project, we have constructed a Swedish-language recognizer, arguably the best system of its kind so far built. This has involved among other things collection of a large amount of Swedish training data. The recognizer is essentially domain-independent, but has been tuned to give high performance in the air travel inquiry domain.

    The main version of the Swedish recognizer is trained on the Stockholm dialect of Swedish, and achieves near-real-time performance with a word error rate of about 7%. Techniques developed partly under this project make it possible to port the recognizer to other Swedish dialects using only modest quantities of training data.

    On the language-processing side, we had at the start of the project a substantial domain-independent language-processing system for English, a preliminary Swedish version, and a sketchy set of rules to permit English to Swedish translation. We now have good versions of the language-processing system for English, Swedish and French, and fair to good support for translation in five of the six possible language- pairs. Translation is carried out using a novel robust architecture developed under the project. In essence, this translates as much of the input utterance as possible using a sophisticated grammar-based method, and then employs a much simpler set of word- to-word translation rules to fill in the gaps.

    The language-processing modules are all generic in nature, are based on large, linguistically motivated grammars, and can fairly easily be tuned to give good performance in new domains. Much of the work involved in the domain adaptation process can be carried out by non-experts using tools developed under the project.

    Formal comparisons are problematic, in view of the different domains and languages used and the lack of accepted evaluation criteria. None the less, the evidence at our disposal suggests that the current SLT prototype is no worse than the German Verbmobil demonstrator, in spite of a difference in project budget of more than an order of magnitude.

  • 5.
    Bell, Linda
    et al.
    Centre for Speech Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    Centre for Speech Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Comparison of Disfluency Distribution in a Unimodal and a Multimodal Human–Machine Interface2000In: Proceedings of ICSLP’ 00, 2000, Vol. 3, p. 626-629Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we compare the distribution of disfluencies intwo human–computer dialogue corpora. One corpus consistsof unimodal travel booking dialogues, which were recorded over the telephone. In this unimodal system, all components except the speech recognition were authentic. The other corpus was collected using a semi-simulated multi-modal dialogue system with an animated talking agent and a clickable map. The aim of this paper is to analyze and discuss the effects of modality, task and interface design on the distribution and frequency of disfluencies in these twocorpora.

  • 6.
    Bergström, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Differences in production of disfluencies in children with typical language development and children with mixed receptive-expressive language disorder2017In: Proceedings of DiSS 2017, the 8th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech / [ed] Robert Eklund and Ralph Rose, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017, p. 9-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several studies about non-fluency inpeople who stutter, but comparatively few regardingchildren with language impairment. The currentresearch body regarding disfluencies in childrenwith language impairment has been using differentstudy-designs and definitions, making some resultsrather contradictory.

    The purpose of the present study is to expand theknowledge about disfluencies in children withlanguage impairment and compare the occurrenceof disfluencies between children with languageimpairment and children with typical languagedevelopment in the same age group.

    A total of ten children with language impairmentand six children with typical language developmentparticipated in this study. The subjects wererecorded when talking freely about a thematicpicture or toys and then analysed by calculatingdisfluencies per 50 words including frequency ofdifferent kinds of disfluencies according to Johnsonand Associates’ (1959) classic taxonomy.

    Our results show that children with languageimpairment do produce statistically significant moredisfluency in general, notably sound and syllablerepetition, broken words and prolongations.

  • 7.
    Betz, Simon
    et al.
    Phonetics and Phonology Workgroup, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wagner, Petra
    Phonetics and Phonology Workgroup, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Prolongation in German2017In: Proceedings of DiSS 2017, The 8th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech / [ed] Robert Eklund & Ralph Rose, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate segment prolongation as a means of disfluent hesitation in spontaneous German speech. We describe phonetic and structural features of disfluent prolongation and compare it to data of other languages and to non-disfluent prolongations.

  • 8.
    Bretan, Ivan
    et al.
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Kaja, Jaan
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    MacDermid, Catriona
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, USA.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, USA.
    Corpora and Data Collection2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 131-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 9.
    Bretan, Ivan
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, SWEDEN.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, SWEDEN.
    MacDermid, Catriona
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, SWEDEN.
    Approaches to gathering realistic training data for speech translation systems1996In: Proceedings of Third IEEE Workshop on Interactive Voice Technology for Telecommunications Applications, 1996, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1996, p. 97-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Spoken Language Translator (SLT) is a multi-lingual speech-to-speech translation prototype supporting English, Swedish and French within the air traffic information system (ATIS) domain. The design of SLT is characterized by a strongly corpus-driven approach, which accentuates the need for cost-efficient collection procedures to obtain training data. This paper discusses various approaches to the data collection issue pursued within a speech translation framework. Original American English speech and language data have been collected using traditional Wizard-of-Oz (WOZ) techniques, a relatively costly procedure yielding high-quality results. The resulting corpus has been translated textually into Swedish by a large number of native speakers (427) and used as prompts for training the target language speech model. This ᅵbudgetᅵ collection method is compared to the accepted method, i.e., gathering data by means of a full-blown WOZ simulation. The results indicate that although translation in this case proved economical and produced considerable data, the method is not sensitive to certain features typical of spoken language, for which WOZ is superior

  • 10.
    Carter, David
    et al.
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Becket, Ralph
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    MacDermid, Catriona
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Denmark.
    Philp, Christina
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Denmark.
    Translation Methodology in the Spoken Language Translator: An Evaluation1997In: Proceedings of ACL/EACL workshop Spoken Language Translation, 1997, p. 73-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe how the translation methodology adopted fro the Spoken Language Translator (SLT) addresses the characteristics of the speech translation task in a context where it is essential to achieve easy customization to new languages and new domains. We then discuss the issues that arise in any attempt to evaluate a speech translator, and present results of such an evaluation carried out on SLT for several language pairs.

  • 11.
    Carter, David
    et al.
    SRI International, USA.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, USA.
    Eklund, Robert
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Kaja, Jaan
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Sautermeister, Per
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    TeliaSonera (R & D), Sweden.
    Neumeyer, Leonardo
    SRI International, USA.
    Fuliang, Weng
    SRI International, USA.
    Common Speech–Language Issues2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, David Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 284-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 12.
    Carter, David
    et al.
    SRI International, USA.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, USA.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    MacDermid, Catriona
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research, Sweden.
    Evaluation2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 297-312Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 13.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta Sweden.
    A Comparative Study of Disfluencies in Four Swedish Travel Dialogue Corpora1999In: Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech Workshop, 1999, p. 3-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on ongoing work on disfluencies carried out at Telia Research AB. Four travel dialogue corpora are described: human–"machine"–human (Wizard-of-Oz); human–“machine” (Wizard-of-Oz); human–human and human–machine. The data collection methods are outlined and their possible influence on the collected material is discussed. An annotation scheme for disfluency labelling is described. Preliminary results on five different kinds of disfluencies are presented: filled and unfilled pauses, prolonged segments, truncations and explicit editing terms.

  • 14.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    A Comparative Study of Focus Realization in Three Swedish Dialects1996In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 2492-2492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art speech recognition and speech translation systems do not currently make use of prosodic information. Utterances often have one or more constituents semantically focused by prosodic means and detection of the focus/foci of anutterance is crucial for a correct interpretation of the speech signal. Thus, a semantic model of focus should be linked to a model describing the acoustic-phonetic correlates of the speech. However, variability exists at both the semantic and the prosodic ends. Semantically different kinds of foci might be associated with specific prosodic gestures. Also, a semantically specific type of focus might be realised indifferent ways in different varieties of a given language since general intonational patterns vary between dialects. In this paper, focus realisation in three different dialects of Swedish is investigated. Subjects from Stockholm, Gšteborg and Malmšö recorded three sets of four sentences where focus was systematically put on four different constituents by having the subjects answer wh-questions. Since Swedish is a language with two tonal accents, words with these accents both in and out of focus were included. Dialectal as well as individual variation in focus realisation is described with emphasis on invariant and optional phenomena.

  • 15.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University.
    A Probabilistic Tagging Module Based on Surface Pattern Matching1994In: NODALIDA ’93 – Proceedings of ‘9:e Nordiska Datalingvistikdagarna’,Stockholm 3–5 June 1993 / [ed] Robert Eklund, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 1994, p. 83-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper treats automatic, probabilistic tagging. First, residual, untagged, output from the lexical analyser SWETWOL2 is described and discussed. A method of tagging residual output is proposed and implemented: the left-stripping method. This algorithm, employed by the module ENDTAG, recursively strips a word of its leftmost letter, and looks up the remaining ‘ending’ in a dictionary. If the ending is found, ENDTAG tags it according to the information found in the dictionary. If the ending is not found in the dictionary, a match is searched in ending lexica containing statistical information about word classes associated with the ending and the relative frequency of each word class. If a match is found in the ending lexica, the word is given graded tagging according to the statistical information in the ending lexica. If no match is found, the ending is stripped of what is now its left-most letter and is recursively searched in dictionary and ending lexica (in that order). The ending lexica – containing the statistical information – employed in this paper are obtained from a reversed version of Nusvensk Frekvensordbok (Allén 1970), and contain endings of one to seven letters. Success rates for ENDTAG as a standalone module are presented.

  • 16.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University, Department of Computational Linguistics, Institute of Linguistics.
    A Probabilistic Tagging Module Based on Surface Pattern Matching1993Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A problem with automatic tagging and lexical analysis is that it is never 100 % accurate. In order to arrive at better figures, one needs to study the character of what is left untagged by automatic taggers. In this paper untagged residue outputted by the automatic analyser SWETWOL (Karlsson 1992) at Helsinki is studied. SWETWOL assigns tags to words in Swedish texts mainly through dictionary lookup. The contents of the untagged residue files are described and discussed, and possible ways of solving different problems are proposed. One method of tagging residual output is proposed and implemented: the left-stripping method, through which untagged words are bereaved their left-most letters, searched in a dictionary, and if found, tagged according to the information found in the said dictionary. If the stripped word is not found in the dictionary, a match is searched in ending lexica containing statistical information about word classes associated with that particular word form (i.e., final letter cluster, be this a grammatical suffix or not), and the relative frequency of each word class. If a match is found, the word is given graduated tagging according to the statistical information in the ending lexicon. If a match is not found, the word is stripped of what is now its left-most letter and is recursively searched in a dictionary and ending lexica (in that order). The ending lexica employed in this paper are retrieved from a reversed version of Nusvensk Frekvensordbok (Allén 1970), and contain endings of between one and seven letters. The contents of the ending lexica are to a certain degree described and discussed. The programs working according to the principles described are run on files of untagged residual output. Appendices include, among other things, LISP source code, untagged and tagged files, the ending lexica containing one and two letter endings and excerpts from ending lexica containing three to seven letters.

  • 17.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Typographical Primer: Some Basic Conventions2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within academia a central activity is the production of scientific theses and papers, including formal aspects of this activity – learning about typographical conventions, how these can differ between departments, countries, journals and publishers, etc.

    Very often, and sadly, huge amount of of time is spent on this during both thesis supervision and thesis examination. The rationale for this document is to – during supervision and examination – free up time for more focus on thesis content and scientific quality.

    The Primer is not to be regarded as “101 on typographical conventions”. Such books are easy find and/but include many phenomena that can be regarded as “over the top” for the average student BA or MA thesis producer, or indeed PhD students.

    This primer is completely “stimulus-based” and includes things that the author has encountered during years of supervision, examination and conference proceedings editing, and thus covers things that are “battle-proven” when it comes to phenomena that are missed in thesis production.

    In 29 sections phenomena like underlining, dashes, transliteration, filenames, section numbering, tables, figures, plates, margin adjustment and much more are covered. See the Contents listing on page 3.

    At the end a few instructions are included, showing the reader how to implement the covered phenomema in their papers – something which is not always completely transparent or obvious and requires a certain level of word processing knowledge.

  • 18.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Acoustic Phonetics2019In: The Sage Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders / [ed] Jack S. Damico & Martin J. Ball, Thosand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2019, p. 21-36Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ASR “Sweet Sixteen”: An Evaluation of Nuance Swedish Speech Recognizer Success Rates in 69 Commercial Applications 16 years After Its Inception and an Assessment of Inter- and Intralabeler Agreement2012In: Proceedings FONETIK 2012. The XXVth Swedish Phonetics Conference May 30–June 1, 2012, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 113-116Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of success ratesof the Nuance Swedish Speech Recognizer in 69commercial applications provided by VoiceProvider Sweden. The analysis is based on 185quality assurance reports from the periodJanuary 2007 through October 2011. An interandintralabeller agreement analysis is included.

  • 20.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Crosslinguistic Disfluency Modeling: A Comparative Analysis of Swedish and Tok Pisin Human–Human ATIS Dialogues2000In: Proceedings of 6th international conference on Spoken language processing : ICSLP 2000 : the proceedings of the conference : Oct. 16-20, 2000, Beijng, China, 2000, p. 991-994Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies disfluencies in authentic human–humandialogues in Swedish and Tok Pisin. It is found that while there are no major differences as to types or frequencies on a macro level, there are dissimilarities on a micro level, notably in the characteristics of how prolonged segments are realized. The paper also discusses the results in the light of reported disfluencies in English, German, Ilokano and Tagalog.

  • 21.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Disfluency in Swedish human–human and human–machine travel booking dialogues2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies disfluency in spontaneous Swedish speech, i.e., the occurrence of hesitation phenomena like eh, öh, truncated words, repetitions and repairs, mispronunciations, truncated words and so on. The thesis is divided into three parts:

    PART I provides the background, both concerning scientific, personal and industrial–academic aspects in the Tuning in quotes, and the Preamble and Introduction (chapter 1).

    PART II consists of one chapter only, chapter 2, which dives into the etiology of disfluency. Consequently it describes previous research on disfluencies, also including areas that are not the main focus of the present tome, like stuttering, psychotherapy, philosophy, neurology, discourse perspectives, speech production, application-driven perspectives, cognitive aspects, and so on. A discussion on terminology and definitions is also provided. The goal of this chapter is to provide as broad a picture as possible of the phenomenon of disfluency, and how all those different and varying perspectives are related to each other.

    PART III describes the linguistic data studied and analyzed in this thesis, with the following structure: Chapter 3 describes how the speech data were collected, and for what reason. Sum totals of the data and the post-processing method are also described. Chapter 4 describes how the data were transcribed, annotated and analyzed. The labeling method is described in detail, as is the method employed to do frequency counts. Chapter 5 presents the analysis and results for all different categories of disfluencies. Besides general frequency and distribution of the different types of disfluencies, both inter- and intra-corpus results are presented, as are co-occurrences of different types of disfluencies. Also, inter- and intra-speaker differences are discussed. Chapter 6 discusses the results, mainly in light of previous research. Reasons for the observed frequencies and distribution are proposed, as are their relation to language typology, as well as syntactic, morphological and phonetic reasons for the observed phenomena. Future work is also envisaged, both work that is possible on the present data set, work that is possible on the present data set given extended labeling and work that I think should be carried out, but where the present data set fails, in one way or another, to meet the requirements of such studies.

    Appendices 1–4 list the sum total of all data analyzed in this thesis (apart from Tok Pisin data). Appendix 5 provides an example of a full human–computer dialogue.

  • 22.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    En introduktion till programmering i prolog1996Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kompendium är ämnat som en grundläggande introduktion till programmeringsspråket PROLOG.I Eftersom det operativa ordet här är "grundläggande" så förstås att kompendiet inte har några anspråk på att tillfredsställa en professionell hackers2 alla lustar. Särskild hänsyn har i stället tagits till de personer vilka inte har någon som helst tidigare programmeringserfarenhet. Detta innebär att personer som redan är förtrogna med andra programmeringsspråk kan komma att tycka att framställningen till viss del och i någon mening är trivial ( och måhända på gränsen till felaktig, en fara vid alla försök att förenkla). Det innebär också att mycket är utelämnat, och att således personer som redan kan prolog kan komma att utbrista "Men varför tog du inte med det här?!". Jag har försökt att ta med sådant som oundgängligen utgör ett slags bas för att gå vidare. Det som har utelämnats är givetvis inte oviktigt, utan sådant som inte krävs för att kunna leka och ha kul med prolog som första bekantskap. Om man berättar allt på första träffen så finns ju inga hemligheter kvar att upptäcka!

  • 23.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En Typografisk ”Primer”: Några Grundläggande Konventioner2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom akademika ingår som en central del av produktion av vetenskapliga uppsatser, vilket inkluderar formella aspekter av detta – från att lära sig strikt typografiska konventioner som att lära sig hur dessa kan skilja sig åt mellan avdelningar, länder, tidskrifter.

    Väldigt ofta, och tyvärr, läggs mycket tid på sådan under såväl handledning som examination av uppsatser. Detta dokument har till syfte att, under handledning och examination, frigöra tid för ett mer markerat fokus på innehåll och vetenskaplig kvalitet i de aktuella uppsatserna.

    Primern är inte uppbyggd som en ”grundkurs i typografiska konventioner”. Sådana är lätta att finna och/men inkluderar mycket sådant som kan betraktas som ”överkurs” för studenter som skriver kandidat- eller magisteruppsatser, eller till och med doktorander.

    Denna primer är helt stimulustyrd och inkluderar saker som författaren under åratals handledning, examination och redaktörsskap (för konferensproceedings) har stött så de vanligaste misstagen, och täcker således med eller mindre ”fält-testade” fenomen som missas i uppsatsskrivning.

    I 29 avsnitt täcks företeelser om understrykning, tankstreck, transliterering, filnamnsgivning, kapitelnumrering, tabeller, figurer, bilder, marginaljustering och mycket mer. Se Innehållsförteckning på sidan 3.

    På slutet inkluderas även lite instruktioner för hur man ser till att vissa av de täckta fenomenen blir implementerade i uppsatsen, något som inte alltid är helt solklart utan kräver en viss nivå av ordbehandlingskunskap.

  • 24.
    Eklund, Robert
    Institutionen för musikvetenskap, Stockholms Universitet.
    Frihetstidens svenska lutenister – fanns dom?1990In: Musikologen : Musikvetenskaplig bulletin, ISSN 0281-1553, p. 65-67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grimaldi’s “Discovery of the Cat Language”: A theory in need of revival (or perhaps not?)2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015. Working Papers 55/2015, 8–10 June 2015, Centre for Languages and Literature, General Linguistics/Phonetics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund university , 2015, p. 27-30Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen a growing number of studies on both felid vocalizations ingeneral and human–felid communication in particular. Frequently considered as the starting point for this line of research is Mildred Moelk’s seminal paper from 1944, in which she provides a taxonomy of basic felid vocalizations, complete with phonetic transcriptions. Less known is the fact that Cat Language was decoded in far more detail half a century earlier, by one “Prof. Grimaldi”, who sadly never published his findings. However, an English translation of Grimaldi’s findings was published by Marvin Clark in 1895, so the astonishing observations made by Grimaldi are not lost to the world. In the present paper a summary of Grimaldi’s results will be provided, in the hope that this research will serve as a source ofinspiration to present and future researchers of Cat Language.

  • 26.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Ingressive Speech As An Indication That Humans Are Talking To Humans (And Not To Machines)2002In: Conference Proceedings: ICSLP 2002, 7th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing; INTERSPEECH 2002; September 16 - 20, 2002, Denver, Colorado, 2002, Vol. 2, p. 837-840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulmonic ingressive speech is often mentioned anecdotally in the linguistic research. Most previous studies investigating the phenomenon have stressed the paralinguistic function of ingressive speech (IS).

    This paper studies IS in two corpora of spontaneous Swedish speech. Eight subjects made business travel bookings in two data collections. In one corpus the subjects talked with a real, human travel agent; in the other theyspoke with what they believed was a computer, played by a professional actor. The results show that all subjects made use of IS in the human–human setting, while no one used IS in the human–machine setting.

    These results strengthen the notion that IS is a speech phenomenon that is truly associated with human interactions. The results are discussed from the perspective of possible underlying factors, including discourse structure, gender issues, and possible enhancements in automatic speech-based dialog systems.

  • 27.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    “Ko Tok Ples Ensin bilong Tok Pisin” or the TP-CLE: A first report from a pilot speech-to-speech translation project from Swedish to Tok Pisin1998In: 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 30th November - 4th December, 1998 Sydney, Australia ICSLP'98 Proceedings / [ed] Robert H. Mannell and Jordi Robert-Ribes, Australian Speech Science and Technology Association, Incorporated (ASSTA) , 1998, Vol. 4, p. 1131-1134, article id 804Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an operational speech-to-speech translation system from Swedish to Tok Pisin within the framework of the Spoken Language Translator project, SLT[1]. The domain of translation is ATIS [11]. The grammar formalism used in the SLT project is the Core Language Engine, CLE [2]. A general presentation of Tok Pisin is provided, as well as a description of some grammatical characteristics of Tok Pisin of potential interest for the testing of grammar machines. The first step of a CLE implementation of Tok Pisin is described. A corpus of Tok Pisin ATIS data hasbeen created from data collected on location in New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, and observations are made as to the relative importance of some of the grammatical phenomena discussed in the paper. A Tok Pisin synthesizer based on an already existing Swedish concatenative synthesis is described. Despite a marked Swedish accent, preliminary evaluation indicates that intelligible speech output is produced.

  • 28.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Languages with pulmonic ingressive speech: updating and adding to the list2015In: Working Papers, 55 2015, Proceedings from Fonetik 2015 Lund, June 8–10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis and Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Lund University , 2015, p. 31-34Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speaking on inhalation, pulmonic ingressive speech, is well-known in Scandinaviaand often believed to be unique to this part of the world. It has, however been shown (Eklund, 2002, 2007, 2008) that not only is ingressive speech not confined to the northernmost part of Europe, it is found all over the world and might be regarded as a linguistic universal, and can be placed in one of the different universal categories described by Croft (2003). In connection with the Eklund(2008) publication, a website was created, devoted to ingressive speech and phonation: http://ingressivespeech.info. Over the years incoming comments and reports have both offered further evidence for languages already on the list, as wellas new languages with ingressives. Some of these are described in this paper.

  • 29.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Languages with pulmonic ingressive speech:updating and adding to the list2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015. Working Papers 55/2015, 8–10 June 2015, Centre for Languages and Literature, General Linguistics/Phonetics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund University , 2015, p. 31-34Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speaking on inhalation, pulmonic ingressive speech, is well-known in Scandinavia and often believed to be unique to this part of the world. It has, however been shown (Eklund, 2002, 2007, 2008) that not only is ingressive speech not confined to the northernmost part of Europe, it is found all over the world and might be egarded as a linguistic universal, and can be placed in one of the differentuniversal categories described by Croft (2003). In connection with the Eklund(2008) publication, a website was created, devoted to ingressive speech and phonation: http://ingressivespeech.info. Over the years incoming comments and reports have both offered further evidence for languages already on the list, as well as new languages with ingressives. Some of these are described in this paper.

  • 30. Eklund, Robert
    Musikens charlatan: En historik över lutan1992In: Tidskrift för Tidig Musik, ISSN 0280-6177, Vol. 4, p. 5-13Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Neurala korrelat till fyllda pauser: En fMRI-studie av disfluensperception2019In: Röstläget, ISSN 1103-3983, no Februari 2019, p. 13-17Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mänskligt, spontalt producerat talspråk kännetecknas av att inte vara helt ”flytande”. Jag sätter ordet inom citationstecken eftersom det råder delade meningar om huruvida ”oflyt” i själva verket underlättar såväl talproduktion som talperception. Den vanligaste termen för detta är disfluenser, men även denna term är inte helt etablerad. En annan sak att hålla iminne är att den alternativa stavningen dysfluenser förekommer, speciellt engelskspråkig litteratur.

    Disfluenser har studerats i över ett sekel, och en introduktion följer nedan. Denna artikel redovisar resultaten från en unik fMRIstudie av den mest ”speciella” av de olika disfluenstyperna, det som ofta(st) benämns ”fyllda pauser”, som (i svenska) ”eh” eller ”öh”. Notera att även denna term inte är etablerad.

  • 32.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University.
    NODALIDA ’93 - Proceedings of ‘9:e Nordiska Datalingvistikdagarna’1994Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Proceedings of DiSS 2013, the 6th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech and TMH-QPSR Volume 54(1)2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the successes of the previously organized Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech workshops held in Berkeley (1999), Edinburgh (2001), Göteborg (2003), Aix-en-Provence (2005) and Tokyo (2010), the organizers are proud to present DiSS 2013, held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, in August 2013.

    As was the case with the previous workshops, a wide variety of papers addressing disfluency from an equally varied array of disciplines is included.

    The organizers would like to extend their thanks to everyone who helped organize this event, including the Scientific Committee members and, of course, all the contributors.

    Stockholm, August 2013

    Jens Edlund, Robert Eklund, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergssson

  • 34.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research.
    Proceedings of DiSS’03 – Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech. Gothenburg Papers in Theoretical Linguistics 902003Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech is not like text. Because speech is real-time and on-line, editing is ìin the openî ñ not hidden as it is in written text (like this foreword, for example). Since very few of us speak completely fluently without changing our minds, with consistently perfectly eloquent wordings, and without any hesitation or slips, one characteristic of spontaneous speech is that it includes phenomena such as pauses, hesitations, ìerrî words, truncated words, repetitions, prolonged sounds, repairs, etc.

    Although studied earlier, the formal study of disfluency really took off in the 1950ís beginning somewhat independently in three separate disciplines. Within stuttering research, seminal work was carried out by Wendell Johnson and his colleagues. Disfluencies were also studied within general linguistics, pioneered by Frieda Goldman-Eisler among others. Also, within psychotherapy, much work on disfluency was carried out by George F. Mahl and colleagues. During the following decades disfluency has received attention from a wide variety of other fields.

    These proceedings are the result of a workshop held in Gothenburg, Sweden, the third in a series of workshops devoted to disfluency. The first, Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech, was a one-day event, held at Berkeley University, 30 July, 1999, as a satellite of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences in San Francisco. The second event was a three-day workshop held at Edinburgh University, 29ñ31 August, 2001, as a satellite of Eurospeech 2001 in Aalborg, and was given the acronym DiSS í01. This was also an official ISCA tutorial and research orkshop. What you are now holding in your hands are the proceedings of DiSS í03, held at Gˆteborg University, 5ñ8 September, 2003, as a satellite of Eurospeech 2003 in Geneva.

    The name of these workshops ñ and consequently the title of these proceedings ñ includes the word ìdisfluencyî, which may or not may not be considered a felicitous term. Indeed, the phenomenon under scrutiny is known under a wide variety of different terms including "non-fluencyî, ìdysfluencyî, ìdiscontinuityî, ìflustered speechî, ìspeech disturbanceî, ìhesitationî, ìspeech managementî, ìown communication managementî, ìturnholding devicesî, ìchanges of mindî, ìself repairî, ìself correctionî, ìself editingî, and even such a self-contradictory term (from an etymological point of view) as ìnormal dysfluencyî. This list gives only the more common hyperonyms. It goes without saying that the choice of term(s) depends on the particular research perspectives which are numerous. Thus, disfluency research has been carried out within (just to name a few) stuttering research, general linguistics, cognitive psychology, consciousness philosophy, phonetics, gender studies, physiology, acoustics, and, more recently, within speech and language technology which was motivated by the launching of computerised dialogue systems. This diversity is reflected in the present volume which is somewhat arbitrarily divided into seven different parts.

    In the first part, General Aspects, Kirsner, Dunn & Hird take a closer look at pausing, and reviews recent research on pause analysis using a novel approach, arguing that short and long pause duration distributions are functionally independent. The second paper, by Nicholson, Bard, Lickley, Anderson, Mullin, Kenicer & Smallwood, address the causes of disfluency and assess the claim that, on the one hand, disfluency is a strategic device for intentional signalling to an interlocutor that the speaker is committed to an utterance, and on the other hand, that disfluency is an automatic effect of cognitive burdens. In the third paper, Finlayson, Forrest, Lickley & Beck study whether restricted ability to use gestures has an impact on speech fluency, thus correlating disfluency with the other communication mode.

    The second part, Production, Perception and Monitoring, starts out with a paper by Nooteboom, who looks at the role of self-monitoring in the lexical bias of phonological speech errors. In another paper on monitoring, Howell questions whether a perceptual monitor is needed at all to explain speech repairs. Broadening the concept of monitoring from self-perception to the perception of other speakers, Hartsuiker, Corley, Lickley & Russell study perception of fluency in people who either do or do not stutter.

    In the third part, Disfluencies in First and Second Language Development, Rieger investigates hesitation strategies of intermediate learners of German as a second or foreign language. The second paper, by Menyh·rt, studies alterations of disfluency phenomena as a function of age.

    The fourth part, Computational Aspects, opens with a paper by Aylett, who investigates how different factors influence the behaviour of an automatic speech recogniser. While automatic speech recognisers have reached accuracy levels that make such applications practical in public settings, disfluency still constitutes a problem for such systems. Funakoshi & Tokunaga describe a parser designed to handle ill-formed Japanese speech. Lager presents a computational model capable of dealing with spontaneous speech phenomena, such as hesitation and repairs. Lendvai, van den Bosch & Krahmer investigate how machine learning can be used for automatic disfluency chunking of spontaneous speech. In the closing paper, Adda-Decker, Habert, Barras, Adda, Boula de Mareuil & Paroubek compare different types of audio transcripts of French radio interviews with the goal of obtaining a better model of spontaneous speech.

    Part five, Repeats and Repairs in Different Languages, begins with a paper by Tseng, who presents a study of repairs and repetitions in Mandarin Chinese. Henry & Pallaud study the interaction of repeats and word fragments in French. Benkenstein & Simpson take an acoustic look at self-initiated repairs in German, comparing phonetic differences between reparandum and repair.

    The sixth part, Phonology and Prosody, contains two papers. In the first, Den presents a study of segmental prolongation in Japanese, taking into account factors such as speaker gender, word classes, word position, preceding fillers and others. In the second paper, Savova & Bachenko look for prosodic cues for different disfluency types, using intonation and duration to detect disfluency sites.

    The final session, Corpus and Annotation, is represented in the proceedings by a paper by Yang, Heeman & Strayer, who present a tool for annotation of speech disfluency called DialogueView. In particular, they describe a specific feature called ìclean playî which deletes annotated speech reparanda and editing terms, and plays back the remaining speech.

    The papers included in these proceedings cover several different disciplines, and are thus illustrative of the interdisciplinary character of this area.

    It has been a rewarding task to edit the ensuing suite of papers, covering a wide array of different angles and approaches to the subject matter. It is my contention and conviction that they will contribute to an enhanced understanding of spontaneous speech in general, and disfluency in particular.

    Robert Eklund

    Västerhaninge, 2003-08-13

  • 35.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Proceedings of Fonetik 2013, the XXVIth Swedish Phonetics Conference: Studies in Language and Culture2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains the contributions to Fonetik 2013, the XXVI th Swedish PhoneticsConference, held at Linköping University, Sweden, 12–13 June 2013, and was organized as a collaboration between the Department of Culture and Communication, Linköping University, and the Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Linköping University.

  • 36.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Prolongations: A dark horse in the disfluency stable2001In: Proceedings of DiSS ’01 Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech: ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop / [ed] Robin Lickley, 2001, p. 5-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies a specific type of disfluency, viz. segment prolongation (PR), i.e., the “stretching out” of speech sounds as a means of hesitation. It is shown that the occurrence of PRs varies as a function of phone type, position in the word, lexical factors and word class, and that PRs are subject to phonotactic constraints in Swedish. A comparison between Swedish and Tok Pisin suggests that there are language specific traits associated with PR production.

  • 37.
    Eklund, Robert
    Karolinska Institute/Stockholm Brain Institute Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pulmonic ingressive phonation: Diachronic and synchronic characteristics, distribution and function in animal and human sound production and in human speech2008In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 235-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the phenomenon of ingressive speech, i.e. speech produced on a pulmonic ingressive airstream, set in the context of human and animal ingressive phonation. The literature on ingressive speech and phonation spanning several centuries is reviewed, as well as contemporary reports of their incidence and characteristics from both functional and acoustic perspectives. Ingressive phonation has been used as a deliberate means of speech or sound production for hundreds of years in order to achieve specific effects, and it is still used for the same purposes, by e.g. shamans and ventriloquists. In normal spoken conversation – contrary to what is often claimed – present-day ingressive speech is not limited to Scandinavia or Nordic languages, but is found on all continents, in genetically unrelated languages. Where ingressive speech occurs, it serves more or less the same paralinguistic functions, such as a feedback marker in a dialog. Since pulmonic ingressive phonation is also common in the calls of monkeys and apes, thus exhibiting a biological basis, it is suggested that ingressive speech might constitute a neglected universal phenomenon, rather than being highly marked, which is how it is commonly described in the literature.

  • 38.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pulmonic Ingressive Speech2019In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders / [ed] Jack S. Damico & Martin J. Ball, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2019, p. 1529-1532Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Eklund, Robert
    TeliaSonera Sweden, Farsta, Sweden .
    Pulmonic ingressive speech: a neglected universal?2007In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2007, 30 May – 1 June 2007, Stockholm, Sweden.TMH-QPSR, vol. 50, Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2007, p. 21-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes major review work on pulmonic ingressive speech (Eklund,under revision), e.g., words like ja (yes) and nej (no) that are commonly produced on inhalation airstream in Swedish. Contrary to what is generally believed, ingressive speech is not limited to Scandinavia or present-day Nordic languages. Instead, it is shown that ingressive speech is found on all continents, in languages that are genetically unrelated. Moreover, whenever ingressive speech occurs it serves more or less the same paralinguistic functions, e.g., being predominantly a feedback marker in dialog. Since pulmonic ingressive phonation is also common in the calls of monkeys and apes, thus exhibiting a biological basis, it is argued that ingressive speech might constitute a neglected universal phenomenon, rather than being highlymarked, which is how it is commonly described in the literature.

  • 40. Eklund, Robert
    På barockmusikkurs i Trondheim, sommaren 19851986In: Tidskrift för Tidig Musik, ISSN 0280-6177, Vol. 1, p. 23-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41. Eklund, Robert
    Silvius Leopold Weiss und seine Zeit: en rapport från den första internationella lutkongressen i Freiburg 8–13 september 19921993In: Tidskrift för Tidig Musik, ISSN 0280-6177, no 1, p. 15-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Språk, och medvetande  – ett neurokognitivt och evolutionärt perspektiv2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 463-474Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande

  • 43.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Statement by Robert Eklund2017In: Dagstuhl Reports, E-ISSN 2192-5283, Vol. 6, no 10, p. 173-175Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given a background in Speech Technology (I worked on the first concatenative speech synthesizer for Swedish, the first commercial ASR system for Swedish (now Nuance) and the first open prompt human–computer support system in Scandinavia (Telia 90 200) it has, for a long time been ”natural” for me to think in terms of interaction, and concepts like agents, avatars, Theory of Mind and interface design (auditory and visual) have all been part of parcel of my work activities during the period 1994 to (roughly) 2012....

  • 44.
    Eklund, Robert
    Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholm University.
    Strategier för inslussning i nya sätt att tänka och arbeta1994In: Vad gör vi för att förbättra kvalitén på utbildningen? Dokumentation från campuskonferens vid Stockholms universitet 15 november 1994 / [ed] Britt Rönnbäck, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 1994, p. 13-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett fenomen som drabbat vår institution – och inte bara vår – på senare tid är att en allt större del av studenterna mer eller mindre kommer direkt från gymnasiet och således saknar universitetsvana. Detta ställer vissa, och delvis andra, krav på undervisningen än vad som tidigare var fallet, och jag skall här kortfattat redogöra för hur vi försökt anpassa oss till denna nya situation. Dessutom skall jag nämna ett par av mina egna ’knep’.

  • 45.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Effect of Directed and Open Disambiguation Prompts in Authentic Call Center Data on the Frequency and Distribution of Filled Pauses and Possible Implications for Filled Pause Hypotheses and Data Collection Methodology2010In: Proceedings of DiSS-LPSS Joint Workshop 2010, The 5th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech and The 2nd International Symposium on Linguistic Patterns in Spontaneous Speech., 2010, p. 23-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the frequency and distribution of filledpauses (FPs) in ecologically valid data where unaware andauthentic customers called in to report problems with theirtelephony and/or Internet services and were met by a novelWizard-of-Oz paradigm using real call center agents aswizards. The data analyzed were caller utterances followinga directed or an open disambiguation prompt. While nosignificant differences in FP production were observed as afunction of prompt type, FP frequency was found to beconsiderably higher than what is usually reported in theliterature. Moreover, a higher proportion of utterance-initialFPs than normally reported was also observed. The results arecompared to previously reported FP frequencies. Potentialimplications for data collection methodology are discussed.

  • 46.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University, Department of Musicology.
    UUB 20:13 – A Contextual Analysis of a Lute Manuscript1990In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, Vol. 71, p. 122-122Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies the Uppsala University Li- brary Manuscript Imhs 20:13, a four-folio lute manuscript for a thirteen-course baroque lute containing two suites – in D sharp minor and G sharp major respectively – and an intabulation of an Affettuoso del Sig re Chelleri. The paper falls into four major parts.

    The first chapter presents the manuscript and summarizes what has been written about it in the literature preceding this paper, including RISM . The watermark is treated in order to confirm or rebut the RISM dating, as well the datings proposed by e.g. Sparr and Rudén.

    The second chapter treats the suites, and surveys their harmonic, melodic and rhythmic treatments as well as usage of ornament signs. A reference material of post-1720 lute composers is compared to the suites as to usage of ornament signs, handwriting, suite compiling and other stylistic traits. This is done in order to place the MS in its contextual scene concerning musical style, technical complexity and also hints at compositional affinities with some of the composers in the reference material.

    The third chapter describes the Affettuoso, the musical style of which differs to a large degree from that of the suites. The music per se is analysed concerning style, as was the case with the suites in chapter two. The composer Chelleri is presented in general, and his connection to Sweden in particular. The Affettuoso exists in nine versions in Sweden, all of which have been put in juxtaposition with the Imhs 20:13 version in order to place the MS in time and place. One of the concordances is associated with a specific person – Carl Leuhusen – whom is briefly accounted for. Invariances be- tween Imhs 20:13 and some of the concordances concerning musical realization suggest a dating for the former. The lack of preserved versions of the Affettuoso in countries other than Sweden suggests a Swedish origin for Imhs 20:13.

    The fourth chapter views all other Swedish lute MSS with 18th century dating, in order to detect similarities. A general search for mid- 18th century Swedish lutenists has revealed the names of three musicians: David Kellner, Carl Gustav von Düben and Christian Ludvig Kuhlau are described and examined as potential authors of 20:13.

    The muscial appendix includes a facsimile of UUB Imhs 20:13, a keyboard transcription of the said MS as well as edited versions of all the concordances of the Affettuoso.

  • 47.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University, Department of Musicology.
    UUB 20:13 – A Contextual Analysis of a Lute Manuscript1991Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Of the various periods in the lute's history, that which is chronologically closest to us - the 18th century - is ironically the least familiar. The lute is strongly associated with Elisabethan England through well known composers such as John Dowland, and the 17th century French lutenists' influence on the style brise clavecin composers is similarly well documented. However, the generations of German lutenists working after c.1720 are largely unfamiliar today. One explanation is that by this time the lute had lost the preeminence which it had enjoyed in previous centuries, its position as the main chordal-, dynamically flexible instrument having been supplanted by the piano-forte. Also, writers such as Mattheson criticised the lute for being exceptionally hard to play and tune, as well as excessively expensive to maintain.2 Moreover, the gradual abandonment of the continuo concept deprived the lute of its accompanimental role.

    Thus, 18th century lutenists were writing for an increasingly obsolescent instrument. However, they were very productive and technically innovative, and the treasury of 18th century lute music constitutes a rich, interesting and idiomatic contribution to the repertory of the instrument. Few of the works were ever published, however, and the bulk of the repertory is preserved in MSS in various museums and libraries, which thus renders it inaccessible. The notation presents a further difficulty, since virtually all of this music was written in tablature - a notation which few scholars read.

    Although Sweden's contribution to the history of the lute was never major, a relatively large amount of lute music is preserved in Swedish libraries, museums and foundations. Most of these have been treated in a series of articles by Kenneth Sparr in the Swedish Guitar and Lute Society Journal,3 but there are no thorough studies of Swedish lute MSS, with the sole exception of Bengt Hambreaus' Codex Carminum Gallicorum,4 translated into French.

    Furthermore, articles on Swedish lute MSS in international languages are even less common, and consequently knowledge about the music concerned is inaccessible to the international audience of players and scholars.

    The aforementioned situations provided the author with ample justification for writing this paper.

  • 48.
    Eklund, Robert
    Department of Musicology, Stockholm University.
    UUB 20:13 – A Contextual Analysis of a Lute Manuscript: Tablature, Transcription, Concordances1991Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The original ornament signs have been retained in the transcription, with the sole exception of the trill sign, which in the D# minor suite is written tr. due to the original sign's similarity to the double sharp sign; the use of both signs could cause eon.fusion....

  • 49.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Wanpela deitabeis long Tok Pisin bilong baim tiket bilong balus. (An ATIS database in Tok Pisin.) Methodological observations with regard to the collection of human–human data2000In: Fonetik 2000 : proceedings the XIII Swedish Phonetics Conference, May 24-26 2000 / [ed] Antonis Botinis and Niklas Torstensson, Skövde: Department of Languages, University of Skövde , 2000, p. 49-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the collection of authentic human–human air travel information data in Tok Pisin, the pidgin/creole language spoken in Papua New Guinea. Pros and cons ofauthentic data are discussed, as compared to data collected in more controlled settings like Wizard-of-Oz simulations. Some unexpected real-life phenomena that affect the data, and normally do not occur in corpora compiled from Wizard-of-Oz simulations, are described

  • 50. Eklund, Robert
    Weiss och hans samtid1992In: Gitarr och luta, ISSN 0283-474X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 23-26Article in journal (Other academic)
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